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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of an Energy Drink on Psychomotor Vigilance in Trained Individuals
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030047 (registering DOI)
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an energy drink on psychomotor vigilance as well as a simple measure of muscular endurance (i.e., push-ups). A total of 20 exercise-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 9) (mean SD: age 32 7 years; height 169 10 cm; weight; 74.5 14.5 kg; percent body fat 20.3 6.2%; years of training 14 9; daily caffeine intake 463 510 mg) volunteered for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. In a randomized counterbalanced order, they consumed either the energy drink (ED) (product: BANG®, Weston Florida) or a similar tasting placebo drink (PL). In the second visit after a 1-week washout period, they consumed the alternate drink. A full 30 minutes post-consumption, they performed the following tests in this order: a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test, three sets of push-ups, followed once more by a 5-minute psychomotor vigilance test. Reaction time was recorded. For the psychomotor vigilance test, lapses, false starts and efficiency score are also assessed. There were no differences between groups for the number of push-ups that were performed or the number of false starts during the psychomotor vigilance test. However, the ED treatment resulted in a significantly lower (i.e., faster) psychomotor vigilance mean reaction time compared to the PL (p = 0.0220) (ED 473.8 42.0 milliseconds, PL 482.4 54.0 milliseconds). There was a trend for the ED to lower the number of lapses (i.e., reaction time > 500 milliseconds) (p = 0.0608). The acute consumption of a commercially available ED produced a significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance in exercise-trained men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
Open AccessReview
Conservative Treatment of Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030046 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 19 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Achilles tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Athletes, runners and jumpers, and the sedentary are frequently affected. Numerous are the therapeutic choices to manage these kinds of disorders. The aim of this review is to analyze the available literature to document the up-to-date [...] Read more.
Achilles tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Athletes, runners and jumpers, and the sedentary are frequently affected. Numerous are the therapeutic choices to manage these kinds of disorders. The aim of this review is to analyze the available literature to document the up-to-date evidence on conservative management of Achilles tendinopathy. A systematic review of two medical electronic databases was performed by three independent authors, using the following inclusion criteria: conservative treatment consisted of pharmacologic, physical therapy without operative treatment, with more of 6 months symptoms and a minimum average of 6-months follow-up. Studies of any level of evidence, reporting clinical results, and dealing with Achilles tendinopathy and conservative treatment were searched for. A total of n = 1228 articles were found. At the end of the first screening, following the previously described selection criteria, we selected n = 94 articles eligible for full-text reading. Ultimately, after full-text reading and a reference list check, we selected n = 29 articles. Achilles tendinopathy is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder and several conservative treatments have been proposed, but no therapy is universally accepted, except for eccentric exercise training, which is the gold standard and a commonly used protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlations between Malocclusion and Postural Anomalies in Children with Mixed Dentition
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030045
Received: 30 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between malocclusion and body posture anomalies. The original sample involved 127 children (45 males and 82 females) with mixed dentition. Clinical examination of oral cavity was performed by an orthodontist, who recorded [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between malocclusion and body posture anomalies. The original sample involved 127 children (45 males and 82 females) with mixed dentition. Clinical examination of oral cavity was performed by an orthodontist, who recorded molar and canine relationship, cross-bite, lower middle-line deviation, and centric relation (CR) considering mono or bilateral contacts in CR. Orthopedic examination of the body posture was clinically carried out by an orthopedist who detected anomalies such as scoliosis, false scoliosis or paramorphism, kyphosis and lordosis. Of the 127 subjects of the sample, 18 children were orthopedically normal, 80 patients had false scoliosis, 22 scoliosis and 7 showed kyphosis. In our study, we don’t consider the 7 patients with kyphosis for the exiguity of the sample; so, our analysis was performed on 120 children (42 males and 78 females). The results obtained revealed that the cross-bite was more frequent when scoliosis became worse. We also found that the relationship between left cross-bite and contralateral side of deviation of the curve of the spine in subjects with scoliosis is statistically significant (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the relationship between lower midline and contralateral side of deviation of the curve of the spine in patients with false scoliosis is statistically significant (p = 0.003). In conclusion, it seems that posture anomalies are correlated to cross-bite and mandible abnormal position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
Open AccessArticle
Validation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measurements in Adolescents
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030044
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 11 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
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Abstract
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important indicator of adolescent cardiovascular well-being and future cardiometabolic health but not always feasible to measure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the non-exercise test (NET) for adolescents against the Progressive Aerobic [...] Read more.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important indicator of adolescent cardiovascular well-being and future cardiometabolic health but not always feasible to measure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the non-exercise test (NET) for adolescents against the Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER®) and direct measures of VO2max as well as to examine the concurrent validity of the PACER® with a portable metabolic system (K4b2™). Forty-six adolescents (12–17 years) completed the NET prior to performing the PACER® while wearing the K4b2™. The obtained VO2max values were compared using linear regression, intra-class correlation (ICC), and Bland–Altman plots, and α was set at 0.05. The VO2max acquired directly from the K4b2™ was significantly correlated to the VO2max indirectly estimated from the NET (r = 0.73, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.53, ICC = 0.67). PACER® results were significantly related to the VO2max estimates from the NET (r = 0.81, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.65, ICC = 0.72). Direct measures from the K4b2™ were significantly correlated to the VO2max estimates from the PACER® (r = 0.87, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.75, ICC = 0.93). The NET is a valid measure of CRF in adolescents and can be used when an exercise test is not feasible. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Physical Exercise Is Confirmed to Reduce Low Back Pain Symptoms in Office Workers: A Systematic Review of the Evidence to Improve Best Practices in the Workplace
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030043
Received: 16 May 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 3 July 2019 / Published: 5 July 2019
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Abstract
This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of a physical exercise (PE) program on low back pain (LBP) symptoms of office workers and the modification of flexibility and range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, and quality of life (QoL). A literature research [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of a physical exercise (PE) program on low back pain (LBP) symptoms of office workers and the modification of flexibility and range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, and quality of life (QoL). A literature research was performed on PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus from April to May 2018. The keyword “low back pain” was associated with “office worker” OR “VDT operators” OR “office employees” OR “workplace” AND “exercise”, OR “exercise therapy” OR “physical activity”. Inclusion criteria were a home- or work-based exercise protocol for office workers with LBP symptoms and pre- to post-intervention evaluation of LBP symptoms. Three researchers independently examined all abstracts. The modified Cochrane methodological quality criteria were used for quality assessment and 11 articles were included. Exercise protocols were performed from 6 weeks to 12 months, 1–5 day per week, lasting 10–60 min for each session. Physical Exercise in the workplace improved all the considered outcomes. The best improvement was recorded in supervised protocols and in video-supported protocols performed in the workplace. The effect may be generated with small duration sessions during the working day, with only 10–15 min of adapted exercise to be performed 3–5 days per week. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Mental Warmup on the Workout Readiness and Stress of College Student Exercisers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030042
Received: 13 June 2019 / Revised: 27 June 2019 / Accepted: 27 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
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Abstract
The importance of warming up prior to sport competition has been highlighted in the scientific literature, with increasing attention paid to the benefits of mental warmups. The purpose of this research was to explore the possibility that a mental warmup may also benefit [...] Read more.
The importance of warming up prior to sport competition has been highlighted in the scientific literature, with increasing attention paid to the benefits of mental warmups. The purpose of this research was to explore the possibility that a mental warmup may also benefit exercisers. Two studies were conducted in which the effects of a mental warmup on the psychological readiness and psychological stress of exercisers were examined. Study 1 used a pretest–posttest design and Study 2 used an experimental pretest–posttest design, comparing mental warmup participants to a control group. In both studies, exercisers were assessed before and after they completed a prerecorded mental warmup that consisted of goal setting, imagery, and arousal control. Overall, the results showed that completing a mental warmup increased exercisers’ readiness to exercise and to use mental skills to enhance workouts. The mental warmup also reduced stress. These findings suggest that mental warmup strategies that facilitate readiness for sport performance may have utility in exercise settings. Future research exploring the applicability of a mental warmup in diverse settings, as a stress reduction, and as a potential injury reduction intervention is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
Open AccessReview
The Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Recovery Following Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030041
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 26 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise evaluating recovery were considered for investigation. The main outcomes took into account biological, physical and cognitive measures. Multiple trained researchers independently screened eligible studies according to the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results: A total of 12 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis: 10 included at least one measure of biological function, 10 included at least one measure of physical function and one included measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption following resistance exercise doesn’t seem to be a modulating factor for creatine kinase, heart rate, lactate, blood glucose, estradiol, sexual hormone binding globulin, leukocytes and cytokines, C-reactive protein and calcium. Force, power, muscular endurance, soreness and rate of perceived exertion are also unmodified following alcohol consumption during recovery. Cortisol levels seemed to be increased while testosterone, plasma amino acids, and rates of muscle protein synthesis decreased. Full article
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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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