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Changes in Fat Mass Following Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training in Adults ≥50 Years of Age: A Meta-Analysis

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Department of Physical Education, Faculty of Education, Brandon University, Brandon, MB R7A 6A9, Canada
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Faculty of Kinesiology and Health Studies, University of Regina, Regina, SK S4S 0A2, Canada
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School of Kinesiology, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
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Department of Cell Biology and Physiology, Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine-Auburn Campus, Auburn, AL 36849, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030062
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 12 August 2019 / Accepted: 21 August 2019 / Published: 23 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance)
Aging is associated with an increase in fat mass which increases the risk for disease, morbidity and premature mortality. Creatine supplementation in combination with resistance training has been shown to increase lean tissue mass in adults ≥50 years of age; however, the synergetic effects of creatine and resistance training on fat mass in this population are unclear. Creatine metabolism plays an important role in adipose tissue bioenergetics and energy expenditure. Thus, the combination of creatine supplementation and resistance training may decrease fat mass more than resistance training alone. The purpose of this review is two-fold: (1) to perform meta-analyses on studies involving creatine supplementation during resistance training on fat mass in adults ≥50 years of age, and (2) to discuss possible mechanistic actions of creatine on reducing fat mass. Nineteen studies were included in our meta-analysis with 609 participants. Results from the meta-analyses showed that adults ≥50 years of age who supplemented with creatine during resistance training experienced a greater reduction in body fat percentage (0.55%, p = 0.04) compared to those on placebo during resistance training. Despite no statistical difference (p = 0.13), adults supplementing with creatine lost ~0.5 kg more fat mass compared to those on placebo. Interestingly, there are studies which have linked mechanism(s) explaining how creatine may influence fat mass, and these data are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: body composition; nutrition; supplement body composition; nutrition; supplement
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Forbes, S.C.; Candow, D.G.; Krentz, J.R.; Roberts, M.D.; Young, K.C. Changes in Fat Mass Following Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training in Adults ≥50 Years of Age: A Meta-Analysis. J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4, 62.

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