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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 21 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) A common concern for individuals seeking to optimize their physiques is the loss of muscle mass [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Session RPE Breakpoints Corresponding to Intensity Thresholds in Elite Open Water Swimmers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010021 - 17 Mar 2020
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Abstract
This study aims to assess the correspondence between session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) breakpoints with both the first lactate threshold (LT1) and the second lactate threshold (LT2) in elite open water swimmers (OWS). Six elite OWS of the National Olympic Team specialized [...] Read more.
This study aims to assess the correspondence between session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) breakpoints with both the first lactate threshold (LT1) and the second lactate threshold (LT2) in elite open water swimmers (OWS). Six elite OWS of the National Olympic Team specialized in distances between 5 and 25 km participated to the study. OWS performed a set of 6 times 500 m incremental swimming step test during which blood lactate concentration (BLC), split time (ST), stroke frequency (SF), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected. To assess the corresponding breakpoints, we considered LT1 as the highest workload not associated with rise in BLC and LT2 as the increase of 2mM above LT1. According to the LT1 and LT2, the identified zones were: Z1 ≤3, Z2 between 4 and 6, Z3 ≥ 7. In conclusion, the intensity zones determined for OWS resulted different from what previously reported for other endurance disciplines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Overtraining Prevention)
Open AccessEditorial
TMJ Dysfunction and Systemic Correlation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010020 - 09 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 573
Abstract
In recent years it has been conclusively shown how the position of the mouth in relation to the body affects the way of walking and standing. In particular, occlusion, the relationship between skull and jaw, swallowing and convergence of the eyes are in [...] Read more.
In recent years it has been conclusively shown how the position of the mouth in relation to the body affects the way of walking and standing. In particular, occlusion, the relationship between skull and jaw, swallowing and convergence of the eyes are in neuro-muscular relationship with the control and maintenance system of posture, integrating at different levels. This manuscript aims to be a summary of all the oral, occlusal and articular dysfunctions of TMJ with systemic and postural–muscular repercussions. Recent articles found in the literature that are taken into consideration and briefly analyzed represent an important starting point for these correlations, which are still unclear in the medical field. Posturology, occlusal and oral influences on posture, spine and muscular system are still much debated today. In the literature, there are articles concerning sports performance and dental occlusion or even the postural characteristics of adolescents or children in deciduous and mixed dentition. The temporomandibular joint, as the only joint of the skull, could therefore represent a site to pay particular attention to, and in some cases an ATM dysfunction could be a clue for the diagnosis of systemic pathologies, or it could be the repercussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Energy Restriction Attenuates the Loss of Fat Free Mass in Resistance Trained Individuals. A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010019 - 08 Mar 2020
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Abstract
There is a lack of research into how lean, resistance trained (RT) individuals respond to intermittent energy restricted diets. Therefore, we investigated body composition changes in RT-individuals during continuous energy restriction or intermittent restriction. A total of 27 males and females (25 ± [...] Read more.
There is a lack of research into how lean, resistance trained (RT) individuals respond to intermittent energy restricted diets. Therefore, we investigated body composition changes in RT-individuals during continuous energy restriction or intermittent restriction. A total of 27 males and females (25 ± 6.1 years; 169 ± 9.4 cm; 80 ± 15.6 kg) were randomized to a ~25% caloric restricted diet Refeed (RF; n = 13) or Continuous group (CN; n = 14) in conjunction with 4-days/week resistance training for 7-weeks. RF implemented two consecutive days of elevated carbohydrate (CHO) intake, followed by 5-days of caloric restriction each week. CN adhered to a continuous 7-week caloric restriction. Body mass (BM), fat mass (FM), fat-free mass (FFM), dry fat-free mass (dFFM), and resting metabolic rate (RMR) were assessed pre/post-diet. Both groups significantly reduced BM (RF: baseline = 76.4 ± 15.6 kg, post-diet = 73.2 ± 13.8 kg, Δ3.2 kg; CN: baseline = 83.1 ± 15.4 kg, post-diet = 79.5 ± 15 kg, Δ3.6 kg) and FM (RF: baseline = 16.3 ± 4 kg, post-diet = 13.5 ± 3.6 kg, Δ2.8 kg; CN: baseline = 16.7 ± 4.5 kg, post-diet = 14.4 ± 4.9 kg, Δ2.3 kg) with no differences between groups. FFM (RF: baseline = 60.1 ± 13.8 kg, post-diet = 59.7 ± 13.0 kg, 0.4 kg; CN: baseline = 66.4 ± 15.2 kg, post-diet = 65.1 ± 15.2 kg, Δ1.3 kg p = 0.006), dFFM (RF: baseline = 18.7 ± 5.0 kg, post-diet = 18.5 ± 4.5 kg, Δ0.2 kg; CN: baseline =21.9 ± 5.7 kg, post-diet = 20.0 ± 5.7 kg, Δ1.9 kg), and RMR (RF: baseline = 1703 ± 294, post-diet = 1665 ± 270, Δ38 kcals; CN: baseline = 1867 ± 342, post-diet = 1789 ± 409, Δ78 kcals) were better maintained in the RF group. A 2-day carbohydrate refeed preserves FFM, dryFFM, and RMR during energy restriction compared to continuous energy restriction in RT-individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Arthrocentesis and Sodium Hyaluronate Infiltration in Temporomandibular Disorders Treatment. Clinical and MRI Evaluation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010018 - 06 Mar 2020
Viewed by 436
Abstract
Arthrocentesis in temporomandibular joint disorders can be associated with the intra-articular infiltration of various drugs with the objective of increase treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical indexes variation in patients affected by temporomandibular joint disorders treated with [...] Read more.
Arthrocentesis in temporomandibular joint disorders can be associated with the intra-articular infiltration of various drugs with the objective of increase treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical indexes variation in patients affected by temporomandibular joint disorders treated with arthrocentesis and sodium hyaluronate (SH) injections. A total of 28 patients suffering from temporomandibular joint disorders underwent one cycle of five arthrocentesis and infiltrations of sodium hyaluronate. Spontaneous mouth opening improved from 36.3 ± 7.5 mm to 45.1 ± 1.9 mm at six months follow-up. A significant reduction in the pain at rest and during mastication mean values emerged at follow-up (p < 0.0001). The mean masticatory efficiency, evaluated through a visual analogic scale, showed improvement at the follow-up period, highlighted by the increase of mean value from a baseline of 3.1 ± 1.2 to a mean value of 8.5 ± 1.2 (p < 0.0001). The mean severity of the joint damage at baseline time was 2.4 ± 0.9 and decreased to 0.4 ± 0.3 at the end of the follow-up period. The decrease in values is confirmed by statistical test (p < 0.05). Our data show how arthrocentesis integrated with sodium hyaluronate infiltrations performed under local anesthesia is a valid method of treating temporomandibular joint disorders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
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Open AccessArticle
Female Collegiate Dancers Body Composition, Macronutrient and Micronutrient Intake Over Two Academic Years: A Longitudinal Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010017 - 26 Feb 2020
Viewed by 389
Abstract
Collegiate dancers face unique challenges to maintain a lean aesthetic, optimal diet, and a high-performance level due to the various stressors in college. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition (BC) and diet over two years. Participants ( [...] Read more.
Collegiate dancers face unique challenges to maintain a lean aesthetic, optimal diet, and a high-performance level due to the various stressors in college. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in body composition (BC) and diet over two years. Participants (N = 17, 19.6 ± 1.6 years) completed two laboratory sessions per semester. Sessions included height and weight, BC, dietary intake, and a health history questionnaire. Regardless of rigorous dance training and variations in the academic calendar, no significant changes in BC or diet were observed within semesters of over two years. BMI was normal (24.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2) with fat mass exceeding 30% at all timepoints. Fat mass was negatively correlated with carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake (g/kg/day; r = −0.291, p = 0.004; r = −0.372, p < 0.0001; r = −0.398, p < 0.0001; respectively). Energy intake was within the recommended daily allowance (2040 ± 710 kcal/day), however may be insufficient for an active dance population. Protein (1.1 ± 0.5 g/kg), carbohydrate (3.7 ± 1.6 g/kg), calcium (835 ± 405 mg/day), iron (17 ± 15 mg/day), and potassium (1628 ± 1736 mg/day) intake fell below recommendations for an active population. Alterations in dance training and the demands of the academic calendar may be contributing to suboptimal dietary intake and BC in female collegiate dancers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Identifying Developmental Motor Difficulties: A Review of Tests to Assess Motor Coordination in Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010016 - 24 Feb 2020
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Abstract
The latest guidelines recommend early identification of children with motor impairments using a standardized norm-referenced test. Motor coordination difficulties in developmental age have been studied extensively over recent years, with experimental literature on developmental coordination disorder (DCD) suggesting that motor proficiency assessments depend [...] Read more.
The latest guidelines recommend early identification of children with motor impairments using a standardized norm-referenced test. Motor coordination difficulties in developmental age have been studied extensively over recent years, with experimental literature on developmental coordination disorder (DCD) suggesting that motor proficiency assessments depend on the nature of the task at hand. In this article we reviewed 14 assessment tools to measure movement performance in childhood and adolescence, which are often referred to in an international context. This updated review aims to compare motor tests depending on a) the nature of the tasks included in the battery (i.e., questionnaire and clinical examination), b) psychometric properties, and c) cultural adaptation to relevant developmental norms. Finally, implications for diagnosis and clinical practice are discussed. Considering there are several tests used for DCD, it is important to better define their reliability and validity in different cultures in order to better compare the validation studies and select the most appropriate test to use in the assessment procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Progressive Fatigue on Session RPE
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010015 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and session RPE (sRPE) are reliable tools for predicting exercise intensity and are alternatives to more technological and physiological measurements, such as blood lactate (HLa) concentration, oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR). As sRPE may also convey some [...] Read more.
Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and session RPE (sRPE) are reliable tools for predicting exercise intensity and are alternatives to more technological and physiological measurements, such as blood lactate (HLa) concentration, oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR). As sRPE may also convey some insights into accumulated fatigue, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of progressive fatigue in response to heavier-than-normal training on sRPE, with absolute training intensity held constant, and determine its validity as marker of fatigue. Twelve young adults performed eight interval workouts over a two-week period. The percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax), HLa, RPE and sRPE were measured for each session. The HLa/RPE ratio was calculated as an index of fatigue. Multilevel regression analysis showed significant differences for %HRmax (p = 0.004), HLa concentration (p = 0.0001), RPE (p < 0.0001), HLa/RPE ratio (p = 0.0002) and sRPE (p < 0.0001) across sessions. Non-linear regression analysis revealed a very large negative relationship between HLa/RPE ratio and sRPE (r = −0.70, p < 0.0001). These results support the hypothesis that sRPE is a sensitive tool that provides information on accumulated fatigue, in addition to training intensity. Exercise scientists without access to HLa measurements may now be able to gain insights into accumulated fatigue during periods of increased training by using sRPE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Overtraining Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Joint Mobility Protection during the Developmental Age among Free Climbing Practitioners: A Pilot Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010014 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 312
Abstract
Sport-climbing popularity increased intensely over the past years. Particularly, children’s and adolescents’ interest therein is constantly growing. Despite a large effort in preventing injuries and muscle overloads, a fine-tuned training for each sensitive phase of child development is still needed. The objective of [...] Read more.
Sport-climbing popularity increased intensely over the past years. Particularly, children’s and adolescents’ interest therein is constantly growing. Despite a large effort in preventing injuries and muscle overloads, a fine-tuned training for each sensitive phase of child development is still needed. The objective of the study was to evaluate an innovative training program aimed at the preservation of joint mobility during the developmental age. This article relies on the results of a steady training program allowing to retain joints integrity among the practice of sport climbing in children. Joint mobility changes have been monitored before and after a one-year training program in fifteen subjects aged between 8 and 18 years. Subjects were divided into three groups depending on age (Turgor Secundus, Proceritas Secunda and Turgor Tertius). The motor tests administered were the sit-and-reach test, coxo-femoral mobility test and scapula–humeral mobility test. Our results showed that one-year training improved joint mobility at each analyzed phase, suggesting that this training program could improve mobility and flexibility. Given the importance of joint mobility preservation for discipline-related injuries prevention and eventually recovering, it is essential to provide a specific training program as a route to approach sport climbing, and even more importantly, at an early age. This work represents a preliminary study in order to demonstrate both efficacy on the joint mobility and the requirement of our playful work to support the global sport-climbing workout. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reliability of a New Test of Balance Function in Healthy and Concussion Populations
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010013 - 14 Feb 2020
Viewed by 311
Abstract
Providing quantitative measures of balance and posture is a valuable aid in clinical assessment and in recent years several devices have been introduced that have demonstrated the accurate measure of balance via deviation of center of mass utilizing software algorithms and mobile devices. [...] Read more.
Providing quantitative measures of balance and posture is a valuable aid in clinical assessment and in recent years several devices have been introduced that have demonstrated the accurate measure of balance via deviation of center of mass utilizing software algorithms and mobile devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of EQ Balance against the SwayTM Balance System (Sway), another balance device that is currently established as an accurate measure of balance, and to evaluate the test–retest reliability of EQ Balance. Seventy individuals presenting to a sports medicine and concussion clinic volunteered to participate in the assessment of balance utilizing Sway and EQ Balance simultaneously. The group included 25 males and 45 females (mean age: 37.8 ± 14.8, range: 13–65) with and without concussion or other neurological conditions (39 concussed vs. 31 non-neurologically injured, or healthy). Twenty-six of the concussed participants were balance-impaired. Participants performed five postures while holding the mobile device against their chest. Participants held a device holder that secured two devices: one iPhone 6 with EQ Balance and a second iPhone 6 with Sway Balance. The average balance score on all five stances was recorded as the “average balance score”. Average balance scores were in statistical agreement between the two methods across the entire group, and for sub-groups according to the Deming regression (p < 0.01). The intra-class correlation (ICC) for the cohort was 0.87 (p < 0.001). Across the cohort, EQ Balance measured significantly worse balance scores in the balance-impaired group, comprised of participants with brain injury who failed a clinical balance screening test, compared to the group without clinically-determined balance impairment (this group includes healthy and some concussed patients). EQ Balance demonstrated safety, as it was considered safe to perform independently (i.e., without an observer) in those with impaired balance, and high test- retest reliability in the healthy and concussed patient population. Statistical agreement was established between the two measures of EQ Balance and Sway Balance for the average balance score across all five stances. The ICC analysis demonstrates strong consistency of the task output between test sessions. Given these results, EQ Balance demonstrates strength as a new balance assessment tool to accurately measure balance performance as part of a unique and novel gamified application in healthy and neurologically injured populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Perceived Well-Being and Quality of Life in People with Typical and Atypical Development: The Role of Sports Practice
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010012 - 13 Feb 2020
Viewed by 481
Abstract
Sports and physical activity are recognized as a source of psycho-physical well-being. Therefore, practicing sports can improve the perception of the quality of life (QoL). The study investigated in adults with atypical development (AD) and typical development (TD) if the perceptions of well-being [...] Read more.
Sports and physical activity are recognized as a source of psycho-physical well-being. Therefore, practicing sports can improve the perception of the quality of life (QoL). The study investigated in adults with atypical development (AD) and typical development (TD) if the perceptions of well-being and QoL may depend on the frequency of practicing sports. Participants were 51 AD (age M = 32.98, SD = 7.81; 45.1% female) and 270 TD adults (age M = 26.50, SD = 6.52; 79.3% female) subsequently divided into three groups: 1) people not practicing sports, or 2) practicing it occasionally, or 3) practicing it regularly. We adopted general self-efficacy, life satisfaction, positive well-being, and psychological distress related to physical exercise as measures of well-being, WHOQOL-BREF as QoL, and I-TIPI-R as indicators of Big Five personality factors. Questionnaires were completed online. Practicing sports influenced the perception of well-being and QoL. For the AD group, sporting practice seems to have assumed an equalization effect, eliminating the statistical differences between well-being and QoL measures of AD and TD groups. Associations emerged between Big Five and well-being and QoL indices with some differences as a function of group characteristics. In summary, results suggest that practicing sports is strongly associated with improvements in perceptions of well-being and QoL, especially in disabled persons. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
Open AccessArticle
Floating Subscapularis Tear: A Variation of the Partial Subscapularis Tear
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010011 - 05 Feb 2020
Viewed by 275
Abstract
A variation of subscapularis tear has been identified, named floating subscapularis, where the tendon is completely detached from the lesser tuberosity but is continuous with the tissue covering the bicipital groove. An accurate diagnosis can be made using arthroscopic observation with passive external [...] Read more.
A variation of subscapularis tear has been identified, named floating subscapularis, where the tendon is completely detached from the lesser tuberosity but is continuous with the tissue covering the bicipital groove. An accurate diagnosis can be made using arthroscopic observation with passive external and internal rotation of the affected shoulder, which shows mismatched movement between the humerus and the subscapularis tendon. The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of this particular tear pattern. Clinical records during the study period (from January 2011 to December 2017) were retrospectively examined. Overall, 1295 arthroscopic rotator cuff repair procedures were performed. Among these, the subscapularis tendon was repaired in 448 cases, and 27 cases were diagnosed as floating subscapularis. The prevalence of floating subscapularis was 6% in the subscapularis repair population. This particular tear pattern has not previously been described and it seems to be ignored. The floating subscapularis is thought to be the tear of the deep layer preserving the superficial layer connected to the greater tuberosity by fibrous extension of the soft tissue covering the bicipital groove. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Exercise Prescription in Renal Transplant Recipients: From Sports Medicine Toward Multidisciplinary Aspects: A Pilot Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010010 - 30 Jan 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 347
Abstract
Renal transplantation is the choice treatment for end-stage renal disease. In spite of transplantation, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains high, possibly due to a prolonged sedentary lifestyle prior to transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of unsupervised intervention in a tailored [...] Read more.
Renal transplantation is the choice treatment for end-stage renal disease. In spite of transplantation, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains high, possibly due to a prolonged sedentary lifestyle prior to transplantation. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of unsupervised intervention in a tailored home-based aerobic resistance exercise program, based on the anthropometric and cardiovascular parameters in a group of renal transplant recipients (RTRs) followed for 12 months. Methods: a group of 21 RTRs (mean age: 46.8 ± 12 years) were enrolled in a combined aerobic and step count unsupervised prescription program. Body composition (BMI, waist circumferences, skin-folds); water distribution (TBW: Total body water; ECW: Extra cellular water; and ICW: Intracellular water) and myocardial function were measured every 6 months for 1 year. The MEDI-LITE score was used to estimate adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Results: Significant reductions in waist circumference (Waist Cir: 89.12 ± 12.8 cm T0; 89.1 ± 12.5 cm T6 (95% CI: 6.3, 5.7); 88.6 ± 11.4 cm T12; (95% CI: 6.7, 4.7) p < 0.01), weight:71.8 ± 14.8 kg T0; 70.6 ± 14.7 kg T6(95% CI:−8, 6); 70.6 ± 14.7 kg T12(95% CI: 6.6, 7) p < 0.05), as well as an improvement of myocardial function, as shown by the significant increase of contractility and change in the GLS % value (−18.3 ± 3.8% at T0 (95% CI:−16.57, 20.0.2)−20.4 ± 3.0% at T6(95% CI:−4, 0.2);−22.9 ± 3.1%T12(95% CI:−3, 4, −1, 6) p < 0.02), were observed. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet was in the normal range. Conclusions: Despite unsupervised intervention, combined moderate physical exercise appears to have a positive effect on the main parameters related to cardiovascular risk factors. The long-term efficacy of this program requires further investigation, particularly for evaluating constant adherence to the home-based physical exercise program. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tailored Exercise in Patients with Chronic Diseases 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Massage Therapy Modulates Inflammatory Mediators Following Sprint Exercise in Healthy Male Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010009 - 29 Jan 2020
Viewed by 466
Abstract
Massage therapy is a common postexercise muscle recovery modality; however, its mechanisms of efficacy are uncertain. We evaluated the effects of massage on systemic inflammatory responses to exercise and postexercise muscle performance and soreness. In this crossover study, nine healthy male athletes completed [...] Read more.
Massage therapy is a common postexercise muscle recovery modality; however, its mechanisms of efficacy are uncertain. We evaluated the effects of massage on systemic inflammatory responses to exercise and postexercise muscle performance and soreness. In this crossover study, nine healthy male athletes completed a high-intensity intermittent sprint protocol, followed by massage therapy or control condition. Inflammatory markers were assessed pre-exercise; postexercise; and at 1, 2, and 24 h postexercise. Muscle performance was measured by squat and drop jump, and muscle soreness on a Likert scale. Significant time effects were observed for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-8 (IL-8), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), drop jump performance, squat jump performance, and soreness. No significant effects for condition were observed. However, compared with control, inflammatory marker concentrations (IL-8, TNFα, and MCP-1) returned to baseline levels earlier following the massage therapy condition (p < 0.05 for all). IL-6 returned to baseline levels earlier following the control versus massage therapy condition (p < 0.05). No differences were observed for performance or soreness variables. MCP-1 area under the curve (AUC) was negatively associated with squat and drop jump performance, while IL-10 AUC was positively associated with drop jump performance (p < 0.05 for all). In conclusion, massage therapy promotes resolution of systemic inflammatory signaling following exercise but does not appear to improve performance or soreness measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Augmented Eccentric Loading upon Kinematics and Muscle Activation in Bench Press Performance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010008 - 26 Jan 2020
Viewed by 635
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an augmented eccentric load upon the kinematics and muscle activation of bench press, and to investigate possible mechanisms behind augmented eccentric loading during the lift. Sixteen resistance-trained males (age 28.5 ± 7.7 [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an augmented eccentric load upon the kinematics and muscle activation of bench press, and to investigate possible mechanisms behind augmented eccentric loading during the lift. Sixteen resistance-trained males (age 28.5 ± 7.7 years, height 1.78 ± 0.08 m, body mass 80.7 ± 14.3 kg) performed three repetitions at 95/85% of 1RM (augmented eccentric loading), and 85/85% of 1RM (control) in bench press, while barbell kinematics and muscle activation of eight muscles were measured. The main findings were that no kinematic differences between the augmented and control condition were found, only an effect of repetition. Furthermore, augmented loading caused a higher activation of the biceps brachii during the pre-sticking and sticking region, while a lower activation in the sternal part of pectoralis major during the eccentric phase was observed. Based on the present findings, it can be concluded that augmented eccentric loading with 95% of 1RM in bench press did not have any acute positive effect upon the concentric phase of the lift (85% of 1RM) and that the proposed underlying mechanisms like potentiation, increased neural stimulation and preload, and recovery of stored elastic energy does not seem to occur with these loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strength and Conditioning)
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Open AccessReview
Oral Health and Fibromyalgia Syndrome: A Systemic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010007 - 25 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 615
Abstract
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome currently considered idiopathic and multifactorial rheumatic that causes an increase in muscle tension and is characterized by muscle pain and chronic fibrous tissues—widespread, fluctuating and migrating—associated with stiffness, asthenia, cognitive disorders, insomnia or sleep disorders, alterations in sensitivity to [...] Read more.
Fibromyalgia is a syndrome currently considered idiopathic and multifactorial rheumatic that causes an increase in muscle tension and is characterized by muscle pain and chronic fibrous tissues—widespread, fluctuating and migrating—associated with stiffness, asthenia, cognitive disorders, insomnia or sleep disorders, alterations in sensitivity to stimuli. In affected patients, there may be anxiety or depressive disorder development. The aim of this study is, with the help of an interdisciplinary team, to evaluate the correlations between this syndrome and oral health. A literature review was conducted, analyzing the most common scientific databases, more than 200 studies were obtained. Subsequently to the application of filters and revision by the authors, only 18 articles were considered eligible for this review. From the results, it is clear that the correlations between fibromyalgia and oral health mainly concern pain in the oro-maxillofacial district, especially in the temporomandibular joint. This certainly could help for faster diagnosis of the syndrome, which is currently difficult to identify. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Utility and Advantages of the Eccentric Training through the Isoinertial System
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010006 - 19 Jan 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 611
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the first Journal Club of volume five, the first issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last years in the field of eccentric training, chosen by our editorial board members and their colleagues. We [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the first Journal Club of volume five, the first issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last years in the field of eccentric training, chosen by our editorial board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport, seen also from a scientific point of view. The editorial board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2019
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010005 - 17 Jan 2020
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Asparagus Racemosus Supplementation Plus 8 Weeks of Resistance Training on Muscular Strength and Endurance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010004 - 17 Jan 2020
Viewed by 550
Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated that ayurvedic ingredients exhibit ergogenic (performance enhancing) properties, however, no previous studies have examined the ergogenic potential of Asparagus racemosus. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ergogenic efficacy of supplementation with 500 mg·d−1 [...] Read more.
Previous studies have demonstrated that ayurvedic ingredients exhibit ergogenic (performance enhancing) properties, however, no previous studies have examined the ergogenic potential of Asparagus racemosus. The purpose of the present study was to examine the ergogenic efficacy of supplementation with 500 mg·d−1 of A. racemosus during bench press training. Eighteen recreationally trained men (mean ± SD; age = 20.4 ± 0.5 yrs; height = 179.7 ± 1.5 cm; weight = 84.7 ± 5.7 kg) were randomly assigned either 500 mg·d−1 of A. racemosus (n = 10) or placebo (n = 8). An overlapping sample of 10 participants were used to determine test-retest reliability. Pre- and post-training testing included bench press with one repetition maximum (1RM) and repetitions to failure at 70% of pre-training 1RM. The participants performed two sets of bench press to failure three times a week for eight weeks. Independent t-tests, Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), and regression analyses were used to analyze the dependent variables. The results demonstrated greater mean percentage (14.3 ± 7.7% vs. 7.8 ± 4.5%; p = 0.048) and individual (80% vs. 50%) increases in 1RM, mean (17.5 ± 2.2 repetitions vs. 15.2 ± 2.2 repetitions; p = 0.044) and individual (80% vs. 38%) increases in repetitions to failure, and a greater rate of increase in training loads for the Asparagus racemosus group than the placebo group. In conjunction with bench press training, supplementation with A. racemosus provided ergogenic benefits compared to placebo. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Open AccessEditorial
Progress of The Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology in 2019
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010003 - 16 Jan 2020
Viewed by 331
Abstract
The Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (JFMK, ISSN: 2411-5142), which was firstly released in March 2016 [...] Full article
Open AccessCommunication
Using Physical Activity to Enhance Health Outcomes Across the Life Span
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010002 - 04 Jan 2020
Viewed by 614
Abstract
Physical activity has been widely recognized as one of the primary determinants that proliferates positive psychophysiological health in individuals. Despite the numerous benefits of engaging in physical activity, a majority of the global population continues to be physically inactive or sedentary. The aim [...] Read more.
Physical activity has been widely recognized as one of the primary determinants that proliferates positive psychophysiological health in individuals. Despite the numerous benefits of engaging in physical activity, a majority of the global population continues to be physically inactive or sedentary. The aim of this brief commentary is to capture the benefits of engaging in regular physical activity across the life span. In particular, this paper will highlight the benefits of engaging in regular physical activity with respect to age, gender, atypical populations, and lifestyle. Future research and recommendations have also been addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
Open AccessArticle
Balance Performance across the Lifespan Assessed by the Leonardo Mechanograph®: A Cross-Sectional Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010001 - 19 Dec 2019
Viewed by 420
Abstract
Reference values of sway parameters have not been published for the Leonardo mechanograph® so far. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine normative values on postural control measured by the force plate Leonardo Mechanograph® and to analyze the influence [...] Read more.
Reference values of sway parameters have not been published for the Leonardo mechanograph® so far. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine normative values on postural control measured by the force plate Leonardo Mechanograph® and to analyze the influence of age and sex on balance performance. A set of standardized standing positions with eyes opened (Romberg, semi-tandem, tandem, unipedal standing) was carried out. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to detect age-and sex-related differences in center of pressure (COP) parameters (path length, velocity, elliptical area, anterior-posterior, and medio-lateral directions). Measurements were available for 570 subjects aged 20–86 years. Statistical analysis showed a high effect of age group on postural control (partial n² between 0.1 and 0.4) with a U-shaped dependency between postural control and age for all area- and path-related COP parameters, with the largest sway in the youngest (aged 20–40) and the oldest age group (aged 60–86). For velocity of COP, a linear deterioration with increasing age was found. Medio-lateral components of COP are likely to indicate the extent of postural control. Significant sex differences were not clearly supported by current findings. Age- and sex-related normative values are a useful resource for diagnostic, research, and training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture)
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