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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 4, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Within the last few decades, there has been a massive increase in the amount of technological [...] Read more.
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Open AccessEditorial
Promoting Physical Exercise Participation: The Role of Interpersonal Behaviors for Practical Implications
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020040
Received: 7 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
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Abstract
The number of people engaging in physical exercise has been decreasing every year. These behaviors are known to be related with non-communicable chronic diseases and to drastically increase premature morbidity and mortality. Since “the lack of motivation” has been pointed out as one [...] Read more.
The number of people engaging in physical exercise has been decreasing every year. These behaviors are known to be related with non-communicable chronic diseases and to drastically increase premature morbidity and mortality. Since “the lack of motivation” has been pointed out as one of the main reasons for not engaging in physical exercise, several theoretical and empirical studies have been conducted aimed at understanding what influences behavior regulation. According to literature, gym exercisers who perceive exercise instructors as supportive are more likely to maintain physical exercise participation over the long-run. Supporting autonomy, competence, and relatedness should be carefully considered when interacting with health club clients as a way to promote more autonomous motivation. Overall, it seems that exercise instructors should foster a supportive environment for gym exercisers, in order to encourage exercise as a habitual behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Physical Activity on Health)
Open AccessArticle
Acute Cardiometabolic Responses to Multi-Modal Integrative Neuromuscular Training in Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020039
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
Integrative neuromuscular training (INT) has emerged as an effective strategy for improving health- and skill-related components of physical fitness, yet few studies have explored the cardiometabolic demands of this type of training in children. The aim of this study was to examine the [...] Read more.
Integrative neuromuscular training (INT) has emerged as an effective strategy for improving health- and skill-related components of physical fitness, yet few studies have explored the cardiometabolic demands of this type of training in children. The aim of this study was to examine the acute cardiometabolic responses to a multi-modal INT protocol and to compare these responses to a bout of moderate-intensity treadmill (TM) walking in children. Participants (n = 14, age 10.7 ± 1.1 years) were tested for peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak heart rate (HR) on a maximal TM test and subsequently participated in two experimental conditions on nonconsecutive days: a 12-min INT protocol of six different exercises performed twice for 30 s with a 30 s rest interval between sets and exercises and a 12-min TM protocol of walking at 50% VO2peak. Throughout the INT protocol mean VO2 and HR increased significantly from 14.9 ± 3.6 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 (28.2% VO2 peak) to 34.0 ± 6.4 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 (64.3% VO2 peak) and from 121.1 ± 9.0 bpm (61.0% HR peak) to 183.5 ± 7.9 bpm (92.4% HR peak), respectively. While mean VO2 for the entire protocol did not differ between INT and TM, mean VO2 and HR during selected INT exercises and mean HR for the entire INT protocol were significantly higher than TM (all Ps ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that INT can pose a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children and selected INT exercises can be equal to or more metabolically challenging than TM walking. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Implementing Eccentric Resistance Training—Part 1: A Brief Review of Existing Methods
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020038
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 20 June 2019 / Accepted: 21 June 2019 / Published: 24 June 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this review was to provide a physiological rationale for the use of eccentric resistance training and to provide an overview of the most commonly prescribed eccentric training methods. Based on the existing literature, there is a strong physiological rationale for [...] Read more.
The purpose of this review was to provide a physiological rationale for the use of eccentric resistance training and to provide an overview of the most commonly prescribed eccentric training methods. Based on the existing literature, there is a strong physiological rationale for the incorporation of eccentric training into a training program for an individual seeking to maximize muscle size, strength, and power. Specific adaptations may include an increase in muscle cross-sectional area, force output, and fiber shortening velocities, all of which have the potential to benefit power production characteristics. Tempo eccentric training, flywheel inertial training, accentuated eccentric loading, and plyometric training are commonly implemented in applied contexts. These methods tend to involve different force absorption characteristics and thus, overload the muscle or musculotendinous unit in different ways during lengthening actions. For this reason, they may produce different magnitudes of improvement in hypertrophy, strength, and power. The constraints to which they are implemented can have a marked effect on the characteristics of force absorption and therefore, could affect the nature of the adaptive response. However, the versatility of the constraints when prescribing these methods mean that they can be effectively implemented to induce these adaptations within a variety of populations. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Concussion in Sports
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020037
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 6 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 June 2019 / Published: 19 June 2019
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Abstract
Concussion, a peculiar type of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is an injury frequently encountered in various contact and noncontact sports, such as boxing, martial arts, American football, rugby, soccer, ice hockey, horse riding, and alpine skiing. Concussion occurs anytime external forces of [...] Read more.
Concussion, a peculiar type of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is an injury frequently encountered in various contact and noncontact sports, such as boxing, martial arts, American football, rugby, soccer, ice hockey, horse riding, and alpine skiing. Concussion occurs anytime external forces of specific intensities provoke acceleration–deceleration of the brain, and it is characterized by the rapid onset of short-lived impairment of neurologic functions, spontaneously resolving within weeks, persisting for longer times only in a small percentage of cases. A wide range of molecular alterations, including mitochondrial dysfunction, energy deficit, and gene and protein expression changes, is triggered by concussion and lasts longer than clinical symptoms. In recent years, concussion has become a primary issue of discussion among sports medicine professionals, athletes, media, and sports sponsors in relation to athletes’ return to play, after a concussion. Continued improvement in prevention and management of concussed athletes requires extensive research from different disciplines. Research work needs to focus on both prevention and management. Researchers and clinicians’ efforts should be dedicated to a better understanding of the molecular changes occurring in the post-concussed brain and to clearly define healing after concussion for a safe return of athletes to play. It is essential for sports medicine professionals to stay informed about the advances in understanding concussions and how to rehabilitate each single player who sustained a concussion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—2nd Edition)
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Open AccessReview
Nordic Walking Promoted Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese People: A Systematic Review for Future Exercise Prescription
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020036
Received: 15 May 2019 / Revised: 11 June 2019 / Accepted: 12 June 2019 / Published: 18 June 2019
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Abstract
The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the effect of Nordic Walking (NW) on anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiovascular parameters, aerobic capacity, blood sample, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. The main keywords “Nordic Walking” or “Pole Walking”, associated [...] Read more.
The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the effect of Nordic Walking (NW) on anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiovascular parameters, aerobic capacity, blood sample, and glucose tolerance in overweight and obese subjects. The main keywords “Nordic Walking” or “Pole Walking”, associated with either “obese”, “obesity”, “overweight”, or “weight loss” were used on the online database MEDLINE, PubMed, SPORTDiscus and Scopus. Additionally, references of the studies included were screened to identify eligible articles. Applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, ten manuscripts were considered as eligible for this review. The results of the studies were categorized in several domains with regard to “anthropometric parameters and body composition”, “cardiovascular parameters and aerobic capacity”, and “blood sample and glucose tolerance”. The results showed positive effects on the anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiovascular parameters, blood sample, and glucose tolerance. The greatest improvements were observed in supervised and high weekly frequency of NW interventions. NW could be considered as an effective modality through which to involve the obese in physical activity. For weight loss, NW should be prescribed 4–5 times per week, at least 60 min per session, preferably combined with diet control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of the Bourban Trunk Muscle Strength Test Based on Electromyographic Parameters
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020035
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 7 June 2019 / Accepted: 10 June 2019 / Published: 17 June 2019
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Abstract
(1) Background: The importance of a strong and stable trunk musculature is well known, but there is a lack of reliable, valid and objective test batteries with the necessary test economy, practicability and cost-benefit ratio. The aim of the present study was to [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The importance of a strong and stable trunk musculature is well known, but there is a lack of reliable, valid and objective test batteries with the necessary test economy, practicability and cost-benefit ratio. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Bourban test for the validity of its exercise selection representing the ventral, right/left lateral and dorsal muscle chain. (2) Methods: 33 male sports students (24.1 ± 2.4 years, 181.6 ± 5.5 cm, 80.8 ± 7.3 kg) participated in the study. Median Frequency (MDF) and Mean Frequency (MNF) were calculated from the electromyographic signals and used to check whether fatigue of the suggested target musculature actually occurs during the different exercises and thus the exercise is representative for this part of the trunk. (3) Results: In all exercises significant fatigue was measured for MDF and MNF in the muscles working as agonists. (4) Conclusion: It can be stated that the Bourban trunk muscle strength test is a valid and economic test instrument for the evaluation of trunk strength (endurance). Compared to technically supported measuring systems, the Bourban test seems to be a flexible and cost-effective alternative for the broad mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessReview
Eccentric Exercise for Achilles Tendinopathy: A Narrative Review and Clinical Decision-Making Considerations
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020034
Received: 4 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 June 2019 / Published: 5 June 2019
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Abstract
Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a common health condition encountered in the orthopedic and sports medicine settings. Eccentric exercise is a common intervention in the management of pain and limited function for this patient population, although contemporary evidence suggests additional exercise methods may be [...] Read more.
Background: Achilles tendinopathy is a common health condition encountered in the orthopedic and sports medicine settings. Eccentric exercise is a common intervention in the management of pain and limited function for this patient population, although contemporary evidence suggests additional exercise methods may be effective as well. Study design: Narrative review: Methods: A literature review was performed using the electronic databases Pubmed and PEDRO for articles through February 2019. Randomized clinical trials integrating eccentric exercise, with or without co-interventions, were evaluated. Outcomes related to pain and/or function were considered. A patient case is provided to highlight decision making processes related to clinical prescription of eccentrics for Achilles tendinopathy. Results: After screening titles and abstracts, seven studies were included for full review. Two articles compared eccentric exercise to a control group, four compared eccentrics to the use of modalities, while one used eccentric exercise as part of a multimodal intervention. In each case, eccentric exercise was effective in reducing pain and improving function. In comparison to other forms of exercise or additional interventions, eccentric exercise was frequently not more effective than other options. Discussion: Eccentric exercise has been associated with clinical benefit in improving pain and function for patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Despite the available evidence reporting effectiveness of eccentrics, other options may be equally useful. Appropriate load modification and exercise prescription for patients with Achilles tendinopathy requires systematic clinical reasoning and incorporation of patient values to optimize outcomes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Sport Experience and Physical Activity: Event-Related Brain Potential and Task Performance Indices of Attention in Young Adults
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020033
Received: 14 May 2019 / Revised: 2 June 2019 / Accepted: 2 June 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
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Abstract
A growing body of literature demonstrates that engaging in sport regularly and maintaining an active lifestyle have a positive impact on cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sport experiences and physical activity on attention, and explore whether [...] Read more.
A growing body of literature demonstrates that engaging in sport regularly and maintaining an active lifestyle have a positive impact on cognition. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of sport experiences and physical activity on attention, and explore whether the type of sport can impact differently on the neuroelectric system using Event-Related Potentials (ERPs). Thirty-three young adults (mean age = 19.72 ± 1.25) were divided according to their sport experience into swimmers, karateka, and irregular exercisers. Participants performed auditory oddball tasks, while measures of task performance and ERPs were collected. The results indicated that exercisers, regardless of their sport experience, exhibited a larger and shorter P3 compared to irregular exercisers. However, no significant difference was observed in the reaction time (RT) between groups. No statistically significant differences in the RT and P3 were present between swimmers and karateka. These findings suggest that sport experiences, regardless of the type, are associated with a larger amount of neural attentional resources and faster stimulus evaluation speed. The results replicate previous studies that have reported improved cognitive functions in more active individuals. They further extended the current knowledge by indicating that both swimming and karate influence attention and do not differentially alter the brain response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Physical Activity on Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Cardiac Rehabilitation in Primary Care. Impact of an Intervention on Perceived Self-Efficacy
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020032
Received: 9 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
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Abstract
Cardiac rehabilitation is cost-effective and should be considered a part of the care system provided to patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction or another heart disease. The main variable to study was the scoring, prior to and after the intervention in the [...] Read more.
Cardiac rehabilitation is cost-effective and should be considered a part of the care system provided to patients who have suffered a myocardial infarction or another heart disease. The main variable to study was the scoring, prior to and after the intervention in the General Scale of Self-Efficacy by Baessler & Schwarzer. A clinical community trial that was open controlled and randomised was used. All adult subjects of both sexes who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation program for 12 months at the reference hospital were selected and offered to participate. The psychometric variables registered were the Salamanca screening questionnaire, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and the Beck Depression Inventory. Eighty-nine subjects accepted to participate in the study (93.89% response rate), with an average age of 63.01 years (SD 8.75). Once the study was concluded, the main outcome was a difference in means of 6.09 points in the General Scale of Self-Efficacy (p < 0.0053, 96% confidence interval—4.1950–10.29), showing that the group exposed to the intervention reached a higher score in the above-mentioned scale. However, there were no significant differences (t-student 0.1211; p = 0.943) after the estimation and contrast of population means for score differences between the groups regarding the Hamilton scale. Similarly, there were no significant differences between the groups regarding the means obtained in the variable score difference in the Beck Depression Inventory (t-student −0.1281; p = 0.8987). The results showed an increase in those scores related to general self-efficacy among the population that completed the intervention program, as compared to the control group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Importance of Physical Activity on Health)
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Open AccessReview
Relation between Weight Status, Physical activity, Maturation, and Functional Movement in Adolescence: An Overview
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020031
Received: 4 April 2019 / Revised: 16 May 2019 / Accepted: 29 May 2019 / Published: 30 May 2019
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Abstract
Obesity, low level of physical activity and dysfunctional movement patterns presents one of the leading health issues that can contribute to increased risk for developing not only metabolic and cardiovascular disease, but also musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this paper is to summarize [...] Read more.
Obesity, low level of physical activity and dysfunctional movement patterns presents one of the leading health issues that can contribute to increased risk for developing not only metabolic and cardiovascular disease, but also musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this paper is to summarize literature and evidence about relationship between functional movement (FM) patterns, physical activity (PA) level and weight status in average adolescent population. In addition, this paper summarized current evidence about relations between maturation effects and functional movement among athletic adolescent populations. Summary of current evidence suggests that decreased physical activity level is negatively correlated to functional movement in adolescence. Additionally, most studies suggest that weight status is negatively correlated to functional movement patterns although there is conflicting evidence in this area. Evidence consistently showed that overweight and obese adolescents exhibit poorer functional movement compared to normal weight adolescents. In addition, it appears that maturation has effects on functional movement in athletic populations of adolescents. It is therefore important that practitioners consider interventions which develop optimal functional movement alongside physical activity and weight management strategies in children, in order to reduce the risks of injuries and pathological abnormality arising from suboptimal movement patterns in later life. Full article
Open AccessReview
An Overview of the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Elbow Osteoarthritis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020030
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 29 May 2019
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Abstract
The elbow joint could be associated with degenerative processes of primary and post-traumatic aetiology. Among these, osteoarthritis may also be secondary to repeated use as well as trauma. Pain, discomfort and progressive loss of functionality are common signs of this condition. The evaluation [...] Read more.
The elbow joint could be associated with degenerative processes of primary and post-traumatic aetiology. Among these, osteoarthritis may also be secondary to repeated use as well as trauma. Pain, discomfort and progressive loss of functionality are common signs of this condition. The evaluation of elbow osteoarthritis should comprise an in-depth study to detect the primary cause of the illness and to facilitate the decision-making process regarding personalized treatment. Discordance between clinical manifestations and radiological findings is common. Conservative approaches may provide symptomatic relief in the early stages of disease for most patients. The goal of the treatment is to reduce pain and ensure an adequate range of motion and proper functioning of the joint while preserving the anatomical structure, to postpone elbow arthroplasty interventions for as long as possible. According to treatment guidelines, surgery should be considered depending on aetiology and severity, patient age, and functional demands. This narrative review aims to investigate the current literature regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of primary and post-traumatic arthritis of the elbow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—2nd Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Regional Differences in Mitochondrial Capacity in the Finger Flexors of Piano Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020029
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 15 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to measure oxidative capacity, but regional differences have not been identified. Piano players are also a novel group of subjects for this lab. Methods: Controls (n = 13) and piano players (n = 8) [...] Read more.
Background: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to measure oxidative capacity, but regional differences have not been identified. Piano players are also a novel group of subjects for this lab. Methods: Controls (n = 13) and piano players (n = 8) were tested in a seated position on the right forearm. A fatigue test was performed for three minutes at 2, 4 and 6 Hz using electrical stimulation, which created an endurance index (EI) as the forearm fatigued. A six-cuff oxidative capacity test was performed using manual exercise to activate the muscle and allow for regional specificity. A rate constant (Rc) was generated from the mitochondrial capacity data. Results: Overall, piano players (Rc = 1.76 ± 0.6) and controls (Rc = 1.17 ± 0.3) have significant differences for the last two fingers (p = 0.01). While controls have significant differences between the index (Rc = 1.86 ± 0.5) and last two fingers (Rc = 1.17 ± 0.3) (p = 0.001), this difference was not observed in piano players. Overall, piano players (EI = 75.7 ± 12.3) and controls (EI = 73.0 ± 17.3) had no differences in endurance index values (p = 0.71). Conclusions: Piano players have significant differences in the mitochondrial capacity of the finger flexors that control the last two fingers compared to controls. The lack of difference between groups in the index fingers and overall endurance test suggests playing the piano produces training adaptations to the finger flexor muscles of the last two digits, which are rarely used by control subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Interpretation of Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) Signals in Skeletal Muscle
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020028
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 23 May 2019 / Published: 26 May 2019
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Abstract
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) uses the relative absorption of light at 850 and 760 nm to determine skeletal muscle oxygen saturation. Previous studies have used the ratio of both signals to report muscle oxygen saturation. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study is to [...] Read more.
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) uses the relative absorption of light at 850 and 760 nm to determine skeletal muscle oxygen saturation. Previous studies have used the ratio of both signals to report muscle oxygen saturation. Purpose: The purpose of this pilot study is to assess the different approaches used to represent muscle oxygen saturation and to evaluate the pulsations of oxygenated hemoglobin/myoglobin (O2heme) and deoxygenated hemoglobin/myoglobin (Heme) signals. Method: Twelve participants, aged 20–29 years, were tested on the forearm flexor muscles using continuous-wave NIRS at rest. Measurements were taken during 2–3 min rest, physiological calibration (5 min ischemia), and reperfusion. Ten participants were included in the study analysis. Results: There was a significant difference in pulse size between O2heme and Heme signals at the three locations (p < 0.05). Resting oxygen saturation was 58.8% + 9.2%, 69.6% + 3.9%, and 89.2% + 6.9% when calibrated using O2heme, the tissue oxygenation/saturation index (TSI), and Heme, respectively. Conclusion: The difference in magnitude of O2heme and Heme pulses with each heartbeat might suggest different anatomical locations of these signals, for which calibrating with just one of the signals instead of the ratio of both is proposed. Calculations of physiological calibration must account for increased blood volume in the tissue because of the changes in blood volume, which appear to be primarily from the O2heme signal. Resting oxygen levels calibrated with Heme agree with theoretical oxygen saturation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Musculoskeletal Disorders)
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Open AccessCase Report
Influence of a Specific Aquatic Program on Social and Gross Motor Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Three Case Reports
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020027
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 21 May 2019 / Accepted: 22 May 2019 / Published: 24 May 2019
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Abstract
Swimming pool activities revealed to be efficacious to train psychomotor skills and increase adaptive behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a specific multi-systemic aquatic therapy (CI-MAT) on gross motor [...] Read more.
Swimming pool activities revealed to be efficacious to train psychomotor skills and increase adaptive behaviors in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a specific multi-systemic aquatic therapy (CI-MAT) on gross motor and social skills in three adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Methods: three adolescents with ASD of which two boys (M1 with a chronological age of 10.3 years and a mental age of 4.7 years; M2 with a chronological age of 14.6 and a mental age inferior to 4 years) and one girl (chronological age of 14.0 and a mental age inferior to 4 years). The study was divided into three phases: baseline, 12-week CI-MAT program and Post-Test. Participants were administered a battery of tests incorporating anthropometric measurements, gross motor development test and a social skills questionnaire before and after a 12-week MAT-CI program. Results: Subjects improved locomotors and object control skills following the CI-MAT program in a different way. Concerning social behaviors, the higher proportion of gains was observed in the sensitivity of other’s presence and eye contact, for the contact domain, and in the comply turn for the relationship domain. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that the CI-MAT program was effective for the development of gross-motor skills and social behaviors in subjects with ASD. Moreover there is an urge to carry out a whole psychological assessment targeting both motor and adaptive development suitable to provide educational and vocational plans of exercises for people with ASD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
Open AccessArticle
Comparison between Surgical and Conservative Treatment for Distal Radius Fractures in Patients over 65 Years
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020026
Received: 12 April 2019 / Revised: 6 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
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Abstract
Background: Fractures of the distal radius (DRF) are the most common orthopedic injuries, representing one of the typical fractures indicating underlying osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to compare conservative and surgical treatment, analyzing quality of life and clinical outcome in an [...] Read more.
Background: Fractures of the distal radius (DRF) are the most common orthopedic injuries, representing one of the typical fractures indicating underlying osteoporosis. The aim of the study was to compare conservative and surgical treatment, analyzing quality of life and clinical outcome in an over 65 years old population. Methods: Ninety one patients were divided into two groups: the ORIF group (39 patients) underwent surgery, and the conservative group (52 patients) was treated conservatively. The clinical and functional outcomes of all patients were evaluated using Short Form 36 (SF36), Modified Mayo Wrist Score (MMWS), Disability of the Arm Shoulder Hand (DASH), and Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Range of motion at the joint was measured and compared with the contralateral healthy wrist. Results: No significant difference was found between the overall SF36 score, DASH score, MMWS, and VAS results. Role limitation was significantly better in the surgical group (p < 0.05), and complication incidence was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the conservative group. Conclusion: The results of this study conform to recent literature, suggesting that a surgical reconstruction of the radius articular surface in an elderly population provides no clear clinical advantage. Treatment decisions must arise from careful diagnoses of the fracture and communication with the patient. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Development of a Personalised Training Framework: Implementation of Emerging Technologies for Performance
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020025
Received: 18 April 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract
Over the last decade, there has been considerable interest in the individualisation of athlete training, including the use of genetic information, alongside more advanced data capture and analysis techniques. Here, we explore the evidence for, and practical use of, a number of these [...] Read more.
Over the last decade, there has been considerable interest in the individualisation of athlete training, including the use of genetic information, alongside more advanced data capture and analysis techniques. Here, we explore the evidence for, and practical use of, a number of these emerging technologies, including the measurement and quantification of epigenetic changes, microbiome analysis and the use of cell-free DNA, along with data mining and machine learning. In doing so, we develop a theoretical model for the use of these technologies in an elite sport setting, allowing the coach to better answer six key questions: (1) To what training will my athlete best respond? (2) How well is my athlete adapting to training? (3) When should I change the training stimulus (i.e., has the athlete reached their adaptive ceiling for this training modality)? (4) How long will it take for a certain adaptation to occur? (5) How well is my athlete tolerating the current training load? (6) What load can my athlete handle today? Special consideration is given to whether such an individualised training framework will outperform current methods as well as the challenges in implementing this approach. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Retraining in a Female Elite Rower with Persistent Symptoms Post-Arthroscopy for Femoroacetabular Impingement Syndrome: A Proof-of-Concept Case Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020024
Received: 28 March 2019 / Revised: 3 May 2019 / Accepted: 4 May 2019 / Published: 7 May 2019
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Abstract
Athletes with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) managed arthroscopically do not always return to sport. Inability to control back/pelvis, hip and lower limb movements may contribute to the onset and recurrence of symptoms. Our hypothesis is that results from a battery of cognitive movement [...] Read more.
Athletes with femoroacetabular impingement syndrome (FAIS) managed arthroscopically do not always return to sport. Inability to control back/pelvis, hip and lower limb movements may contribute to the onset and recurrence of symptoms. Our hypothesis is that results from a battery of cognitive movement control tests can inform a cognitive movement control (neuromuscular) retraining programme for improving the clinical presentation and quality of life in an athlete with FAIS. This case report presents a female elite rower with persistent left-sided anterior hip pain, four years post-arthroscopic surgery for FAIS, whose symptoms failed to respond to conventional physical therapy. Hip and groin outcome score (HAGOS), passive and active hip flexion range of motion (ROM) workload (time training on water), hip and pelvic kinematics (3-D motion analysis) and electromyography during a seated hip flexion movement control test, and a movement control test battery to identify movement control impairments (The Foundation Matrix), were assessed pre-intervention (week 0) and immediately post-intervention (week 16). Impaired movement control was targeted in a tailored 16-week cognitive movement control retraining exercise program. All measures improved: HAGOS (all 6 sub-scales); symptoms (61/100 pre-training to 96/100 post-training); physical activities participation (13/100 to 75/100); and active hip flexion ROM increased (78 to 116 and 98 to 118 degrees, respectively); workload increased from 4 to 18 h/week; and movement control impairment reduced (25/50 to 9/50). Pelvic motion on kinematic analysis were altered, and delayed activation onset of tensor fascia latae and rectus femoris muscles reduced. This proof-of-concept case report supports the hypothesis that cognitive movement control tests can inform a targeted cognitive movement control retraining program to improve symptoms, function and quality of life, in an elite rower with persistent hip pain. This training offers an alternative approach to conventional physical therapy, which has failed to restore function in FAIS, and the present study illustrates how specific cognitive movement control assessment can direct individual training programmes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Motor Control and Rehabilitation)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Versus a Multi-Frequency Bioelectrical Impedance (InBody 770) Device for Body Composition Assessment after a 4-Week Hypoenergetic Diet
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020023
Received: 2 April 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 25 April 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of this investigation was to compare two different methods of assessing body composition (i.e., a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) over a four-week treatment period in exercise-trained men and women. Subjects were instructed to reduce their [...] Read more.
The purpose of this investigation was to compare two different methods of assessing body composition (i.e., a multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (MF-BIA) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)) over a four-week treatment period in exercise-trained men and women. Subjects were instructed to reduce their energy intake while maintaining the same exercise regimen for a period of four weeks. Pre and post assessments for body composition (i.e., fat-free mass, fat mass, percent body fat) were determined via the MF-BIA and DXA. On average, subjects reduced their energy intake by ~18 percent. The MF-BIA underestimated fat mass and percentage body fat and overestimated fat-free mass in comparison to the DXA. However, when assessing the change in fat mass, fat-free mass or percent body fat, there were no statistically significant differences between the MF-BIA vs. DXA. Overall, the change in percent body fat using the DXA vs. the MF-BIA was −1.3 ± 0.9 and −1.4 ± 1.8, respectively. Our data suggest that when tracking body composition over a period of four weeks, the MF-BIA may be a viable alternative to the DXA in exercise-trained men and women. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Playing Standard on Upper- and Lower-Body Strength, Power, and Velocity Characteristics of Elite Rugby League Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020022
Received: 9 March 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 17 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: To compare load–velocity and load–power relationships among first grade (n = 26, age 22.9 ± 4.3 years), academy (n = 23, age 17.1 ± 1.0 years), and scholarship (n = 16, age 15.4 ± 0.5 years) Super League rugby [...] Read more.
Background: To compare load–velocity and load–power relationships among first grade (n = 26, age 22.9 ± 4.3 years), academy (n = 23, age 17.1 ± 1.0 years), and scholarship (n = 16, age 15.4 ± 0.5 years) Super League rugby league players. Methods: Participants completed assessments of maximal upper- and lower-body strength (1RM) and peak velocity and power at 20, 40, 60, and 80 kg during bench press and squat exercises, in a randomised order. Results: Bench press and squat 1RM were highest for first grade players compared with other standards (effect size (ES) = −0.43 to −3.18). Peak velocities during bench and squat were greater in the higher playing standards (ES = −0.39 to −3.72 range), except for the squat at 20 and 40 kg. Peak power was higher in the better playing standards for all loads and exercises. For all three groups, velocity was correlated to optimal bench press power (r = 0.514 to 0.766), but only 1RM was related to optimal power (r = 0.635) in the scholarship players. Only squat 1RM in the academy was related to optimal squat power (r = 0.505). Conclusions: Peak velocity and power are key physical qualities to be developed that enable progression from junior elite rugby league to first grade level. Resistance training should emphasise both maximal strength and velocity components, in order to optimise upper- and lower-body power in professional rugby league players. Full article
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Open AccessEditorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Highlights of Recent Papers in Pediatric Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020021
Received: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 12 April 2019
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Abstract
We are glad to introduce the ninth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Pediatric Exercise, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the ninth Journal Club. This edition is focused on several relevant studies published in the last years in the field of Pediatric Exercise, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport as seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Open AccessArticle
An Examination of Ironic Effects in Air-Pistol Shooting under Pressure
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020020
Received: 28 February 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to test the incidence of ironic performance errors in elite air-pistol shooters. Previous research has revealed that, when shooters are anxious, avoidant instructions can cause ironic performance breakdown, especially in the unintended direction. Fifty-seven experienced air-pistol shooters were given specific [...] Read more.
This study aimed to test the incidence of ironic performance errors in elite air-pistol shooters. Previous research has revealed that, when shooters are anxious, avoidant instructions can cause ironic performance breakdown, especially in the unintended direction. Fifty-seven experienced air-pistol shooters were given specific instructions not to shoot to a certain part of a target, under low- and high-anxiety conditions, respectively. Results demonstrated that, when instructed not to shoot in a specific direction, anxious shooters did so a significant number of times. Interestingly, there was no difference in non-target non-ironic error, which provides specific support for Wegner’s theory of ironic processes of mental control in air-pistol shooting. Consequently, these findings illustrated that the combination of increased anxiety with avoidant instructions could lead to such unintended performance errors, called ironic error. Thus, understanding the mechanism of the anxiety-performance relationship may be a useful theoretical framework which could provide practical, instruction-based interventions to reduce susceptibility to ironic errors under pressure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Psychology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Kinesio® Taping on Ankle Complex Motion and Stiffness and Jump Landing Time to Stabilization in Female Ballet Dancers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020019
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 1 April 2019 / Accepted: 3 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
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Abstract
Ankle sprain is the most commonly diagnosed injury experienced by ballet dancers with few studies investigating preventive support measures such as Kinesio taping. The need exists to examine the mechanical support characteristics of Kinesio taping and effect of application on ankle motion and [...] Read more.
Ankle sprain is the most commonly diagnosed injury experienced by ballet dancers with few studies investigating preventive support measures such as Kinesio taping. The need exists to examine the mechanical support characteristics of Kinesio taping and effect of application on ankle motion and performance. This may be important to understanding the mechanical mechanisms attributed to Kinesio ankle taping and justify its use in the prevention and treatment of jump landing injuries in ballet dancers. This study compared Kinesio taping with and without tension and no tape (control) on active and passive measures of ankle complex motion in healthy ballet dancers. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of Kinesio taping on balance using time to stabilization. Participants performed three ballet jumps with single-leg landings on a force plate across three ankle support conditions consisting of Kinesio taping, sham-Kinesio taping, and no tape. Sagittal and frontal plane motion and load-displacement of the ankle complex for each support condition were obtained using an ankle arthrometer. Kinesio taping with tension significantly restricted inversion-eversion rotation and increased inversion stiffness of the ankle complex (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found among the three ankle support conditions for jump landing time to stabilization (p > 0.05). Arthrometric results indicate Kinesio taping significantly restricted ankle complex motion in the frontal plane that is associated with lateral ankle sprain. Objective information on the nature of Kinesio taping support can assist sports medicine practitioners when recommending ankle support to athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Supplementation of a Pre-workout on Power Maintenance in Lower Body and Upper Body Tasks in Women
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020018
Received: 6 March 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 27 March 2019 / Published: 5 April 2019
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Abstract
Currently there is a lack of research into how women respond to pre-workout supplementation. The effects of supplements on exercise performance in women, specifically to power, must be performed. This study investigated the effects of supplementation on power production and maintenance during a [...] Read more.
Currently there is a lack of research into how women respond to pre-workout supplementation. The effects of supplements on exercise performance in women, specifically to power, must be performed. This study investigated the effects of supplementation on power production and maintenance during a high-intensity cycle ergometry sprint performance, vertical jump performance, and bench press performance in women. It also investigated the effects of supplementation on power production and the maintenance of upper and lower body tasks in women. A total of 23 females (22.9 ± 3.6 years, 175.6 ± 6.5 cm, 86.9 ± 15.1 kg, 19.1 ± 8.4 body fat percentage (BF%) (mean ± std. dev.)) were familiarized with the testing protocol and maximal bench press performances were attained (49.5 ± 15.4 kg). Utilizing a double-blind crossover design, subjects completed three trials of: Five countermovement vertical jumps, a high-intensity cycle sprint protocol, which consisted of 10 maximal, five second cycle ergometer sprints. Subjects performed a velocity bench press test, utilizing 80% of their predetermined one repetition maximum (1RM) for 10 sets of three repetitions for maximal speed. For 20 min prior to each trial, the subjects ingested, in a randomized order, a pre-workout supplement (Supp), placebo+150 mg caffeine (Caff), or a placebo (PL). Peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and minimum power (MNP) were recorded for each sprint. Maximal velocity from each set was also recorded. Bike sprint and bench press data were normalized to the placebo trial for analysis. Blood lactate (bLa) was measured immediately prior to each testing session, within 2 min of the completion of the last cycle sprint and following the bench press test. Bike sprint and bench press testing showed no significant differences through the testing sessions, but did significantly decline over test battery (p < 0.05). Vertical jump performance and lactate levels were not significantly different. Supplementation with a pre-workout supplement or placebo with caffeine 20 min prior to participation showed no positive benefits to performance in female participants. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Sleep Deprivation and Physiological Responses. A Case Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020017
Received: 2 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
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Abstract
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 72-h sleep deprivation on normal daily activities (work, family, and sports), and to investigate whether sleep can be chronically reduced without dangerous consequences. Methods: The participant in this study was an [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 72-h sleep deprivation on normal daily activities (work, family, and sports), and to investigate whether sleep can be chronically reduced without dangerous consequences. Methods: The participant in this study was an adult male (age 41 years; mass 69 kg; height 173 cm). During the 72 h, data were collected every 6 h, involving a baseline (pre-deprivation). We monitored various parameters: Oxidative Stress (D-Rom and Bap test), Psychological Responses (test POMS and Measure of Global Stress), Metabolic expenditure (kJ) using a metabolic holter, EEG records, Cortisol, and Catecholamines level. Results: An interesting result was observed in the post-test phase, when a brief moment of deep sleep and total absence of a very deep sleep occurred, while an almost normal condition occurred in the pre-test sleep. Conclusion: During the 72-h sleep deprivation, no psycho-physiological stress was recorded. The participant has remained within the threshold of well-being. Only a peak was recorded during the 66th hour, but it was within the wellness threshold. Full article
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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. EISSN 2411-5142 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
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