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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2019) – 7 articles

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Open AccessArticle
The Physical Demands of NCAA Division I Women’s College Soccer
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040073 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 797
Abstract
Extensive research into women’s collegiate soccer is scarce, leaving gaps in the literature with little information available detailing the physical demands at different standards of play. Our purpose was to elucidate the physical demands of the Division I collegiate level and identify differences [...] Read more.
Extensive research into women’s collegiate soccer is scarce, leaving gaps in the literature with little information available detailing the physical demands at different standards of play. Our purpose was to elucidate the physical demands of the Division I collegiate level and identify differences between playing positions. Twenty-three field players were observed during four competitive seasons using 10-Hz GPS units (Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia). Descriptive statistics and 95% confidence intervals were used to determine group and position-specific physical demands. Linear mixed modelling (LMM) was used to compare attacker, midfielder, and defender position groups. Total distance, high-speed distance, and sprint distance were 9486 ± 300 m, 1014 ± 118 m, and 428 ± 70 m, respectively. Furthermore, attackers were observed to cover the greatest distance at all speeds compared to midfielders and defenders. Our findings suggest that the physical demands of Division I women’s soccer differ by position and appear lower compared to higher standards of play. Therefore, coaches and sports scientists responsible for the physical training of Division I collegiate players should consider the specific physical demands of the collegiate level and playing position when prescribing training, as well as in the development of their annual training programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
Open AccessViewpoint
Breathing Signature as Vitality Score Index Created by Exercises of Qigong: Implications of Artificial Intelligence Tools Used in Traditional Chinese Medicine
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040071 - 03 Dec 2019
Viewed by 1240
Abstract
Rising concerns about the short- and long-term detrimental consequences of administration of conventional pharmacopeia are fueling the search for alternative, complementary, personalized, and comprehensive approaches to human healthcare. Qigong, a form of Traditional Chinese Medicine, represents a viable alternative approach. Here, we started [...] Read more.
Rising concerns about the short- and long-term detrimental consequences of administration of conventional pharmacopeia are fueling the search for alternative, complementary, personalized, and comprehensive approaches to human healthcare. Qigong, a form of Traditional Chinese Medicine, represents a viable alternative approach. Here, we started with the practical, philosophical, and psychological background of Ki (in Japanese) or Qi (in Chinese) and their relationship to Qigong theory and clinical application. Noting the drawbacks of the current state of Qigong clinic, herein we propose that to manage the unique aspects of the Eastern ‘non-linearity’ and ‘holistic’ approach, it needs to be integrated with the Western “linearity” “one-direction” approach. This is done through developing the concepts of “Qigong breathing signatures,” which can define our life breathing patterns associated with diseases using machine learning technology. We predict that this can be achieved by establishing an artificial intelligence (AI)-Medicine training camp of databases, which will integrate Qigong-like breathing patterns with different pathologies unique to individuals. Such an integrated connection will allow the AI-Medicine algorithm to identify breathing patterns and guide medical intervention. This unique view of potentially connecting Eastern Medicine and Western Technology can further add a novel insight to our current understanding of both Western and Eastern medicine, thereby establishing a vitality score index (VSI) that can predict the outcomes of lifestyle behaviors and medical conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessReview
The Biomechanics of Pregnancy: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040072 - 02 Dec 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1315
Abstract
During pregnancy, a number of biomechanical and hormonal changes occur that can alter spinal curvature, balance, and gait patterns by affecting key areas of the human body. This can greatly impact quality of life (QOL) by increasing back pain and the risk of [...] Read more.
During pregnancy, a number of biomechanical and hormonal changes occur that can alter spinal curvature, balance, and gait patterns by affecting key areas of the human body. This can greatly impact quality of life (QOL) by increasing back pain and the risk of falls. These effects are likely to be the ultimate result of a number of hormonal and biomechanical changes that occur during pregnancy. Research Question and Methodology: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, this systematic review sets out to analyse all available literature relating to the biomechanics factors caused by pregnancy and assess how this might reduce QOL. Fifty papers were deemed eligible for inclusion in this review based on the PUBMED and SCOPUS databases. Results: Angles of lordosis and kyphosis of the spine are significantly increased by pregnancy, but not consistently across all studies. Back pain is significantly increased in pregnant women, although this is not significantly correlated with spinal changes. Increased movements of centre of pressure (COP) and increased stability indexes indicate postural control is reduced in pregnancy. Trunk range of motion, hip flexion, and extension are reduced, as well as decreased stride length, decreased gait velocity, and increased step width; again, not consistently. It is likely that each woman adopts unique techniques to minimise the effects, for example increasing step width to improve balance. Further research should focus on how altered limb kinematics during gait might affect QOL by influencing the human body, as well as assessing parameters in all planes to develop a wider understanding of pregnant biomechanical alterations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gait and Posture)
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Open AccessReview
Eccentric Resistance Training in Youth: Perspectives for Long-Term Athletic Development
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040070 - 28 Nov 2019
Viewed by 1277
Abstract
The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the role of eccentric resistance training in youth and how this training modality can be utilized within long-term physical development. Current literature on responses to eccentric exercise in youth has demonstrated that potential concerns, [...] Read more.
The purpose of this narrative review is to discuss the role of eccentric resistance training in youth and how this training modality can be utilized within long-term physical development. Current literature on responses to eccentric exercise in youth has demonstrated that potential concerns, such as fatigue and muscle damage, compared to adults are not supported. Considering the importance of resistance training for youth athletes and the benefits of eccentric training in enhancing strength, power, speed, and resistance to injury, its inclusion throughout youth may be warranted. In this review we provide a brief overview of the physiological responses to exercise in youth with specific reference to the different responses to eccentric resistance training between children, adolescents, and adults. Thereafter, we discuss the importance of ensuring that force absorption qualities are trained throughout youth and how these may be influenced by growth and maturation. In particular, we propose practical methods on how eccentric resistance training methods can be implemented in youth via the inclusion of efficient landing mechanics, eccentric hamstrings strengthening and flywheel inertia training. This article proposes that the use of eccentric resistance training in youth should be considered a necessity to help develop both physical qualities that underpin sporting performance, as well as reducing injury risk. However, as with any other training modality implemented within youth, careful consideration should be given in accordance with an individual’s maturity status, training history and technical competency as well as being underpinned by current long-term physical development guidelines. Full article
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Open AccessLetter
Diagnostic Pathway and Clinical Significance of Premature Ventricular Beats (PVBs) in Trained Bicuspid Aortic Valve (BAV) Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040069 - 15 Oct 2019
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Purpose: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents a common congenital cardiac disease (1–2%) normally compatible with sports activity. In the case of competitive sports, eligibility can be barred by the presence of symptoms, aortic valve dysfunction, or arrhythmias. This investigation of a large cohort [...] Read more.
Purpose: Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) represents a common congenital cardiac disease (1–2%) normally compatible with sports activity. In the case of competitive sports, eligibility can be barred by the presence of symptoms, aortic valve dysfunction, or arrhythmias. This investigation of a large cohort of BAV athletes aims to verify the prevalence of premature ventricular beats (PVBs) found in the exercise test (ET) at the first sports medicine clinical evaluation. Methods: A sample of 356 BAV athletes, regularly examined over a period of 10 years at the Sports Medicine Center of the University of Florence, was retrospectively evaluated for arrhythmic events found in the first sports medicine check-up carried out. The athletes (321 M and 79 F), aged between 8–50 years (mean age 21.8 ± 11.6), practised sports at high dynamic cardiovascular intensity (mainly soccer, basketball, and athletics). Criteria for participation included a 2D echocardiography and ET conducted at 85% of maximal effort. Ventricular arrhythmic events were reported if found to be ≥3 at rest and/or during the exercise test and for subjects with any other cardiac or systemic structural diseases. Individuals aged >50 were excluded from the study. The selected participants were matched with a control group of 400 athletes with similar levels of training (age 20.0 ± 9.9) without BAV. Results: Only 25 (7.02%) of BAV athletes showed PVBs at the ET. A total of 403 single PVBs and four monomorphic couples were observed; a polymorphic pattern was present in only three athletes, and only five had exercise-induced PVBs at peak. None had acute events or major arrhythmias. The difference in PVBs prevalence in BAV athletes vs. controls (PVBs 6.25%) was not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of PVBs is low in BAV athletes and appears not to differ from athletes without BAV. Despite this, the behaviour of PVBs at the ET should be considered for the major suspicion for arrhythmic events. More data in this field could optimize the cost/effectiveness ratio for eventual ECG Holter indications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights on Recent Papers in Overtraining and Exercise Addiction
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040068 - 30 Sep 2019
Viewed by 865
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the seventeenth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Overtraining and Exercise Addiction, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the seventeenth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Overtraining and Exercise Addiction, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessReview
Eccentric Training Interventions and Team Sport Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(4), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4040067 - 27 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Eccentric resistance training has been shown to improve performance outcomes in a range of populations, making it a popular choice for practitioners. Evidence suggests that neuromuscular adaptations resulting from eccentric overload (EO) and accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) methods could benefit athletic populations competing [...] Read more.
Eccentric resistance training has been shown to improve performance outcomes in a range of populations, making it a popular choice for practitioners. Evidence suggests that neuromuscular adaptations resulting from eccentric overload (EO) and accentuated eccentric loading (AEL) methods could benefit athletic populations competing in team sports. The purpose of this review was to determine the effects of eccentric resistance training on performance qualities in trained male team sport athletes. A systematic review was conducted using electronic databases PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science in May 2019. The literature search resulted in 1402 initial articles, with 14 included in the final analysis. Variables related to strength, speed, power and change of direction ability were extracted and effect sizes were calculated with a correction for small sample size. Trivial, moderate and large effect sizes were reported for strength (−0.17 to 1.67), speed (−0.08 to 1.06), power (0.27 to 1.63) and change of direction (0.48 to 1.46) outcomes. Eccentric resistance training appears to be an effective stimulus for developing neuromuscular qualities in trained male team sport athletes. However, the range of effect sizes, testing protocols and training interventions suggest that more research is needed to better implement this type of training in athletic populations. Full article
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