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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2019) – 26 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Research has shown that when tendon tissue is exposed to high levels of strain (such as with [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Improvement in Muscular Strength in HIV-Infected Individuals Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030066 - 14 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1183
Abstract
Purpose: This study investigated (1) the effect of a progressive resistance training (PRT) program and whey protein intake on maximal muscle strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) alterations in maximal strength 12 wks after the cessation [...] Read more.
Purpose: This study investigated (1) the effect of a progressive resistance training (PRT) program and whey protein intake on maximal muscle strength in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) alterations in maximal strength 12 wks after the cessation of PRT with continued supplementation. Methods: Sixty HIV-infected individuals were recruited. Whole body PRT was performed twice weekly for 12 wks. Participants received, in a double-blind placebo controlled manner, either 20 g whey or placebo (maltodextrin) before and immediately after each session. Both PRT groups continued to take either whey protein or placebo for a further 12 wks following the exercise intervention to examine the effects of detraining. Results: Forty participants (mean and standard deviation (SD) age 40.8 (±7.7) years, weight 70.8 (±16) kg, body mass index (BMI) 30.9 (±7.2) kg m2); whey protein /PRT (n = 13), placebo/PRT (n = 17), and a control group (n = 10) completed the study. A significant main effect for time occurred for the bench press (p = 0.02), the squat (p < 0.0001), the deadlift (p = 0.001) and the shoulder press (p = 0.02) one-repetition maximum (1RM) in the intervention groups. Conclusion: The PRT program increased maximal strength regardless of whey protein intake. The detraining period demonstrated minimal strength loss, which is beneficial to this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Open AccessArticle
Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity Levels Differ between Week and Weekend Days in British Preschool Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030065 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 926
Abstract
Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend [...] Read more.
Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Rest Position on Morphology of the Vastus Lateralis and Its Relationship with Lower-Body Strength and Power
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030064 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 980
Abstract
Ultrasonography of the lower body typically encompasses supine rest due to fluid shifts affecting tissue size and composition. However, vastus lateralis (VL) examination is completed in the lateral recumbent position, and this positional change may influence morphology and its ability to predict function. [...] Read more.
Ultrasonography of the lower body typically encompasses supine rest due to fluid shifts affecting tissue size and composition. However, vastus lateralis (VL) examination is completed in the lateral recumbent position, and this positional change may influence morphology and its ability to predict function. This study aimed to examine the effect of position on VL morphology and its relationship with lower-body performance. Cross-sectional area (CSA), muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PA), echo intensity (UnCorEI), subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness (SFT), and echo intensity corrected for SFT (CorEI) were assessed in 31 resistance-trained males (23.0 ± 2.1 yrs; 1.79 ± 0.08 m; 87.4 ± 11.7 kg) immediately after transitioning from standing to supine (IP), after 15 min of standing (ST), and after 15 min of rest in three recumbent positions: supine (SUP), dominant lateral recumbent (DLR), non-dominant lateral recumbent (NDLR). Participants also completed unilateral vertical jumps, isometric/isokinetic tests, and a one-repetition maximum leg press. CSA, MT, PA, and SFT were greater in ST compared to NDLR, DLR, and SUP (p < 0.05). CSA, UnCorEI, and CorEI were different between recumbent positions; however no differences were observed for MT, PA, and SFT. Different magnitudes of relationships were observed between muscle morphological characteristics measured after rest in different positions and performance variables. Muscle morphology in IP generally appears to be the best predictor of performance for most variables, although utilizing the NDLR and DLR positions may provide comparable results, whereas morphology measured in ST and SUP provide weaker relationships with physical performance. IP also requires less time and fewer requirements on the technician and subject, thus researchers should consider this positioning for VL examination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Functional Anatomy)
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Open AccessArticle
Elastics Selector Gauge as Orthodontics Device Applied to Inter-Maxillary Traction during Malocclusion Correction
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030063 - 26 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1450
Abstract
Elastics are the simplest device that can be used during a class correction in orthodontics, and despite the simplicity of a latex band, they are very effective and powerful. The resultant inter-maxillary force affects not only the teeth, but even the mandibular position, [...] Read more.
Elastics are the simplest device that can be used during a class correction in orthodontics, and despite the simplicity of a latex band, they are very effective and powerful. The resultant inter-maxillary force affects not only the teeth, but even the mandibular position, and consequently the temporomandibular joints (TMJ). The purpose of our work is to simplify the use of elastics, and to reduce the amount of inventory for orthodontists, because there is a lot of merceology available on the market, and different ways of using the elastics. The use of elastics in clinical practice is based on the force extension values, which are given by the manufacturer for the different sizes of the elastics, generally when they are stretched to three times their lumen size. Various configurations allow for the correction of different malocclusions. We propose a new classification and a new device, the elastic selector gauge, in order to allow clinicians to quickly and easily choose the right elastic in all conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
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Open AccessReview
Changes in Fat Mass Following Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training in Adults ≥50 Years of Age: A Meta-Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030062 - 23 Aug 2019
Viewed by 4716
Abstract
Aging is associated with an increase in fat mass which increases the risk for disease, morbidity and premature mortality. Creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training has been shown to increase lean tissue mass in adults ≥50 years of age; however, the synergetic [...] Read more.
Aging is associated with an increase in fat mass which increases the risk for disease, morbidity and premature mortality. Creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training has been shown to increase lean tissue mass in adults ≥50 years of age; however, the synergetic effects of creatine and resistance training on fat mass in this population are unclear. Creatine metabolism plays an important role in adipose tissue bioenergetics and energy expenditure. Thus, the combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may decrease fat mass more than resistance training alone. The purpose of this review is two-fold: (1) to perform meta-analyses on studies involving creatine supplementation during resistance training on fat mass in adults ≥50 years of age, and (2) to discuss possible mechanistic actions of creatine on reducing fat mass. Nineteen studies were included in our meta-analysis with 609 participants. Results from the meta-analyses showed that adults ≥50 years of age who supplemented with creatine during resistance training experienced a greater reduction in body fat percentage (0.55%, p = 0.04) compared to those on placebo during resistance training. Despite no statistical difference (p = 0.13), adults supplementing with creatine lost ~0.5 kg more fat mass compared to those on placebo. Interestingly, there are studies which have linked mechanism(s) explaining how creatine may influence fat mass, and these data are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Eccentric Overload Flywheel Training in Older Adults
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030061 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1503
Abstract
Age-related reductions in muscle strength and muscle power can have significant adverse effects on functional performance in older adults. Exercise training has been shown to be a potent stimulus for improvements in strength and power. However, investigation into how to best optimize training-related [...] Read more.
Age-related reductions in muscle strength and muscle power can have significant adverse effects on functional performance in older adults. Exercise training has been shown to be a potent stimulus for improvements in strength and power. However, investigation into how to best optimize training-related adaptations, as well as the accessibility of training methods, is needed. Traditional (TR) methods using gravity-dependent free-weights or weight machines can improve and maintain strength and power but are limited in their ability to provide constant muscle tension and high levels of muscle activation throughout the lowering (eccentric) phase of lifting. Eccentric overload (EO) training may overcome these limitations and has been shown to result in potent adaptations in both young and older adults. Methods of producing EO are significantly limited from a practical perspective. The addition of whole-body flywheel training equipment provides a practical method of producing EO and may be appropriate for older adults wanting to optimize training outcomes. Our review provides limited evidence of the use of eccentric overload flywheel training as a novel training method in seniors. Through the review of literature, EO training overcame some of the limitations set forth by traditional resistance training and demonstrated to have key benefits when combating age-related changes affecting muscle strength and muscle power. It can be concluded that EO training is an important addition to the training arsenal for older adults. Flywheel training provides a practical method of achieving EO, increasing strength and power, combating age-related adaptations, and overall improving quality of life in older adults. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Tendon Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise and the Implications for Older Adults
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030060 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The purpose of this short review is to discuss the effects of eccentric exercise in modifying the properties of tendon tissue in healthy individuals. The tendon provides a mechanical link between muscle and bone, allowing force transmission to the skeleton, and thus, its [...] Read more.
The purpose of this short review is to discuss the effects of eccentric exercise in modifying the properties of tendon tissue in healthy individuals. The tendon provides a mechanical link between muscle and bone, allowing force transmission to the skeleton, and thus, its properties have significant functional implications. Chronic resistance training has long been shown to increase the stiffness and Young’s modulus of the tendon and even tendon cross-sectional area. However, as the tendon responds to the amount and/or frequency of strain, it has been previously suggested that eccentric training may result in greater adaptations due to the potential for greater training loads. Thus, this review discusses the effects of eccentric training upon healthy tendon tissue and compares these to other training modalities. Furthermore, it has been reported that the tendon may undergo adverse age-related changes. Thus, this review also discusses the potential application of eccentric resistance training as a preferential modality for counteracting these age-related changes. We conclude that while there may be no difference between contraction types for overall tendon adaptation, the lower demands of eccentric contractions may make it more appealing for the elderly population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Recreational Swimming on the Health of Students with Poor Somatic Health in Physical Education Classes at University
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030059 - 20 Aug 2019
Viewed by 723
Abstract
Background: The physical education of students who have a deviation in their state of health requires a joint effort from teachers and doctors. Aim: The aim of the study was to substantiate the necessity of swimming classes as an effective means of physical [...] Read more.
Background: The physical education of students who have a deviation in their state of health requires a joint effort from teachers and doctors. Aim: The aim of the study was to substantiate the necessity of swimming classes as an effective means of physical rehabilitation in students with health disorders within the physical education curriculum classes. Methods: Students with low-level somatic health (54 students) were grouped into the Basic Group (BG, 27 students) and the Control Group (CG, 27 students). The Basic Group students were offered special swimming classes aimed at their physical rehabilitation. At the beginning of the study and after 24 training classes the authors assessed the somatic health, physical and mental endurance, and adaptation abilities of the autonomic nervous system. Results: Implementation of the method into the curriculum of the BG students resulted in a significant improvement (by 48.1%) of their somatic health. A reliable re-distribution of the students with “poor” and “lower than average” somatic health to the “average” and “higher than average” health group was noted (p < 0.05). The students’ physical characteristics improved by 36.4%. Conclusion: The conducted research proved the necessity of using sectional swimming activities as a means of physical rehabilitation of students with low health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Physical Activity on Health)
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Open AccessReview
TMJ Dysfunctions Systemic Implications and Postural Assessments: A Review of Recent Literature
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030058 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5114
Abstract
Cases of correlations between posture and the temporomandibular joint have long been reported in the literature. In particular, occlusal anomalies, and therefore malocclusion, could have negative implications for the spine. The objective of this study was to review the literature and bring to [...] Read more.
Cases of correlations between posture and the temporomandibular joint have long been reported in the literature. In particular, occlusal anomalies, and therefore malocclusion, could have negative implications for the spine. The objective of this study was to review the literature and bring to light any correlations between temporomandibular joints (TMJ) and posturology. The literature search was conducted in the PubMed and Embase scientific search engines with the aim of obtaining the most possible results in the initial search, the number of results initially obtained was 263. Subsequently, the inclusion and exclusion criteria were reduced first to 83 and subsequently to manual analysis of the articles, those included remained only 11. The results show a correlation between anomalies of the TMJ and dysfunctions of the vertebral column. Not all the articles considered are in agreement with each other regarding epidemiological data, but surely this study can represent an important starting point for a much more careful evaluation of the dental patient and at the same time for the request for counseling by a dentist in case of postural abnormalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
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Open AccessReview
Sport Intervention Programs (SIPs) to Improve Health and Social Inclusion in People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030057 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
Inactivity is a major issue that causes physical and psychological health problems, especially in people with intellectual disability (ID). This review discusses the beneficial effects of sport intervention programs (SIPs) in people with ID, and aims to provide an overview of the scientific [...] Read more.
Inactivity is a major issue that causes physical and psychological health problems, especially in people with intellectual disability (ID). This review discusses the beneficial effects of sport intervention programs (SIPs) in people with ID, and aims to provide an overview of the scientific literature in order to identify the main factors influencing the participation of people with ID in SIPs. Twelve papers were analyzed and compared. The results show a large variety in examined SIPs, concerning participants’ age and disability, intervention characteristics and context, as well as measures and findings. The main factors essential for people with ID partaking in SIPs appeared to be suitable places for the SIP development, adequate implementation of physical activity (PA) programs in school and extra-school contexts, education, and the training of teachers and instructors. The literature review highlights the relevance of using SIPs in order to improve physical and psychological health, as well as increase social inclusion in populations with ID. SIPs should be included in multifactor intervention programs. Nevertheless, the need is recognized for stakeholders to adopt specific practice and policy in promoting social inclusion in order to organize intervention strategies which are able to provide quality experiences in sport and physical activity for people with ID. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations between Perceptual Fatigue and Accuracy of Estimated Repetitions to Failure during Resistance Exercises
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030056 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1060
Abstract
The ability to accurately identify proximity to momentary failure during a set of resistance exercise might be important to maximise training adaptations. This study examined the association between perceptual fatigue and the accuracy of the estimated repetitions to failure (ERF). Twenty-seven males and [...] Read more.
The ability to accurately identify proximity to momentary failure during a set of resistance exercise might be important to maximise training adaptations. This study examined the association between perceptual fatigue and the accuracy of the estimated repetitions to failure (ERF). Twenty-seven males and eleven females performed sets of 10 repetitions at specific loads for the chest press and leg-press. Following the completion of 10 repetitions, participants rated their fatigue and ERF and then proceeded to concentric failure (actual repetitions to failure) to determine the ERF accuracy (i.e., error-ERF). Small correlations were found between perceptual fatigue and error-ERF for the chest-press (r = −0.26, p = 0.001) and the leg-press (r = −0.18, p = 0.013). For actual repetitions to failure and error-ERF, a strong correlation was found for the chest-press (r = 0.68, p < 0.001) and a very strong correlation was foundfor the leg-press (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). Moderate correlations were found between perceptual fatigue and actual repetitions to failure for the chest-press (r = −0.42, p < 0.001) and leg-press (r = −0.40, p < 0.001). Overall, findings suggest that the accuracy of the estimated repetitions to failure is more strongly associated with proximity to task repetition failure rather than subjective feelings of fatigue. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Implementing Eccentric Resistance Training—Part 2: Practical Recommendations
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030055 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6238
Abstract
The purpose of this review is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with recommendations on how best to implement tempo eccentric training (TEMPO), flywheel inertial training (FIT), accentuated eccentric loading (AEL), and plyometric training (PT) into resistance training programs that seek to improve [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review is to provide strength and conditioning practitioners with recommendations on how best to implement tempo eccentric training (TEMPO), flywheel inertial training (FIT), accentuated eccentric loading (AEL), and plyometric training (PT) into resistance training programs that seek to improve an athlete’s hypertrophy, strength, and power output. Based on the existing literature, TEMPO may be best implemented with weaker athletes to benefit positional strength and hypertrophy due to the time under tension. FIT may provide an effective hypertrophy, strength, and power stimulus for untrained and weaker individuals; however, stronger individuals may not receive the same eccentric (ECC) overload stimulus. Although AEL may be implemented throughout the training year to benefit hypertrophy, strength, and power output, this strategy is better suited for stronger individuals. When weaker and stronger individuals are exposed to PT, they are exposed to an ECC overload stimulus as a result of increases in the ECC force and ECC rate of force development. In conclusion, when choosing to utilize ECC training methods, the practitioner must integrate these methods into a holistic training program that is designed to improve the athlete’s performance capacity. Full article
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Open AccessBrief Report
Focal Neuropathy Mimicking Focal Dystonia in a Child: Diagnostic and Rehabilitative Tools
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030054 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 739
Abstract
Object: Focal neuropathy results from an injury of any etiology that occurs in a peripheral nerve. The lesion may be followed by alteration of the sensory sphere (either dysesthesia or paresthesia with or without neuropathic pain), or by compensatory attitudes that are attributable [...] Read more.
Object: Focal neuropathy results from an injury of any etiology that occurs in a peripheral nerve. The lesion may be followed by alteration of the sensory sphere (either dysesthesia or paresthesia with or without neuropathic pain), or by compensatory attitudes that are attributable to the altered contraction in muscles that are innervated by the injured nerve. Methods: We describe the case of a 13-year-old boy who attended our hospital for a focal neuropathy of the radial nerve. Conclusion: This neuropathy was revealed after the removal of a plaster Zimmer splint that was applied following a post-traumatic subluxation of the metacarpal-trapezoid joint. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Movement & Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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Open AccessBrief Report
Assessing Individual Performance in Team Sports: A New Method Developed in Youth Volleyball
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030053 - 04 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1133
Abstract
Studying the role of individual differences in team sports performance is a challenge. The main problem is having an available measure of individual performance of each member of the team. In particular, in youth sports, where the level of specialization is reactively low, [...] Read more.
Studying the role of individual differences in team sports performance is a challenge. The main problem is having an available measure of individual performance of each member of the team. In particular, in youth sports, where the level of specialization is reactively low, it appears appropriate that this measure takes the entire performance of the athlete into consideration (i.e., that it assesses all of the athlete’s gestures), while maintaining an ecological validity criterion. Therefore, we devised and calculated an individual assessment measure in volleyball following the subsequent steps: Firstly, we video-recorded at least three volleyball games for each of the 114 youth volleyball players who participated in the study. Then, two independent expert observers evaluated each individual performance by attributing a score to every single gesture performed by the athletes during the games. The derived individual score was adjusted and controlled for the team performance measure, namely the result of each Set the athlete participated in (and for the amount of participation of the athlete to each game). The final measure of individual performance in volleyball proved to be reliable, showing a high level of interrater agreement (r = .841, p < .001) and a significant correlation with the amount of experience in volleyball (r = .173, p < .05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
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Open AccessArticle
Drive for Thinness Predicts Musculoskeletal Injuries in Division II NCAA Female Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030052 - 01 Aug 2019
Viewed by 801
Abstract
The female athlete triad is the interrelation of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Previously, the components of the female athlete triad have been linked to bone stress injuries. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship [...] Read more.
The female athlete triad is the interrelation of low energy availability, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density. Previously, the components of the female athlete triad have been linked to bone stress injuries. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between drive for thinness, a proxy indicator of low energy availability, and musculoskeletal injuries. Fifty-seven female athletes, from an NCAA Division II college, were followed throughout their respective sport season for musculoskeletal injuries. Women were grouped based on a median split of the drive for thinness score (high drive for thinness (DT) vs. low DT). At the end of each sport season, injury data were compiled using an electronic medical record database. Forty-seven of the 57 women (82%) incurred 90 musculoskeletal injuries. The most prevalent injuries included: Low back pain/spasm/strain (n = 12), followed by shin splints/medial tibial stress syndrome (n = 9), general knee pain (n = 7), quadriceps strain (n = 6), and knee sprain (anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, and lateral collateral ligament sprains; n = 5). The number of in-season injuries in the High DT group (2.0 ± 0.3) was significantly higher than the Low DT group (1.2 ± 0.2, p = 0.026). A high drive for thinness is associated with an increased number of injuries during the competitive season. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropometric Obesity Indices, Body Fat Percentage, and Grip Strength in Young Adults with different Physical Activity Levels
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030051 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1044
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to determine whether moderately physically active (MPA) and highly physically active (HPA) male (n = 96, age = 22.5 ± 1.7 years) and female (n = 85, age = 21.3 ± 1.6 years) young adults [...] Read more.
The purposes of this study were to determine whether moderately physically active (MPA) and highly physically active (HPA) male (n = 96, age = 22.5 ± 1.7 years) and female (n = 85, age = 21.3 ± 1.6 years) young adults differed in their anthropometric obesity indices (AOIs), body fat percentage (BF%), and muscular strength, and also to examine the associations between physical activity level (PAL) and the abovementioned variables. Participants were measured for body height and weight, BF%, waist and hip circumferences, and maximal isometric grip strength. According to their PAL, estimated by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, they were assigned to MPA and HPA subgroups. Regardless of gender, results indicated that participants in the MPA groups had significantly higher values of body weight, waist and hip circumference, BF%, and BMI than participants in the HPA groups. No significant differences were found between physical activity groups in terms of grip strength. The AOIs and BF% were found to be significantly and negatively correlated with the PAL in both genders. In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that high habitual physical activity is associated with lower adiposity markers. However, the differences in the hand grip strength of the contrasting activity groups were negligible. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Relationships among Trait EI, Need Fulfilment, and Performance Strategies
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030050 - 31 Jul 2019
Viewed by 837
Abstract
Performance strategies used in sport have been the focus of many sport enhancement interventions, and are considered important factors for describing behavior in sport. Several studies have shown that both trait emotion intelligence (trait EI) and satisfaction of basic needs in sport are [...] Read more.
Performance strategies used in sport have been the focus of many sport enhancement interventions, and are considered important factors for describing behavior in sport. Several studies have shown that both trait emotion intelligence (trait EI) and satisfaction of basic needs in sport are relevant aspects of performance strategies used by athletes; however, it seems these two aspects were never tested concurrently, in an integrated framework. The aim of this study was to test a mediational model of psychological basic needs in the relationship between trait EI and performance strategies in sports. In a sample of 187 participants, aged between 16 and 25 years old (Mage = 20.55; SD = 3.39), instruments were administered to measure trait EI, satisfaction of basic needs, and performance strategies in sport. Results of this study showed that trait EI was related to performance strategies in sport and to satisfaction of basic needs, as well as that satisfaction of basic needs was related to performance strategies in sport. Furthermore, satisfaction of basic needs has shown a mediational role in the relation between trait EI and performance strategies in sport. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
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Open AccessArticle
Contralateral Muscle Imbalances and Physiological Profile of Recreational Aerial Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030049 - 25 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1613
Abstract
Background: Aerial fitness is quickly gaining popularity; however, little is known regarding the physiological demands of aerial athletes. The purpose of the study was to examine contralateral muscle imbalances, compare dominant versus non-dominant hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios, and to establish a physiological profile of [...] Read more.
Background: Aerial fitness is quickly gaining popularity; however, little is known regarding the physiological demands of aerial athletes. The purpose of the study was to examine contralateral muscle imbalances, compare dominant versus non-dominant hamstrings-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratios, and to establish a physiological profile of recreational aerial athletes. Methods: Thirteen aerialist women visited a local aerial studio to participate in a data collection session to examine isometric levels of upper and lower body strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and cardiovascular fitness. Results: No significant differences were found between dominant and non-dominant hand grip strength (p = 0.077), dominant and non-dominant isometric knee flexion (p = 0.483), dominant and non-dominant isometric knee extension (p = 0.152), or dominant and non-dominant isometric H:Q ratios (p = 0.102). In addition, no significant difference was found between isometric dominant H:Q ratio and the widely-used value of 0.60 (p = 0.139). However, isometric non-dominant H:Q ratio was significantly lower than the 0.60 criterion (p = 0.004). Aerial athletes demonstrated to have excellent flexibility, balance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and average strength. Conclusions: Aerial fitness may be another recreational activity that could be used to maintain higher levels of flexibility, balance, cardiorespiratory fitness, and strength. Aerialists may want to consider focusing on strengthening the lower body and balancing the hamstrings and quadriceps muscle strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Strength and Reaction Time Capabilities of New Zealand Polo Players and Their Association with Polo Playing Handicap
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030048 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1248
Abstract
Polo is an equestrian team sport consisting of four players per team, with level of play determined by cumulative player handicap (−2 to +10 goals), with a higher handicap denoting a better player. There is minimal literature investigating Polo players’ physical attributes, hence [...] Read more.
Polo is an equestrian team sport consisting of four players per team, with level of play determined by cumulative player handicap (−2 to +10 goals), with a higher handicap denoting a better player. There is minimal literature investigating Polo players’ physical attributes, hence the understanding of the physical characteristics that may contribute to an improved handicap are unknown. This study sought to identify the relationship between pertinent strength measures (left and right hand grip strength; absolute and relative isometric mid-thigh pull) and reaction time in Polo handicap in 19 New Zealand Polo players, and ascertain whether handicap could be predicted by these measures. Correlation coefficients were expressed using R values, accompanying descriptors and 90% confidence intervals (C.I.). Variance explained was expressed via the R2 statistic, and statistical significance set at p < 0.05. Right hand grip strength, isometric mid-thigh pull values were found to significantly correlate to and explain variance within Polo player handicap (all moderate to large correlations; p < 0.05). Whereas left hand grip strength (R: 0.380; 90% C.I. −0.011 to 0.670) and reaction time (0.020; −0.372 to 0.406) were non-significant, moderate and trivial correlates and predictors of handicap respectively. Practically, these findings highlight the differing roles between rein and mallet hands of Polo players and emphasise the importance of a strong and stable platform when riding and striking the ball. Lack of association with reaction time may be explained in part by higher handicapped Polo players employing a more proactive approach to the game. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Strength and Conditioning)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of an Energy Drink on Psychomotor Vigilance in Trained Individuals
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030047 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1294
Abstract
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess [...] Read more.
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an energy drink on psychomotor vigilance as well as a simple measure of muscular endurance (i.e., push-ups). A total of 20 exercise-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 9) (mean ± SD: age 32 ± 7 years; height 169 ± 10 cm; weight; 74.5 ± 14.5 kg; percent body fat 20.3 ± 6.2%; years of training 14 ± 9; daily caffeine intake 463 ± 510 mg) volunteered for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. In a randomized counterbalanced order, they consumed either the energy drink (ED) (product: BANG®, Weston Florida) or a similar tasting placebo drink (PL). In the second visit after a 1-week washout period, they consumed the alternate drink. A full 30 min post-consumption, they performed the following tests in this order: a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test, three sets of push-ups, followed once more by a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test. Reaction time was recorded. For the psychomotor vigilance test, lapses, false starts and efficiency score are also assessed. There were no differences between groups for the number of push-ups that were performed or the number of false starts during the psychomotor vigilance test. However, the ED treatment resulted in a significantly lower (i.e., faster) psychomotor vigilance mean reaction time compared to the PL (p = 0.0220) (ED 473.8 ± 42.0 milliseconds, PL 482.4 ± 54.0 milliseconds). There was a trend for the ED to lower the number of lapses (i.e., reaction time > 500 milliseconds) (p = 0.0608). The acute consumption of a commercially available ED produced a significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance in exercise-trained men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
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Open AccessReview
Conservative Treatment of Chronic Achilles Tendinopathy: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030046 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1365
Abstract
Achilles tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Athletes, runners and jumpers, and the sedentary are frequently affected. Numerous are the therapeutic choices to manage these kinds of disorders. The aim of this review is to analyze the available literature to document the up-to-date [...] Read more.
Achilles tendinopathy is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Athletes, runners and jumpers, and the sedentary are frequently affected. Numerous are the therapeutic choices to manage these kinds of disorders. The aim of this review is to analyze the available literature to document the up-to-date evidence on conservative management of Achilles tendinopathy. A systematic review of two medical electronic databases was performed by three independent authors, using the following inclusion criteria: conservative treatment consisted of pharmacologic, physical therapy without operative treatment, with more of 6 months symptoms and a minimum average of 6-months follow-up. Studies of any level of evidence, reporting clinical results, and dealing with Achilles tendinopathy and conservative treatment were searched for. A total of n = 1228 articles were found. At the end of the first screening, following the previously described selection criteria, we selected n = 94 articles eligible for full-text reading. Ultimately, after full-text reading and a reference list check, we selected n = 29 articles. Achilles tendinopathy is a frequent musculoskeletal disorder and several conservative treatments have been proposed, but no therapy is universally accepted, except for eccentric exercise training, which is the gold standard and a commonly used protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessArticle
Correlations between Malocclusion and Postural Anomalies in Children with Mixed Dentition
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030045 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1965
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between malocclusion and body posture anomalies. The original sample involved 127 children (45 males and 82 females) with mixed dentition. Clinical examination of oral cavity was performed by an orthodontist, who recorded [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between malocclusion and body posture anomalies. The original sample involved 127 children (45 males and 82 females) with mixed dentition. Clinical examination of oral cavity was performed by an orthodontist, who recorded molar and canine relationship, cross-bite, lower middle-line deviation, and centric relation (CR) considering mono or bilateral contacts in CR. Orthopedic examination of the body posture was clinically carried out by an orthopedist who detected anomalies such as scoliosis, false scoliosis or paramorphism, kyphosis and lordosis. Of the 127 subjects of the sample, 18 children were orthopedically normal, 80 patients had false scoliosis, 22 scoliosis and 7 showed kyphosis. In our study, we don’t consider the 7 patients with kyphosis for the exiguity of the sample; so, our analysis was performed on 120 children (42 males and 78 females). The results obtained revealed that the cross-bite was more frequent when scoliosis became worse. We also found that the relationship between left cross-bite and contralateral side of deviation of the curve of the spine in subjects with scoliosis is statistically significant (p = 0.002). Furthermore, the relationship between lower midline and contralateral side of deviation of the curve of the spine in patients with false scoliosis is statistically significant (p = 0.003). In conclusion, it seems that posture anomalies are correlated to cross-bite and mandible abnormal position. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
Open AccessArticle
Validation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measurements in Adolescents
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030044 - 13 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1408
Abstract
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important indicator of adolescent cardiovascular well-being and future cardiometabolic health but not always feasible to measure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the non-exercise test (NET) for adolescents against the Progressive Aerobic [...] Read more.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important indicator of adolescent cardiovascular well-being and future cardiometabolic health but not always feasible to measure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the non-exercise test (NET) for adolescents against the Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER®) and direct measures of VO2max as well as to examine the concurrent validity of the PACER® with a portable metabolic system (K4b2™). Forty-six adolescents (12–17 years) completed the NET prior to performing the PACER® while wearing the K4b2™. The obtained VO2max values were compared using linear regression, intra-class correlation (ICC), and Bland–Altman plots, and α was set at 0.05. The VO2max acquired directly from the K4b2™ was significantly correlated to the VO2max indirectly estimated from the NET (r = 0.73, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.53, ICC = 0.67). PACER® results were significantly related to the VO2max estimates from the NET (r = 0.81, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.65, ICC = 0.72). Direct measures from the K4b2™ were significantly correlated to the VO2max estimates from the PACER® (r = 0.87, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.75, ICC = 0.93). The NET is a valid measure of CRF in adolescents and can be used when an exercise test is not feasible. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Physical Exercise Is Confirmed to Reduce Low Back Pain Symptoms in Office Workers: A Systematic Review of the Evidence to Improve Best Practices in the Workplace
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030043 - 05 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1632
Abstract
This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of a physical exercise (PE) program on low back pain (LBP) symptoms of office workers and the modification of flexibility and range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, and quality of life (QoL). A literature research [...] Read more.
This systematic review aimed to analyze the effects of a physical exercise (PE) program on low back pain (LBP) symptoms of office workers and the modification of flexibility and range of motion (ROM), muscular strength, and quality of life (QoL). A literature research was performed on PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus from April to May 2018. The keyword “low back pain” was associated with “office worker” OR “VDT operators” OR “office employees” OR “workplace” AND “exercise”, OR “exercise therapy” OR “physical activity”. Inclusion criteria were a home- or work-based exercise protocol for office workers with LBP symptoms and pre- to post-intervention evaluation of LBP symptoms. Three researchers independently examined all abstracts. The modified Cochrane methodological quality criteria were used for quality assessment and 11 articles were included. Exercise protocols were performed from 6 weeks to 12 months, 1–5 day per week, lasting 10–60 min for each session. Physical Exercise in the workplace improved all the considered outcomes. The best improvement was recorded in supervised protocols and in video-supported protocols performed in the workplace. The effect may be generated with small duration sessions during the working day, with only 10–15 min of adapted exercise to be performed 3–5 days per week. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a Mental Warmup on the Workout Readiness and Stress of College Student Exercisers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030042 - 28 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1099
Abstract
The importance of warming up prior to sport competition has been highlighted in the scientific literature, with increasing attention paid to the benefits of mental warmups. The purpose of this research was to explore the possibility that a mental warmup may also benefit [...] Read more.
The importance of warming up prior to sport competition has been highlighted in the scientific literature, with increasing attention paid to the benefits of mental warmups. The purpose of this research was to explore the possibility that a mental warmup may also benefit exercisers. Two studies were conducted in which the effects of a mental warmup on the psychological readiness and psychological stress of exercisers were examined. Study 1 used a pretest–posttest design and Study 2 used an experimental pretest–posttest design, comparing mental warmup participants to a control group. In both studies, exercisers were assessed before and after they completed a prerecorded mental warmup that consisted of goal setting, imagery, and arousal control. Overall, the results showed that completing a mental warmup increased exercisers’ readiness to exercise and to use mental skills to enhance workouts. The mental warmup also reduced stress. These findings suggest that mental warmup strategies that facilitate readiness for sport performance may have utility in exercise settings. Future research exploring the applicability of a mental warmup in diverse settings, as a stress reduction, and as a potential injury reduction intervention is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
Open AccessReview
The Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Recovery Following Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030041 - 26 Jun 2019
Viewed by 2519
Abstract
Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise evaluating recovery were considered for investigation. The main outcomes took into account biological, physical and cognitive measures. Multiple trained researchers independently screened eligible studies according to the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results: A total of 12 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis: 10 included at least one measure of biological function, 10 included at least one measure of physical function and one included measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption following resistance exercise doesn’t seem to be a modulating factor for creatine kinase, heart rate, lactate, blood glucose, estradiol, sexual hormone binding globulin, leukocytes and cytokines, C-reactive protein and calcium. Force, power, muscular endurance, soreness and rate of perceived exertion are also unmodified following alcohol consumption during recovery. Cortisol levels seemed to be increased while testosterone, plasma amino acids, and rates of muscle protein synthesis decreased. Full article
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