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Open AccessArticle

The Effects of an Energy Drink on Psychomotor Vigilance in Trained Individuals

Exercise and Sport Science, NSU Florida, Davie, FL 33328, USA
School of Psychology and Sport Science, Anglia Ruskin University, East Road, Cambridge CB5 8DZ, UK
Psychology and Neuroscience, NSU Florida, Davie, FL 33328, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 47;
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 20 July 2019 / Accepted: 21 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
The psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) measures one’s behavioral alertness. It is a visual test that involves measuring the speed at which a person reacts to visual stimuli over a fixed time frame (e.g., 5 min). The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of an energy drink on psychomotor vigilance as well as a simple measure of muscular endurance (i.e., push-ups). A total of 20 exercise-trained men (n = 11) and women (n = 9) (mean ± SD: age 32 ± 7 years; height 169 ± 10 cm; weight; 74.5 ± 14.5 kg; percent body fat 20.3 ± 6.2%; years of training 14 ± 9; daily caffeine intake 463 ± 510 mg) volunteered for this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. In a randomized counterbalanced order, they consumed either the energy drink (ED) (product: BANG®, Weston Florida) or a similar tasting placebo drink (PL). In the second visit after a 1-week washout period, they consumed the alternate drink. A full 30 min post-consumption, they performed the following tests in this order: a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test, three sets of push-ups, followed once more by a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test. Reaction time was recorded. For the psychomotor vigilance test, lapses, false starts and efficiency score are also assessed. There were no differences between groups for the number of push-ups that were performed or the number of false starts during the psychomotor vigilance test. However, the ED treatment resulted in a significantly lower (i.e., faster) psychomotor vigilance mean reaction time compared to the PL (p = 0.0220) (ED 473.8 ± 42.0 milliseconds, PL 482.4 ± 54.0 milliseconds). There was a trend for the ED to lower the number of lapses (i.e., reaction time > 500 milliseconds) (p = 0.0608). The acute consumption of a commercially available ED produced a significant improvement in psychomotor vigilance in exercise-trained men and women. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; exercise; attention; focus; performance caffeine; exercise; attention; focus; performance
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Antonio, J.; Kenyon, M.; Horn, C.; Jiannine, L.; Carson, C.; Ellerbroek, A.; Roberts, J.; Peacock, C.; Tartar, J. The Effects of an Energy Drink on Psychomotor Vigilance in Trained Individuals. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4, 47.

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