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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 5, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 26 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Recently, several discussions and, in some cases, disagreements have occurred in the literature [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity in Diabetic Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030070 - 04 Sep 2020
Viewed by 266
Abstract
One of the main goals of diabetic therapy is to achieve the best metabolic control to prevent the development and progression of potential complications. A multidisciplinary approach characterized by the combination of diet, physical activity (PA) and drug therapy with oral and injectable [...] Read more.
One of the main goals of diabetic therapy is to achieve the best metabolic control to prevent the development and progression of potential complications. A multidisciplinary approach characterized by the combination of diet, physical activity (PA) and drug therapy with oral and injectable (non-insulin) pharmacological agents, is desirable to optimize metabolic control. The aim of this review is to explain the contribution of PA and its beneficial effects on patients affected by type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We provide an overview of evidence on the effects of PA for the main two types of diabetes mellitus (DM) to identify the right level of PA to be recommended. We discuss the physiological and clinical role of PA in people with DM. It can be concluded that the objective of antidiabetic therapy should be the achievement and optimization of metabolic control through a multidisciplinary approach involving non-pharmacological therapy such as diet and PA, which has a crucial role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessCommentary
COVID-19 Surveillance and Competition in Sport: Utilizing Sport Science to Protect Athletes and Staff during and after the Pandemic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030069 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 665
Abstract
The ongoing Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic abruptly halted athletic competition and standard training practices, consequently generating great confusion surrounding when and how to safely reintroduce sports. Therefore, tangible solutions disseminated to performance staff, coaches, and athletes are warranted to ensure optimal levels of [...] Read more.
The ongoing Coronavirus 2 (COVID-19) pandemic abruptly halted athletic competition and standard training practices, consequently generating great confusion surrounding when and how to safely reintroduce sports. Therefore, tangible solutions disseminated to performance staff, coaches, and athletes are warranted to ensure optimal levels of health and physical performance for all personnel during both the current social distancing standards as well as the impending return of competition despite continued risks. In this commentary, we offer strategies for utilizing technology and data tools as components of longitudinal COVID-19 surveillance based on ongoing research efforts as well as current guidance from governing bodies, while also serving the performance needs of the athletes and staff. Recommended data sources include digital symptom and well-being surveys, standardized and routine physical performance testing, sleep and sleep physiology monitoring, cognitive applications, and temperature. This system is flexible to numerous commercially available products and is designed for easy implementation that permits instant feedback provided directly to the athlete as well as their support staff for early intervention, ultimately mitigating COVID-19 risks. We will discuss multiple options, including examples of data, data visualizations and recommendations for data interpretation and communication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance Analysis and Training Monitoring in Team Sports)
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Open AccessCommunication
Addressing the Confusion within Periodization Research
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030068 - 28 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1244
Abstract
In this editorial, we focus on recent problematic developments in sport science, and more specifically, problems related to periodization research. Primary areas discussed are (1) appreciation of history, (2) considerations for training studies, (3) the development of concepts, and (4) programming-driven training models. [...] Read more.
In this editorial, we focus on recent problematic developments in sport science, and more specifically, problems related to periodization research. Primary areas discussed are (1) appreciation of history, (2) considerations for training studies, (3) the development of concepts, and (4) programming-driven training models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Dehydration on Archery Performance, Subjective Feelings and Heart Rate during a Competition Simulation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030067 - 27 Aug 2020
Viewed by 401
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dehydration on archery performance, subjective feelings and heart rate response. Ten national level archers performed two archery competition simulations, once under euhydration (EUH) and once in a dehydrated state (DEH), induced by 24-h reduced fluid [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dehydration on archery performance, subjective feelings and heart rate response. Ten national level archers performed two archery competition simulations, once under euhydration (EUH) and once in a dehydrated state (DEH), induced by 24-h reduced fluid intake. Hydration status was verified prior to each trial by urine specific gravity (USG ≥ 1.025). Archery score was measured according to official archery regulations. Subjective feelings of thirst, fatigue and concentration were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Heart rate was continuously monitored during the trials. Archery performance was similar between trials (p = 0.155). During DEH trial (USG 1.032 ± 0.005), the athletes felt thirstier (p < 0.001), more fatigued (p = 0.041) and less able to concentrate (p = 0.016) compared with the EUH trial (USG 1.015 ± 0.004). Heart rate during DEH at baseline (85 ± 5 b∙min−1) was higher (p = 0.021) compared with EUH (78 ± 6 b∙min−1) and remained significantly higher during the latter stages of the DEH compared to EUH trial. In conclusion, archery performance over 72 arrows was not affected by dehydration, despite the induced psychological and physiological strain, revealed from decreased feeling of concentration, increased sensation of fatigue and increased heart rate during the DEH trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
The First Lactate Threshold Is a Limit for Heavy Occupational Work
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030066 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Long-term heavy physical work often leads to early retirement and disability pension due to chronic overload, with a need to define upper limits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of the first lactate threshold (LTP1) as a [...] Read more.
Long-term heavy physical work often leads to early retirement and disability pension due to chronic overload, with a need to define upper limits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of the first lactate threshold (LTP1) as a physiological marker for heavy occupational work. A total of 188 male and 52 female workers performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to determine maximal exercise performance and the first and second lactate (LTP1; LTP2) and ventilatory thresholds (VT1; VT2). Heart rate (HR) recordings were obtained during one eight-hour shift (HR8h) and oxygen uptake was measured during 20 minutes of a representative work phase. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated from gas-exchange measures. Maximal power output (Pmax), maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and power output at LTP1 and LTP2 were significantly different between male and female workers. HR8h was not significantly different between male and female workers. A significant relationship was found between Pmax and power output at LTP1. HR8h as a percentage of maximum HR significantly declined with increasing performance (Pmax:r = −0.56; p < 0.01; PLTP1:r = −0.49; p < 0.01). Despite different cardio-respiratory fitness-levels; 95.4% of all workers performed their usual work below LTP1. It is therefore suggested that LTP1 represents the upper limit for sustained heavy occupational work; which supports its use to determine work capability and assessing the limits of heavy occupational work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Human Dental Pulp Tissue during Orthodontic Tooth Movement: An Immunofluorescence Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030065 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 271
Abstract
The orthodontic tooth movement is the last step of several biological processes that take place after the application of external forces. During this process, dental pulp tissue is subjected to structural and protein expression modifications in order to maintain their integrity and functional [...] Read more.
The orthodontic tooth movement is the last step of several biological processes that take place after the application of external forces. During this process, dental pulp tissue is subjected to structural and protein expression modifications in order to maintain their integrity and functional morphology. The purpose of the present work was to perform an in vivo study, evaluating protein expression modifications in the human dental pulp of patients that have undergone orthodontic tooth movement due to pre-calibrated light force application for 30 days. Dental pulp samples were extracted from molars and premolars of the control group and after 7 and 30 days of treatment; the samples were then processed for immunofluorescence reactions using antibodies against fibronectin, collagen I and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results show that, after 7 days of treatment, all tested proteins change their pattern expression and will reset after 30 days. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp does not involve any irreversible iatrogenic alterations, supporting the efficacy and safety of using pre-calibrated force application to induce orthodontic tooth movement in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessBrief Report
A 47-Year Comparison of Lower Body Muscular Power in Spanish Boys: A Short Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030064 - 20 Aug 2020
Viewed by 395
Abstract
Much of the evidence examining temporal trends in fitness among youth has found a decrease in measures of muscular strength and muscular power over recent decades. The aim of this study was to examine trends in lower body muscular power in Spanish boys [...] Read more.
Much of the evidence examining temporal trends in fitness among youth has found a decrease in measures of muscular strength and muscular power over recent decades. The aim of this study was to examine trends in lower body muscular power in Spanish boys over 47 years. In 1969 140 boys (10–11 years; body mass index = 19.24, SD = 2.91 kg/m2) and in 2016, 113 boys (10–11 years; body mass index = 19.20, SD = 3.15 kg/m2) were recruited. Lower body power was assessed using the vertical jump (VJ) and standing long jump (SLJ) tests. Significant differences and a large effect size were shown between groups in the SLJ (p = 0.001; d = 0.94) and the VJ (p = 0.001; d = 0.66). SLJ data in 1969 were higher (1.52 m, SD = 0.19) when compared to the 2016 data (1.34 m, SD = 0.18). The VJ performance of the 1969 sample was also higher (25.95 cm; SD = 6.58) than the 2016 sample (21.56 cm; SD = 4.72). SLJ and VJ performance of the 2016 group decreased 11.8% and 16.9%, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups in body mass index. The results indicate a secular decline in lower body muscular power in 10–11-year-old Spanish boys with no significant changes in body mass index over the 47-year study period. Full article
Open AccessViewpoint
Generalized Approach to Translating Exercise Tests and Prescribing Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030063 - 12 Aug 2020
Viewed by 841
Abstract
Although there is evidence supporting the benefit of regular exercise, and recommendations about exercise and physical activity, the process of individually prescribing exercise following exercise testing is more difficult. Guidelines like % heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) require an anchoring maximal test and [...] Read more.
Although there is evidence supporting the benefit of regular exercise, and recommendations about exercise and physical activity, the process of individually prescribing exercise following exercise testing is more difficult. Guidelines like % heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) require an anchoring maximal test and do not always provide a homogenous training experience. When prescribing HR on the basis of % HRR, rating of perceived exertion or Talk Test, cardiovascular/perceptual drift during sustained exercise makes prescription of the actual workload difficult. To overcome this issue, we have demonstrated a strategy for “translating” exercise test responses to steady state exercise training on the basis of % HRR or the Talk Test that appeared adequate for individuals ranging from cardiac patients to athletes. However, these methods depended on the nature of the exercise test details. In this viewpoint, we combine these data with workload expressed as Metabolic Equivalent Task (METs). We demonstrate that there is a regular stepdown between the METs during training to achieve the same degree of homeostatic disturbance during testing. The relationship was linear, was highly-correlated (r = 0.89), and averaged 71.8% (Training METs/Test METs). We conclude that it appears possible to generate a generalized approach to correctly translate exercise test responses to exercise training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Supervised Nordic Walking Program on Obese Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes: The C.U.R.I.A.Mo. Centre Experience
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030062 - 07 Aug 2020
Viewed by 510
Abstract
Exercise is a convenient non-medical intervention, commonly recommended in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (DM2) managements. Aerobic exercise and aerobic circuit training have been shown to be able to reduce the risk of developing DM2-related complications. Growing literature proves the usefulness of [...] Read more.
Exercise is a convenient non-medical intervention, commonly recommended in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (DM2) managements. Aerobic exercise and aerobic circuit training have been shown to be able to reduce the risk of developing DM2-related complications. Growing literature proves the usefulness of Nordic walking as exercise therapy in different disease populations, therefore it has a conceivable use in DM2 management. Aims of this study were to analyze and report the effects of two different supervised exercises (gym-based exercise and Nordic walking) on anthropometric profile, blood pressure values, blood chemistry and fitness variables in obese individuals with and without DM2. In this study, 108 obese adults (aged 45–65 years), with or without DM2, were recruited and allocated into one of four subgroups: (1) Gym-based exercise program (n = 49) or (2) Nordic walking program (n = 37) for obese adults; (3) Gym-based exercise program (n = 10) or (4) Nordic walking program (n = 12) for obese adults with DM2. In all exercise subgroups, statistically significant improvements in body weight, body mass index, fat mass index, muscular flexibility and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were observed. Moreover, a higher percentage of adherence to the gym-based program compared to Nordic walking was recorded. Our findings showed that, notwithstanding the lower adherence, a supervised Nordic walk is effective as a conventional gym-based program to improve body weight control, body composition parameters, muscular flexibility and VO2 max levels in obese adults with and without type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Mandibular Arch Expansion by the Schwartz Appliance Using Two Activation Protocols: A Preliminary Retrospective Clinical Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030061 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 276
Abstract
Background and objectives: Dental crowding is more pronounced in the mandible than in the maxilla. When exceeding a significant amount, the creation of new space is required. The mandibular expansion devices prove to be useful even if the increase in the lower arch [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Dental crowding is more pronounced in the mandible than in the maxilla. When exceeding a significant amount, the creation of new space is required. The mandibular expansion devices prove to be useful even if the increase in the lower arch perimeter seems to be just ascribed to the vestibular inclination of teeth. The aim of the study was to compare two activation protocols of the Schwartz appliance in terms of effectiveness, particularly with regard to how quickly crowding is solved and how smaller is the increasing of vestibular inclination of the mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: We compared two groups of patients treated with different activation’s protocols of the lower Schwartz appliance (Group 1 protocol consisted in turning the expansion screw half a turn twice every two weeks and replacing the device every four months; Group 2 was treated by using the classic activation protocol—1/4 turn every week, never replacing the device). The measurements of parameters such as intercanine distance (IC), interpremolar distance (IPM), intermolar distance (IM), arch perimeter(AP), curve of Wilson (COW), and crowding (CR) were made on dental casts at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Results: A significant difference between protocol groups was observed in the variation of COWL between time 0 and time 1 with protocol 1 with protocol 1 subjects showing a smaller increase in the parameter than protocol 2 subjects. The same trend was observed also for COWR, but the difference between protocol groups was slightly smaller and the interaction protocol-by-time did not reach the statistical significance. Finally, treatment duration in protocol 1 was significantly lower than in protocol 2. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that the new activation protocol would seem more effective as it allows to achieve the objective of the therapy more quickly, and likely leading to greater bodily expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Hoverboard on Balance in Young Soccer Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030060 - 06 Aug 2020
Viewed by 314
Abstract
Hoverboards are always more popular among children. Hoverboards are to them like a game or a mean of transport, but they could be used as a valid and useful instrument in children’s training programs to improve their performance. In this study, we compared [...] Read more.
Hoverboards are always more popular among children. Hoverboards are to them like a game or a mean of transport, but they could be used as a valid and useful instrument in children’s training programs to improve their performance. In this study, we compared the athletic performance of two groups of 12 children. A total of 24 children aged between 8 and 11 years followed a similar training program for five months, but the first group used a hoverboard (Hb+ group: Age: Standard Deviation (SD) = 1.15 Mean = 9.66; Weight: SD = 5.90 Mean = 32; Height: SD = 7.64 Mean = 135.08) for some of the training time, differently from the second group (Hb- group: Age: SD = 1.15 Mean = 9.66; Weight: SD = 5.82 Mean = 31.16; Height: SD = 7.66 Mean = 136.16), which never used it. All of the children were asked to complete three tests (one leg test, stork test and balance beam walking test) before starting their own training program and after five months, to evaluate how their performances changed in terms of time. Comparing the recorded time difference between T0 and T1 of the Hb+ group with the same difference measured in Hb- group, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference (p value < 0.05) between these data for all three tests. Children who used the hoverboard in their training program achieved better result than children who did not use it. In the future, the hoverboard could help athletes to improve their performances, possibly applying it not only in football training, but even in other sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessViewpoint
The Importance of Exercise in Alzheimer’s Disease and the Minds in Motion® Program: An Editorial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030059 - 04 Aug 2020
Viewed by 519
Abstract
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other dementias are prevalent neurodegenerative diseases characterized by decreased cognition, physical function, and quality of life. Currently, millions of people are living with AD and other dementias. With no cure, research has examined the use of non-pharmacological treatment options [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) and other dementias are prevalent neurodegenerative diseases characterized by decreased cognition, physical function, and quality of life. Currently, millions of people are living with AD and other dementias. With no cure, research has examined the use of non-pharmacological treatment options including exercise. Many high-quality studies demonstrate that physical activity slows the progression of AD’s many outcomes, and is beneficial to overall quality of life in those living with AD. However, creating exercise interventions at the community level that individuals will adhere to is often a challenge. The Alzheimer’s Society of Canada developed a unique program that combines physical activity with cognitive stimulation in a social atmosphere: The Minds in Motion® program. Minds in Motion® addresses many of the barriers often linked to poor physical activity participation in chronic diseases (such as inclusion of the care partner), to ensure the best program uptake. The Minds in Motion® program has anecdotally been successful in helping to increase physical function and social skills in those living with dementia. However, it is important to connect community-driven programs with the academic research community, to create an opportunity for high quality evaluation metrics that can be disseminated at multiple levels: to research audiences, clinical audiences, and to those in the community. With ongoing collaborations between research and community programs, there is a greater opportunity to understand the positive impact of a program, which ultimately increases the chance of funding for the program. In this editorial, we highlight that community-integrated research is an important priority for future collaborations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Neurodegenerative Disease)
Open AccessArticle
Reliability of an Integrated Inertial Sensor for the Continuous Measurement of Active Cervical Range of Motion in a Group of Younger and Elderly Individuals
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030058 - 03 Aug 2020
Viewed by 317
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability of an integrated inertial sensor (IIS) for cervical range of motion assessment. An integrated inertial sensor was placed on the forehead center of thirty older adults (OA) and thirty younger adults (YA). [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the test–retest reliability of an integrated inertial sensor (IIS) for cervical range of motion assessment. An integrated inertial sensor was placed on the forehead center of thirty older adults (OA) and thirty younger adults (YA). Participants had to perform three continuous rotations, lateral bandings and flexion–extensions with their head. Test–retest reliability was assessed after 7 days. YA showed moderate to good agreement for rotation (0.54–0.82), lateral bending (0.74–0.8), and flexion–extension (0.74–0.81) movements and poor agreement for zero point (ZP). OA showed moderate to good agreement for rotation (0.65–0.86), good to excellent agreement in lateral bending (0.79–0.92), and poor to moderate agreement for flexion–extension (0.37–0.72). Zero point showed poor to moderate agreement. In conclusion, we can affirm that this IIS is a reliable device for cervical range of motion assessment in young and older adults; on the contrary, the ZP seems to be unreliable and the addition of an external reference point could help the subject to solve this shortcoming and reduce possible biases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Is Supine Position Superior to Prone Position in the Surgical Pinning of Supracondylar Humerus Fracture in Children?
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030057 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 297
Abstract
Background: Supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF) is a frequent injury in pediatric ages. Closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation is a common treatment of displaced SCHF. Surgery is usually performed in the supine position; otherwise the prone position allows an easier fracture reduction and [...] Read more.
Background: Supracondylar humerus fracture (SCHF) is a frequent injury in pediatric ages. Closed reduction and percutaneous pin fixation is a common treatment of displaced SCHF. Surgery is usually performed in the supine position; otherwise the prone position allows an easier fracture reduction and a safe placement of pins. The aim of study is to compare the clinical and radiographic results of the treatment of displaced SCHF, comparing two different intra-operative positionings. Methods: 59 SCHF affected children were retrospectively divided into supine (Group 1; n = 34) and prone (Group 2; n = 25), according to intraoperative position. All treated subjects were clinically evaluated according to Flynn’s criteria and Mayo Elbow Performance Score, and radiographically, including the measurement of the Baumann angle. Results: Clinically, Group 1, according Flynn’s criteria, had excellent cosmetic outcome in 32 subjects (94.1%). Mean MAYO Score was 96.0 ± 3.8. Group 2, according Flynn’s criteria, had excellent cosmetic outcomes in 23 subjects (92.0%). Mean MAYO Score was 97.8 ± 3.3. Radiographically, mean difference of Baumann’s angle between the injured limb and the normal limb was 5.5° ± 1.0° in Group 1 and 5.1° ± 1.1° in Group 2. Conclusion: Both supine and prone positioning achieved a satisfying outcome with similar results in joint function recovery and complications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessCase Report
Multifaceted Exercise Prescription in the Management of an Overhead Athlete with Suspected Distal Biceps Tendinopathy: A Case Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030056 - 29 Jul 2020
Viewed by 277
Abstract
Background and Purpose: Distal biceps brachii tendinopathy is an uncommon diagnosis. Various exercise prescriptions have demonstrated efficacy in the management of tendinopathy, although studies frequently focus on the effects of a specific type of muscular contraction (i.e., concentric, isometric, or eccentric). Currently, there [...] Read more.
Background and Purpose: Distal biceps brachii tendinopathy is an uncommon diagnosis. Various exercise prescriptions have demonstrated efficacy in the management of tendinopathy, although studies frequently focus on the effects of a specific type of muscular contraction (i.e., concentric, isometric, or eccentric). Currently, there is limited research guiding the conservative management of distal biceps tendinopathy, particularly with overhead athletes, and even less evidence reporting a multifaceted exercise prescription for individuals with tendinopathy. The purpose of this case report is to describe the integration of various modes of therapeutic exercise into a rehabilitation program for an overhead athlete with suspected distal biceps brachii tendinopathy. Case Description: A 19-year-old male collegiate baseball pitcher presented to an outpatient physical therapy clinic via direct access for left antecubital pain, which began 6 weeks prior to the evaluation while pitching during try-outs. Following physical examination, distal biceps tendinopathy was the likely clinical diagnosis. Interventions focused on early eccentric exercise eventually progressing to concentric and plyometric activity for return to sport. Outcomes: The patient was seen five times over the course of 4 weeks. He had significant improvements of pain, patient-reported functional outcomes, global rating of change, strength, tenderness, and provocation testing. The patient was able to return to an off-season pitching program. Discussion: An impairment-based and task-specific exercise prescription was effective for this patient with distal biceps tendinopathy. Understanding the biomechanical demands of an individual’s functional limitation, in this case baseball pitching, may assist the decision-making process and optimize outcomes. Additional research into the most effective exercise prescriptions for individuals with uncommon tendinopathies is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Validity and Reliability of a Photoelectric Cells System for the Evaluation of Change of Direction and Lateral Jumping Abilities in Collegiate Basketball Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030055 - 22 Jul 2020
Viewed by 535
Abstract
The validity and reliability of the Optojump system were investigated for jumping height and flight time in vertical jump tests. Conversely, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Optojump system for measuring contact time and [...] Read more.
The validity and reliability of the Optojump system were investigated for jumping height and flight time in vertical jump tests. Conversely, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the validity and reliability of the Optojump system for measuring contact time and lateral displacement in change of direction and lateral jump tests. Thirty basketball collegiate athletes were tested on two 10 m sprints with a 60° (COD60) or 180° (COD180) change of direction, lateral controlled (CLRJ) and maximal (MLRJ) rebound jump, and lateral countermovement (LCMJ) and squat (LSJ) jump with the concomitant use of two force plates and the Optojump system for the measurement of contact time in COD60, COD180, CLRJ, MLRJ, and lateral jumping distance in all the lateral jump tests. Almost perfect coefficients (r ≥ 0.95) emerged for contact time in COD60, COD180, CLRJ, MLRJ, although a systematic bias was found for COD60 (−0.01 s). Good-to-excellent reliability was found for almost all the measurements of contact time and lateral jumping distance for change of direction and lateral jump tests. Therefore, the use of Optojump system for testing change of direction and lateral jumping abilities should be executed with caution, avoiding misinterpretation of data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance Analysis and Training Monitoring in Team Sports)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Differences in Balance Ability and Motor Control between Dancers and Non-Dancers with Varying Foot Positions
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030054 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 345
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate balance and motor control in dancers and non-dancers with different foot positions. Physically active female dancers (n = 11) and non-dancers (n = 9) randomly completed two balance tests in a single visit: [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate balance and motor control in dancers and non-dancers with different foot positions. Physically active female dancers (n = 11) and non-dancers (n = 9) randomly completed two balance tests in a single visit: 1) Y-balance test (YBT), and 2) motor control test (MCT). Each test was completed with two different foot positions: 1) first ballet position in which heels were touching and feet were externally rotated to 140 degrees, and 2) sixth ballet position in which heels were spaced 10 cm apart and forward parallel. For the YBT, participants completed three attempts at anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reaches, which were averaged and standardized to limb length for a composite score. For the MCT, participants completed a multi-directional target test on a Biosway balance system, and accuracy and time to completion were analyzed. Findings revealed no differences in YBT score (p = 0.255), MCT score (p = 0.383), or MCT time (p = 0.306) between groups in the sixth position. However, dancers displayed better YBT scores (p = 0.036), MCT scores (p = 0.020), and faster MCT times (p = 0.009) in the first position. Results suggest that superior balance and motor control in dancers may be limited to less innate dance-specific foot positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Continuous Aerobic Training Protocols in a Heterozygous Mouse Model of Niemann-Pick Type C Disease
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030053 - 18 Jul 2020
Viewed by 350
Abstract
The positive effects of physical activity on cognitive functions are widely known. Aerobic training is known to promote the expression of neurotrophins, thus inducing an increase in the development and survival of neurons, as well as enhancing synaptic plasticity. Based on this evidence, [...] Read more.
The positive effects of physical activity on cognitive functions are widely known. Aerobic training is known to promote the expression of neurotrophins, thus inducing an increase in the development and survival of neurons, as well as enhancing synaptic plasticity. Based on this evidence, in the present study, we analyze the effects of two different types of aerobic training, progressive continuous (PC) and varying continuous (VC), on synaptic and muscular plasticity in heterozygous mice carrying the genetic mutation for Niemann-Pick type C disease. We also analyze the effects on synaptic plasticity by extracellular recordings in vitro in mouse hippocampal slices, while the morphological structure of muscle tissue was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Our results show a modulation of synaptic plasticity that varies according to the type of training protocol used, and only the VC protocol administered twice a week, has a significantly positive effect on long-term potentiation. On the contrary, ultrastructural analysis of muscle tissue shows an improvement in cellular conditions in all trained mice. These results confirm the beneficial effects of exercise on quality of life, supporting the hypothesis that physical activity could represent an alternative therapeutic strategy for patients with Niemann-Pick type C disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Neurodegenerative Disease)
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: PhysioMechanics of Human Locomotion
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030052 - 18 Jul 2020
Viewed by 413
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the Third Journal Club of Volume five, the third issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last years in the field of PhysioMechanics of Human Locomotion, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the Third Journal Club of Volume five, the third issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last years in the field of PhysioMechanics of Human Locomotion, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the Sports Medicine and Movement Sciences seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Different Resistance Training Frequencies on Body Composition, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Handgrip Strength in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030051 - 17 Jul 2020
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Background: Resistance training improves health in obese and overweight people. However, it is not clear what is the optimal weekly resistance training frequency and the most efficacious training protocol on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and handgrip strength (HS). The aim of this [...] Read more.
Background: Resistance training improves health in obese and overweight people. However, it is not clear what is the optimal weekly resistance training frequency and the most efficacious training protocol on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and handgrip strength (HS). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a supervised structured 24 week resistance training program on obese and overweight women. Methods: Forty-five women (BMI 37.1 ± 6.3 kg/m2; age 56.5 ± 0.7 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: A group with a high weekly training frequency of three times a week (HIGH) and a group that performed it only once a week (LOW). Cardiometabolic risk factors, anthropometric and HS measures were taken before and after the intervention period. Results: A significant (p < 0.05) group by time interaction was observed for body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and for dominant and absolute HS. Additionally, only the HIGH group saw increased HS and decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after the intervention period (p < 0.05). The observed increase in HS was associated with an improved insulin resistance sensitivity (absolute handgrip strength: r = −0.40, p = 0.007; relative handgrip strength: r = −0.47, p = 0.001) after training, which constitutes an essential element for cardiovascular health. Conclusions: The results suggest that high weekly frequency training give greater benefits for weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors improvement than a training program with a training session of once a week. Furthermore, the improvement of HS can be achieved with a high weekly frequency training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Different Types of Eccentric Overload Training on Strength, Speed, Power and Change of Direction in Female Basketball Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030050 - 16 Jul 2020
Viewed by 615
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of eccentric (ECC) overload training on strength, speed, power and change of direction in female basketball players. Twenty amateur basketball players (mean ± SD: age: 23.67 ± 6.05 years; height: [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two types of eccentric (ECC) overload training on strength, speed, power and change of direction in female basketball players. Twenty amateur basketball players (mean ± SD: age: 23.67 ± 6.05 years; height: 1.73 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 80.28 ± 17.67 kg) participated in a randomized trial. The players performed either flywheel inertial training (FIT) (n = 11) or tempo ECC training (TET) (n = 9) for 4 weeks, performing two sessions weekly. Performance characteristics, one repetition back squat (1RM), counter-movement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), 10-metre sprint (10 m), change of direction (COD) and sit and reach flexibility (S&R) were tested pre and post intervention. Post-hoc testing revealed significant improvements in the FIT group for 1RM (p ≤ 0.001; ES = 0.59), 10 m (p = 0.003; ES = −0.54) and CMJ (p ≤ 0.001; ES = 1.04), while significant improvements were revealed in the TET group for 1RM (p = 0.007; ES = 0.71) and S&R (p ≤ 0.001; ES = 0.58). In conclusion, both FIT and TET groups demonstrated a positive training stimulus for increasing muscular strength. FIT may produce superior adaptions in CMJ and 10-m sprint, while TET may produce superior adaptions in S&R. Neither group achieved increases in either SJ or COD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Adjuvant Therapy Reduces Fat Mass Loss during Exercise Prescription in Breast Cancer Survivors
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030049 - 15 Jul 2020
Viewed by 375
Abstract
Improvements in cancer care over the years have increased the numbers of cancer survivors. Therefore, quality of life, fat mass management and physical activity are growing areas of interest in these people. After the surgical removal of a breast cancer, adjuvant therapy remains [...] Read more.
Improvements in cancer care over the years have increased the numbers of cancer survivors. Therefore, quality of life, fat mass management and physical activity are growing areas of interest in these people. After the surgical removal of a breast cancer, adjuvant therapy remains anyway a common strategy. The aim of this study was to assess how adjuvant therapy can affect the effectiveness of an unsupervised exercise program. Forty-two women were enrolled (52.0 ± 10.1 years). Assessments performed at baseline and after six months of exercise prescription were body composition, health-related quality of life, aerobic capacity by Six-Minute Walk Test, limbs strength by hand grip and chair test and flexibility by sit and reach. Statistical analyses were conducted by ANOVA tests and multiple regression. Improvements in body composition, physical fitness and quality of life (physical functioning, general health, social functioning and mental health items) were found. The percentage change in fat mass has been associated with adjuvant cancer therapy (intercept = −0.016; b = 8.629; p < 0.05). An unsupervised exercise prescription program improves body composition, physical fitness and health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Adjuvant therapy in cancer slows down the effectiveness of an exercise program in the loss of fat mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Open AccessViewpoint
Perspective of Dose and Response for Individualized Physical Exercise and Training Prescription
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030048 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Physical interventions are used to increase physical (sports) performance and considered as effective low-cost strategies in the fields of healthcare, disease or injury prevention, and medical treatment. In general, a considerable amount of evidence buttress the application of physical interventions in various fields [...] Read more.
Physical interventions are used to increase physical (sports) performance and considered as effective low-cost strategies in the fields of healthcare, disease or injury prevention, and medical treatment. In general, a considerable amount of evidence buttress the application of physical interventions in various fields as it has been demonstrated to contribute to the maintenance and recovery of physical performance, cognitive function, and overall state of health. To implement physical interventions effectively, it is essential to provide an appropriate exercise and training prescription. Exercise and training prescription are key for “dose” specification and for the individualization (personalizing) of physical exercise and training, precisely adjusted and controlled like medication. Since the physiological response to physical interventions is demonstrably individual and dependent on many influencing factors, individualization is an emerging approach aiming to maximize the efficiency of an intervention by accounting for the interindividual heterogeneity. The present brief viewpoint article aims to distinguish and to redefine between the terms dose and response in order to improve the understanding of practitioners, the methodology of study protocols, and to relate future findings to the actual biological (interindividual) variability of acute and chronic responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Open AccessArticle
Endurance of the Dorsal and Ventral Muscles in the Neck
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030047 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
Endurance of the muscles of the neck are rarely studied. This study measured the endurance index (EI) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius muscles of the neck (trap). The vastus lateralis (VL) was used for comparison. Skeletal muscle endurance of twelve healthy [...] Read more.
Endurance of the muscles of the neck are rarely studied. This study measured the endurance index (EI) of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and upper trapezius muscles of the neck (trap). The vastus lateralis (VL) was used for comparison. Skeletal muscle endurance of twelve healthy subjects, age 19–22 years, were tested on their SCM and trap in random order on one day, VL was tested on a separate day. Participants were tested in the supine position for the SCM and VL muscles and the prone position for the trap. Muscle contractions consisted of a 5 Hz twitch electrical stimulation for 5 min. Muscle acceleration (resultant vector) was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. EI was the ending acceleration as a percentage of the maximal acceleration. The endurance index (EI) for the SCM, trap, and VL was 42.3 ± 13.0%, 42.3 ± 20.2%, and 92.9 ± 11.0%, respectively. The EI of the VL was significantly higher than the EI of the SCM (t(2,22) = 10.33, p < 0.001) and the trap (t(2,22) = 7.625, p < 0.001). The EI was not different between the SCM and the trap muscle (t(2,22) = 0.004, p = 0.997). In conclusion, the neck muscles had much less endurance than the muscles in the leg and could make fatigued athletes more susceptible to concussions caused by head impacts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Test and Evaluation of Heart Rate Derived Core Temperature Algorithms for Use in NCAA Division I Football Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030046 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of utilizing heart rate to derive an estimate of core body temperature in American Football athletes. This was evaluated by combining commercially available Zephyr Bioharness devices, which includes an embedded estimated core temperature [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of utilizing heart rate to derive an estimate of core body temperature in American Football athletes. This was evaluated by combining commercially available Zephyr Bioharness devices, which includes an embedded estimated core temperature (ECT) algorithm, and an ingestible radio frequency core temperature pill during the highest heat injury risk timepoint of the season, summer training camp. Results showed a concordance of 0.643 and 78% of all data points fell within +/−1.0 °F. When the athletes were split into Upper (>/=6.0%) and Lower (<6.0%) body composition groups, there was a statistical improvement in accuracy with the Upper Body Fat% reaching 0.834 concordance and 93% of all values falling within +/−1.0 °F of the Gold Standard. Results suggest that heart rate derived core temperature assessments are a viable tool for heat stress monitoring in American football, but more work is required to improve on accuracy based on body composition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Pneumatic Compression and Cold Water Immersion Effects on Physiological and Perceptual Recovery during Multi-Sports International Championship
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030045 - 30 Jun 2020
Viewed by 537
Abstract
Background: Congested-fixture championships are common during the selection of the athletes and teams participating in the Olympic Games. Throughout these tournaments, it is fundamental to perform optimally, rest well, and recover between competitions. This study aimed to (a) explore the effectiveness of the [...] Read more.
Background: Congested-fixture championships are common during the selection of the athletes and teams participating in the Olympic Games. Throughout these tournaments, it is fundamental to perform optimally, rest well, and recover between competitions. This study aimed to (a) explore the effectiveness of the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and cold water immersion (CWI) to recover muscle mechanical function (MuscleMechFx), hydration status (HydS), pain perception (PainPercep), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), sleep hours, and sleep quality (SleepQual) during a regional multi-sports international championship and (b) compare these results by sex. Methods: A total of 52 basketball and handball players were exposed to a recovery protocol after the competition as follows: IPC, sequential 20 min at 200 mmHg, and CWI, continuous 12 min at 12 °C. Results: MuscleMechFx presented differences by match and sex (p = 0.058) in time of contraction of biceps femoris; SleepQual and sleep hours were different between matches (<0.01). Conclusions: IPC + CWI seems to be effective to maintain some MuscleMechFx, HydS, and recovery and pain perception during a congested multi-sport tournament. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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