Special Issue "Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities—2nd Edition"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After the success of the first edition, I would love to re-open the Special Issue in order to continue to invest in this topic of particular interest. In line with the previous experience, the idea is to collect research that investigates the role of physical activity and sport on physical and mental well-being, with particular focus on practical implications, innovation, tools, and technique development. The Special Issue, “Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities—2nd Edition”, addresses paediatric exercise science as a key scientific discipline that is able to help future generations live longer and better. I want to mention the fact that it is already clear that sedentariness and a low level of muscular strength/power significantly affect cognitive functions and daily relations, but it can be of interest to understand what the key determinants are, and how we can help professionals to better manage those concerns in their daily activities. Authors are invited to submit letters, original research papers, case studies, meta-analyses, scoping, and systematic reviews.

Dr. Antonino Bianco
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • physical activity
  • training; conditioning
  • health promotion
  • aediatric exercise science
  • sport
  • cognitive functions
  • sedentary lifestyle

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Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Preface to “Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities—2nd Edition”
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010023 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 457
Abstract
The second edition of the Special Issue entitled “Health Promotion in Children and Adolescents through Sport and Physical Activities” has been successfully completed, as expected [...] Full article

Research

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Article
The Prevalence of Urinary Incontinence among Adolescent Female Athletes: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010012 - 28 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1185
Abstract
This review aimed to synthesize the most up-to-date evidence regarding the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among adolescent female athletes. We conducted a systematic review of studies regarding UI in female athletes less than 19 years of age. This review was conducted in [...] Read more.
This review aimed to synthesize the most up-to-date evidence regarding the prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among adolescent female athletes. We conducted a systematic review of studies regarding UI in female athletes less than 19 years of age. This review was conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRIMSA). The electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, and Web of Science (WOS) were searched between October and November 2020. After blinded peer evaluation, a total of 215 studies were identified and nine were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) checklist. This review identified a prevalence of UI in adolescent female athletes between 18% to 80% with an average of 48.58%. The most prevalent sports were trampolining followed by rope skipping. The prevalence of UI among adolescent female athletes practicing impact sports was significantly prevalent. There is a need for further research, education, and targeted interventions for adolescent female athletes with UI. Full article
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Article
Cognitive and Physical Activity-Related Aspects of Children Associated to the Performance of the Crunning Movement
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010009 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 790
Abstract
The aim of this investigation was to identify possible related factors associated to the performance of the crunning test in European children and adolescents. A total number of 559 children and adolescents (age range 6–14 years) of which 308 boys (55.1%) and 251 [...] Read more.
The aim of this investigation was to identify possible related factors associated to the performance of the crunning test in European children and adolescents. A total number of 559 children and adolescents (age range 6–14 years) of which 308 boys (55.1%) and 251 girls (44.9%), from seven European countries, were screened. A questionnaire concerning demographic and personal life-related factors and a cognitive assessment were performed. A regression analysis was conducted with the performance measures of the crunning movement. T-tests and ANCOVA were used to analyze sub-group differences. Boys have greater crunning performance values compared to girls (5.55 s vs. 7.06 s, p < 0.001) and older children perform better than younger ones (R2 −0.23; p < 0.001). Children with healthy and active habits (exercising or spending time with family members vs. reading or surfing the internet) performed better in the test. Children engaged in team sports had better crunning performances compared to those engaged in individual sports (6.01 s vs. 6.66 s, p = 0.0166). No significant association was found regarding cognitive-related aspects in either children engaged in team or individual sports and the crunning performance. Older and male children performed better in the crunning test than younger and female children. Physical activity-related aspects of children’s life are associated with crunning movement performance. No association was found between higher cognitive performance and the crunning test results. Full article
Article
Four Minutes of Sprint Interval Training Had No Acute Effect on Improving Alertness, Mood, and Memory of Female Primary School Children and Secondary School Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040092 - 14 Dec 2020
Viewed by 848
Abstract
We investigated whether a 4-min sprint interval training (SIT) protocol had an acute effect (15 min after) on improving alertness, mood, and memory recall in female students. Sixty-three children and 131 adolescents were randomly assigned to either a SIT or control (CON) group [...] Read more.
We investigated whether a 4-min sprint interval training (SIT) protocol had an acute effect (15 min after) on improving alertness, mood, and memory recall in female students. Sixty-three children and 131 adolescents were randomly assigned to either a SIT or control (CON) group by the class Physical Education (PE) teachers. The SIT intervention was delivered twice a week for 3 weeks. SIT participants performed three, 20-s ‘all-out’ effort sprints interspersed with 60-s intervals of walking while CON group sat down and rested. PE lessons were arranged such that the first two sessions were to familiarise participants with the SIT protocol leading to acute assessments conducted on the third session. On that occasion, both groups rated their alertness and mood on a single-item hedonic scale and underwent an adapted memory recall test. The same assessments were administered to both groups fifteen minutes after delivery of SIT intervention. A 4-min SIT involving three, 20 s ‘all-out’ effort intensity sprints did not have an acute main effect on improving alertness, mood and, memory recall in female children (ηp2 = 0.009) and adolescents (ηp2 = 0.012). Students’ exercise adherence and feedback from PE teachers are indicatives of the potential scalability of incorporating SIT into PE programmes. Different work-to-rest ratios could be used in future studies. Full article
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Article
Joint Mobility Protection during the Developmental Age among Free Climbing Practitioners: A Pilot Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5010014 - 17 Feb 2020
Viewed by 907
Abstract
Sport-climbing popularity increased intensely over the past years. Particularly, children’s and adolescents’ interest therein is constantly growing. Despite a large effort in preventing injuries and muscle overloads, a fine-tuned training for each sensitive phase of child development is still needed. The objective of [...] Read more.
Sport-climbing popularity increased intensely over the past years. Particularly, children’s and adolescents’ interest therein is constantly growing. Despite a large effort in preventing injuries and muscle overloads, a fine-tuned training for each sensitive phase of child development is still needed. The objective of the study was to evaluate an innovative training program aimed at the preservation of joint mobility during the developmental age. This article relies on the results of a steady training program allowing to retain joints integrity among the practice of sport climbing in children. Joint mobility changes have been monitored before and after a one-year training program in fifteen subjects aged between 8 and 18 years. Subjects were divided into three groups depending on age (Turgor Secundus, Proceritas Secunda and Turgor Tertius). The motor tests administered were the sit-and-reach test, coxo-femoral mobility test and scapula–humeral mobility test. Our results showed that one-year training improved joint mobility at each analyzed phase, suggesting that this training program could improve mobility and flexibility. Given the importance of joint mobility preservation for discipline-related injuries prevention and eventually recovering, it is essential to provide a specific training program as a route to approach sport climbing, and even more importantly, at an early age. This work represents a preliminary study in order to demonstrate both efficacy on the joint mobility and the requirement of our playful work to support the global sport-climbing workout. Full article
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Article
Accelerometer-Based Physical Activity Levels Differ between Week and Weekend Days in British Preschool Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030065 - 12 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1424
Abstract
Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend [...] Read more.
Participation in physical activity (PA) is fundamental to children’s future health. Studies examining the temporal pattern of PA between weekdays and weekends in British preschool children are lacking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare PA levels between week and weekend days for UK preschool children, using objective measurements. One hundred and eighty-five preschool children (99 boys, 86 girls, aged 4–5 years), from central England wore a triaxial accelerometer (GENEActiv) for 4 days to determine PA. The time (min) and percentage (%) of time spent in light, moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was determined using specific cut-points for counts per minute related to 3–5 year olds. Of the sample, none of the children met the UK recommended 180 min or more of PA per day. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was observed between the amount of time that preschool children spent in sedentary behaviours on weekdays (91.9%) compared to weekend days (96.9%). During weekdays and weekend days, 6.3% and 2.0% of time was spent in MVPA, respectively. Therefore, a substantial proportion of British preschool children’s day is spent in sedentary behaviours, with less MVPA accrued during the weekend. Regular engagement during the weekdays provides opportunities to accrue PA, which may not be present on weekend days. Full article
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Article
Anthropometric Obesity Indices, Body Fat Percentage, and Grip Strength in Young Adults with different Physical Activity Levels
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030051 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
The purposes of this study were to determine whether moderately physically active (MPA) and highly physically active (HPA) male (n = 96, age = 22.5 ± 1.7 years) and female (n = 85, age = 21.3 ± 1.6 years) young adults [...] Read more.
The purposes of this study were to determine whether moderately physically active (MPA) and highly physically active (HPA) male (n = 96, age = 22.5 ± 1.7 years) and female (n = 85, age = 21.3 ± 1.6 years) young adults differed in their anthropometric obesity indices (AOIs), body fat percentage (BF%), and muscular strength, and also to examine the associations between physical activity level (PAL) and the abovementioned variables. Participants were measured for body height and weight, BF%, waist and hip circumferences, and maximal isometric grip strength. According to their PAL, estimated by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, they were assigned to MPA and HPA subgroups. Regardless of gender, results indicated that participants in the MPA groups had significantly higher values of body weight, waist and hip circumference, BF%, and BMI than participants in the HPA groups. No significant differences were found between physical activity groups in terms of grip strength. The AOIs and BF% were found to be significantly and negatively correlated with the PAL in both genders. In conclusion, the findings of the study suggest that high habitual physical activity is associated with lower adiposity markers. However, the differences in the hand grip strength of the contrasting activity groups were negligible. Full article
Article
Validation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measurements in Adolescents
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030044 - 13 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1984
Abstract
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important indicator of adolescent cardiovascular well-being and future cardiometabolic health but not always feasible to measure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the non-exercise test (NET) for adolescents against the Progressive Aerobic [...] Read more.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an important indicator of adolescent cardiovascular well-being and future cardiometabolic health but not always feasible to measure. The purpose of this study was to estimate the concurrent validity of the non-exercise test (NET) for adolescents against the Progressive Aerobic Capacity Endurance Run (PACER®) and direct measures of VO2max as well as to examine the concurrent validity of the PACER® with a portable metabolic system (K4b2™). Forty-six adolescents (12–17 years) completed the NET prior to performing the PACER® while wearing the K4b2™. The obtained VO2max values were compared using linear regression, intra-class correlation (ICC), and Bland–Altman plots, and α was set at 0.05. The VO2max acquired directly from the K4b2™ was significantly correlated to the VO2max indirectly estimated from the NET (r = 0.73, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.53, ICC = 0.67). PACER® results were significantly related to the VO2max estimates from the NET (r = 0.81, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.65, ICC = 0.72). Direct measures from the K4b2™ were significantly correlated to the VO2max estimates from the PACER® (r = 0.87, p < 0.001, r2 = 0.75, ICC = 0.93). The NET is a valid measure of CRF in adolescents and can be used when an exercise test is not feasible. Full article
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Article
Acute Cardiometabolic Responses to Multi-Modal Integrative Neuromuscular Training in Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020039 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1885
Abstract
Integrative neuromuscular training (INT) has emerged as an effective strategy for improving health- and skill-related components of physical fitness, yet few studies have explored the cardiometabolic demands of this type of training in children. The aim of this study was to examine the [...] Read more.
Integrative neuromuscular training (INT) has emerged as an effective strategy for improving health- and skill-related components of physical fitness, yet few studies have explored the cardiometabolic demands of this type of training in children. The aim of this study was to examine the acute cardiometabolic responses to a multi-modal INT protocol and to compare these responses to a bout of moderate-intensity treadmill (TM) walking in children. Participants (n = 14, age 10.7 ± 1.1 years) were tested for peak oxygen uptake (VO2) and peak heart rate (HR) on a maximal TM test and subsequently participated in two experimental conditions on nonconsecutive days: a 12-min INT protocol of six different exercises performed twice for 30 s with a 30 s rest interval between sets and exercises and a 12-min TM protocol of walking at 50% VO2peak. Throughout the INT protocol mean VO2 and HR increased significantly from 14.9 ± 3.6 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 (28.2% VO2 peak) to 34.0 ± 6.4 mL∙kg−1∙min−1 (64.3% VO2 peak) and from 121.1 ± 9.0 bpm (61.0% HR peak) to 183.5 ± 7.9 bpm (92.4% HR peak), respectively. While mean VO2 for the entire protocol did not differ between INT and TM, mean VO2 and HR during selected INT exercises and mean HR for the entire INT protocol were significantly higher than TM (all Ps ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that INT can pose a moderate to vigorous cardiometabolic stimulus in children and selected INT exercises can be equal to or more metabolically challenging than TM walking. Full article
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Review

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Review
The Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Recovery Following Resistance Exercise: A Systematic Review
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(3), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4030041 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4188
Abstract
Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this manuscript was to describe the effects of alcohol ingestion on recovery following resistance exercise. Methods: A literature search was performed using the following database: Web of Science, NLM Pubmed, and Scopus. Studies regarding alcohol consumption after resistance exercise evaluating recovery were considered for investigation. The main outcomes took into account biological, physical and cognitive measures. Multiple trained researchers independently screened eligible studies according to the eligibility criteria, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Results: A total of 12 studies were considered eligible and included in the quantitative synthesis: 10 included at least one measure of biological function, 10 included at least one measure of physical function and one included measures of cognitive function. Conclusions: Alcohol consumption following resistance exercise doesn’t seem to be a modulating factor for creatine kinase, heart rate, lactate, blood glucose, estradiol, sexual hormone binding globulin, leukocytes and cytokines, C-reactive protein and calcium. Force, power, muscular endurance, soreness and rate of perceived exertion are also unmodified following alcohol consumption during recovery. Cortisol levels seemed to be increased while testosterone, plasma amino acids, and rates of muscle protein synthesis decreased. Full article
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Review
Relation between Weight Status, Physical activity, Maturation, and Functional Movement in Adolescence: An Overview
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4020031 - 30 May 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1205
Abstract
Obesity, low level of physical activity and dysfunctional movement patterns presents one of the leading health issues that can contribute to increased risk for developing not only metabolic and cardiovascular disease, but also musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this paper is to summarize [...] Read more.
Obesity, low level of physical activity and dysfunctional movement patterns presents one of the leading health issues that can contribute to increased risk for developing not only metabolic and cardiovascular disease, but also musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this paper is to summarize literature and evidence about relationship between functional movement (FM) patterns, physical activity (PA) level and weight status in average adolescent population. In addition, this paper summarized current evidence about relations between maturation effects and functional movement among athletic adolescent populations. Summary of current evidence suggests that decreased physical activity level is negatively correlated to functional movement in adolescence. Additionally, most studies suggest that weight status is negatively correlated to functional movement patterns although there is conflicting evidence in this area. Evidence consistently showed that overweight and obese adolescents exhibit poorer functional movement compared to normal weight adolescents. In addition, it appears that maturation has effects on functional movement in athletic populations of adolescents. It is therefore important that practitioners consider interventions which develop optimal functional movement alongside physical activity and weight management strategies in children, in order to reduce the risks of injuries and pathological abnormality arising from suboptimal movement patterns in later life. Full article

Other

Brief Report
A 47-Year Comparison of Lower Body Muscular Power in Spanish Boys: A Short Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030064 - 20 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Much of the evidence examining temporal trends in fitness among youth has found a decrease in measures of muscular strength and muscular power over recent decades. The aim of this study was to examine trends in lower body muscular power in Spanish boys [...] Read more.
Much of the evidence examining temporal trends in fitness among youth has found a decrease in measures of muscular strength and muscular power over recent decades. The aim of this study was to examine trends in lower body muscular power in Spanish boys over 47 years. In 1969 140 boys (10–11 years; body mass index = 19.24, SD = 2.91 kg/m2) and in 2016, 113 boys (10–11 years; body mass index = 19.20, SD = 3.15 kg/m2) were recruited. Lower body power was assessed using the vertical jump (VJ) and standing long jump (SLJ) tests. Significant differences and a large effect size were shown between groups in the SLJ (p = 0.001; d = 0.94) and the VJ (p = 0.001; d = 0.66). SLJ data in 1969 were higher (1.52 m, SD = 0.19) when compared to the 2016 data (1.34 m, SD = 0.18). The VJ performance of the 1969 sample was also higher (25.95 cm; SD = 6.58) than the 2016 sample (21.56 cm; SD = 4.72). SLJ and VJ performance of the 2016 group decreased 11.8% and 16.9%, respectively. There were no significant differences between groups in body mass index. The results indicate a secular decline in lower body muscular power in 10–11-year-old Spanish boys with no significant changes in body mass index over the 47-year study period. Full article
Protocol
Feasibility Study of the Secondary Level Active School Flag Programme: Study Protocol
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2019, 4(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk4010016 - 26 Mar 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Taking part in regular physical activity (PA) is important for young adolescents to maintain physical, social and mental health. Schools are vibrant settings for health promotion and the complexity of driving a whole-school approach to PA has not been tested in the Irish [...] Read more.
Taking part in regular physical activity (PA) is important for young adolescents to maintain physical, social and mental health. Schools are vibrant settings for health promotion and the complexity of driving a whole-school approach to PA has not been tested in the Irish school context. The feasibility of the pilot programme of the Department of Education and Skills second level Active School Flag (SLASF) is needed. SLASF is a two year process that consists of the Active School Flag (ASF) certificate programme (year 1) and the ASF flag programme (year 2). This protocol paper is specific to the first year certificate process. Three schools around Ireland were recruited as pilot schools to carry out the year-long SLASF programme with 17 planned actions involving the entire school. Students in the transition year programme have a particular role in the promotion of PA in SLASF. Data collection consists of physical measures, accelerometers, survey data and interviews at the beginning and the end of the academic year. The primary focus on the feasibility of the programme is through process evaluation tools and fidelity checks consisting of implementation of the SLASF programme through whole-school surveys, focus group discussions of key stakeholder groups, as well as one-to-one interviews with a member of management at each school and the SLASF coordinator of the school. Secondary outcomes include PA levels and its social cognitive theories based correlates through physical health measures, surveys carried out pre- and post-intervention, as well as focus group discussions of the students. The results of this study are needed to improve the development of the SLASF through a predetermined stopping criteria and inclusion into systems thinking approaches such as the Healthy Ireland Demonstration Project. Full article
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