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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2019)

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Open AccessLetter
Diagnostic Pathway and Clinical Significance of Premature Ventricular Beats (PVBs) in Trained Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV) Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040069 - 15 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Purpose: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents a common congenital cardiac disease (1–2%) normally compatible with sports activity. In the case of competitive sports, eligibility can be barred by the presence of symptoms, aortic valve dysfunction, or arrhythmias. This investigation of a large cohort [...] Read more.
Purpose: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents a common congenital cardiac disease (1–2%) normally compatible with sports activity. In the case of competitive sports, eligibility can be barred by the presence of symptoms, aortic valve dysfunction, or arrhythmias. This investigation of a large cohort of BAV athletes aims to verify the prevalence of premature ventricular beats (PVBs) found in the exercise test (ET) at the first sports medicine clinical evaluation. Methods: A sample of 356 BAV athletes, regularly examined over a period of 10 years at the Sports Medicine Center of the University of Florence, was retrospectively evaluated for arrhythmic events found in the first sports medicine check-up carried out. The athletes (321 M and 79 F), aged between 8–50 years (mean age 21.8 ± 11.6), practised sports at high dynamic cardiovascular intensity (mainly soccer, basketball, and athletics). Criteria for participation included a 2D echocardiography and ET conducted at 85% of maximal effort. Ventricular arrhythmic events were reported if found to be ≥3 at rest and/or during the exercise test and for subjects with any other cardiac or systemic structural diseases. Individuals aged >50 were excluded from the study. The selected participants were matched with a control group of 400 athletes with similar levels of training (age 20.0 ± 9.9) without BAV. Results: Only 25 (7.02%) of BAV athletes showed PVBs at the ET. A total of 403 single PVBs and four monomorphic couples were observed; a polymorphic pattern was present in only three athletes, and only five had exercise-induced PVBs at peak. None had acute events or major arrhythmias. The difference in PVBs prevalence in BAV athletes vs. controls (PVBs 6.25%) was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of PVBs is low in BAV athletes and appears not to differ from athletes without BAV. Despite this, the behaviour of PVBs at the ET should be considered for the major suspicion for arrhythmic events. More data in this field could optimize the cost/effectiveness ratio for eventual ECG Holter indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Overtraining and Exercise Addiction
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040068 - 30 Sep 2019
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We are glad to introduce the seventeenth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Overtraining and Exercise Addiction, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the seventeenth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Overtraining and Exercise Addiction, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessReview
Eccentric Training Interventions and Team Sport Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040067 - 27 Sep 2019
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Abstract
Eccentric resistance training has been shown to improve performance outcomes in a range of populations, making it a popular choice for practitioners. Evidence suggests that neuromuscular adaptations resulting from eccentric overload (EO) and accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) methods could benefit athletic populations competing [...] Read more.
Eccentric resistance training has been shown to improve performance outcomes in a range of populations, making it a popular choice for practitioners. Evidence suggests that neuromuscular adaptations resulting from eccentric overload (EO) and accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) methods could benefit athletic populations competing in team sports. The purpose of this review was to determine the effects of eccentric resistance training on performance qualities in trained male team sport athletes. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science in May 2019. The literature search resulted in 1402 initial articles, with 14 included in the final analysis. Variables related to strength, speed, power and change of direction ability were extracted and effect sizes were calculated with a correction for small sample size. Trivial, moderate and large effect sizes were reported for strength (−0.17 to 1.67), speed (−0.08 to 1.06), power (0.27 to 1.63) and change of direction (0.48 to 1.46) outcomes. Eccentric resistance training appears to be an effective stimulus for developing neuromuscular qualities in trained male team sport athletes. However, the range of effect sizes, testing protocols and training interventions suggest that more research is needed to better implement this type of training in athletic populations. Full article
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