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Batteries, Volume 8, Issue 8 (August 2022) – 28 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 (NMC811) is one of the most promising cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries. However, its chemical instability in contact with ambient air can be a problem for cell manufacturers. In this study, NMC811 fresh powder and electrode were exposed to ambient air to analyze the influence of such storage conditions. The aged NMC811 powder was used to prepare electrodes. Electrochemical and material characterization experiments were conducted on all fresh and aged samples, revealing the significant impact of storage on the material’s chemistry and performance, particularly in aged electrodes. On the other hand, the electrode processing of aged NMC811 powder significantly mitigates such a detrimental effect. These novel results are of interest to determine the most suitable storage conditions of NMC811 materials. View this paper
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Article
Influence of the Ni Catalyst on the Properties of the Si-C Composite Material for LIB Anodes
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080102 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 637
Abstract
The subject of this study was Si-C composites for lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes obtained by carbonization of nanodispersed silicon with carbon monofluoride. To determine the possibility of increasing the degree of graphitization of nanodispersed carbon forming shells around the silicon particles at lower [...] Read more.
The subject of this study was Si-C composites for lithium-ion battery (LIB) anodes obtained by carbonization of nanodispersed silicon with carbon monofluoride. To determine the possibility of increasing the degree of graphitization of nanodispersed carbon forming shells around the silicon particles at lower temperatures, nickel in the form of an alcoholic solution of Ni(NO3)2 was introduced as a catalyst into the pellets of the resulting composite. The XRD, Raman scattering and EDS methods were used to investigate changes both in the phase and elemental composition of materials resulting from the annealing of the Ni-containing Si-C composite over the temperature range of 500–1100 °C. It was found for the first time that nickel silicides that emerged during the annealing became catalysts and, at the same time, intermediate products, of cubic silicon carbide (β-SiC) synthesis, which reduced its temperature formation from ~1100 °C to ~800 °C. The same compounds had a catalytic effect on the carbon atom association, leading to an increase in the degree of its graphitization. The influence of changing the composition of the investigated material on the electrochemical characteristics of the obtained negative LIB electrodes was traced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage Technology)
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Article
The Effect of Electrode Thickness on the High-Current Discharge and Long-Term Cycle Performance of a Lithium-Ion Battery
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080101 - 21 Aug 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Six groups of electrodes with different thickness are prepared in the current study by using Li[Ni1/3Co1/3MN1/3]O2 as the active substance; the electrode thicknesses are 71.8, 65.4, 52.6, 39.3, 32.9, and 26.2 μm, respectively, with similar internal [...] Read more.
Six groups of electrodes with different thickness are prepared in the current study by using Li[Ni1/3Co1/3MN1/3]O2 as the active substance; the electrode thicknesses are 71.8, 65.4, 52.6, 39.3, 32.9, and 26.2 μm, respectively, with similar internal microstructures. The effect of electrode thickness on the discharge rate, pulse discharge, internal resistance, and long-term cycle life of a pouch cell are investigated. The results show that, with the decrease in the electrode thickness from 71.8 μm to 26.2 μm, the high-current-discharge performance of the cell gradually improves, the pulse-discharge power density under 50% SOC increases from 1561 W/Kg to 2691 W/Kg, the Rdis decreases from 8.70 mΩ to 3.34 mΩ, and the internal resistance decreases from 3.36 mΩ to 1.21 mΩ. In the long-term cycle-life test, the thinner the electrode thickness, the less the capacity fading of the cell; the internal resistance of the cell is observed with the increase in the cycle index. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries and Beyond: Outlook on Present and Future)
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Review
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Enabled Wet Chemical Prelithiation and Presodiation for Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080099 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 667
Abstract
The current mainstream energy storage systems are in urgent need of performance improvements to meet novel application requirements. In pursuit of a higher energy density in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, the conventional electrode materials have reached the upper limit of their theoretical specific [...] Read more.
The current mainstream energy storage systems are in urgent need of performance improvements to meet novel application requirements. In pursuit of a higher energy density in Li-ion and Na-ion batteries, the conventional electrode materials have reached the upper limit of their theoretical specific capacities. Hence, facile methods of reducing irreversible lithium-ion/sodium-ion loss are developed to further boost the battery energy density. Herein, we review studies that use polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons for wet chemical prelithiation and presodiation. The molecular structures of arenes and solvents used for solution-based prelithiation/presodiation have a substantial impact on the prelithiation/presodiation power and effectiveness. Multiple reports have already shown excellent initial Coulombic efficiency and streamlined processes by using this type of wet chemical prelithiation/presodiation strategy. This review article will cover how to select appropriate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon prelithiation/presodiation reagents for various materials/electrodes and provide possible directions and guidelines for future works. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anode and Cathode Materials for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Binder-Free Ge-Co-P Anode Material for Lithium-Ion and Sodium-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080098 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 535
Abstract
Nanostructure composites Ge-Co-P with brutto-composition CoGe2P0.1, or CoGe2@GeP were manufactured via electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte. Such composites are able to reversible insertion of lithium and sodium with specific capacities up to 855 and 425 mAh/g, respectively. The [...] Read more.
Nanostructure composites Ge-Co-P with brutto-composition CoGe2P0.1, or CoGe2@GeP were manufactured via electrolysis of aqueous electrolyte. Such composites are able to reversible insertion of lithium and sodium with specific capacities up to 855 and 425 mAh/g, respectively. The main advantage of the composites consists in their excellent cycleability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage Technology)
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Article
Nickel-Doped Ceria Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution in Alkaline Media
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080100 - 19 Aug 2022
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Nickel-doped ceria (Ce1−xNixO2−δ) nanopowders (7 to 5 nm in size) synthesized by the cation complexation method with 5, 10, 15, and 20 Ni at.% are studied with respect to their electrochemical activity for the oxygen reduction (ORR) [...] Read more.
Nickel-doped ceria (Ce1−xNixO2−δ) nanopowders (7 to 5 nm in size) synthesized by the cation complexation method with 5, 10, 15, and 20 Ni at.% are studied with respect to their electrochemical activity for the oxygen reduction (ORR) and oxygen evolution (OER) reactions in alkaline medium. One finds good bifunctional electrocatalytic activity of the four Ce1−xNixO2−δ electrocatalysts. The Tafel analysis of the ORR in the 0.57–0.78 V vs. RHE potential window leads to slopes in the 70–108 mV dec−1 range. The number of electrons exchanged during ORR is between 2 and 2.7. The OER Tafel slopes are determined to be in the range 192 –281 mV dec−1. OER activation energies are found to range between 28 and 43 kJ mol−1. The specific capacitance of Ce1−xNixO2−δ electrocatalysts measured at a scan rate of 100 mV s−1 varies between 0.7 and 1.4 Fg−1. The results demonstrate that Ce1−xNixO2−δ nanopowders can act as bifunctional electrocatalysts for ORR/OER for potential application in the oxygen electrode of devices such as rechargeable metal–air batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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Article
Insights into the Electrochemical Performance of 1.8 Ah Pouch and 18650 Cylindrical NMC:LFP|Si:C Blend Li-ion Cells
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080097 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Silicon has become an integral negative electrode component for lithium-ion batteries in numerous applications including electric vehicles and renewable energy sources. However, its high capacity and low cycling stability represent a significant trade-off that limits its widespread implementation in high fractions in the [...] Read more.
Silicon has become an integral negative electrode component for lithium-ion batteries in numerous applications including electric vehicles and renewable energy sources. However, its high capacity and low cycling stability represent a significant trade-off that limits its widespread implementation in high fractions in the negative electrode. Herein, we assembled high-capacity (1.8 Ah) cells using a nanoparticulate silicon–graphite (1:7.1) blend as the negative electrode material and a LiFePO4–LiNi0.5Mn0.3Co0.2O2 (1:1) blend as the positive electrode. Two types of cells were constructed: cylindrical 18650 and pouch cells. These cells were subjected both to calendar and cycling aging, the latter exploring different working voltage windows (2.5–3.6 V, 3.6–4.5 V, and 2.5–4.5 V). In addition, one cell was opened and characterised at its end of life by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and further electrochemical tests of the aged electrodes. Si degradation was identified as the primary cause of capacity fade of the cells. This work highlights the need to develop novel strategies to mitigate the issues associated with the excessive volumetric changes of Si. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Review
Echelon Utilization of Retired Power Lithium-Ion Batteries: Challenges and Prospects
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080096 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 588
Abstract
The explosion of electric vehicles (EVs) has triggered massive growth in power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The primary issue that follows is how to dispose of such large-scale retired LIBs. The echelon utilization of retired LIBs is gradually occupying a research hotspot. Solving the [...] Read more.
The explosion of electric vehicles (EVs) has triggered massive growth in power lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The primary issue that follows is how to dispose of such large-scale retired LIBs. The echelon utilization of retired LIBs is gradually occupying a research hotspot. Solving the issue of echelon utilization of large-scale retired power LIBs brings not only huge economic but also produces rich environmental benefits. This study systematically examines the current challenges of the cascade utilization of retired power LIBs and prospectively points out broad prospects. Firstly, the treatments of retired power LIBs are introduced, and the performance evaluation methods and sorting and regrouping methods of retired power LIBs are comprehensively reviewed for echelon utilization. Then, the problems faced by the scenario planning and economic research of the echelon utilization of retired power LIBs are analyzed, and value propositions are put forward. Secondly, this study summarizes the technical challenges faced by echelon utilization in terms of security, performance evaluation methods, supply and demand chain construction, regulations, and certifications. Finally, the future research prospects of echelon utilization are discussed. In the foreseeable future, technologies such as standardization, cloud technology, and blockchain are urgently needed to maximize the industrialization of the echelon utilization of retired power LIBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends and Prospects in Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Scalable Silicone Composites for Thermal Management in Flexible Stretchable Electronics
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080095 - 18 Aug 2022
Viewed by 515
Abstract
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been incorporated, as an active filler, in a customized silicone matrix to obtain high thermal conductivity composites, maintaining high flexibility and low dielectric permittivity, which are of interest for heat dissipation in energy storage systems (e.g., [...] Read more.
Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has been incorporated, as an active filler, in a customized silicone matrix to obtain high thermal conductivity composites, maintaining high flexibility and low dielectric permittivity, which are of interest for heat dissipation in energy storage systems (e.g., batteries or supercapacitors) and electronics. By the proper processing of the filler (i.e., hydrophobization with octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and ultrasonic exfoliation) and its optimal loading (i.e., 10 wt%), composites with thermal conductivity up to 3.543 W·m−1·K−1 were obtained. Conductive heat flow (−280.04 W), measured in real heating–cooling conditions, proved to be superior to that of a commercial heatsink paste (−161.92 W), which has a much higher density (2.5 g/cm3 compared to 1.05 g/cm3 of these composites). The mechanical and electrical properties are also affected in a favorable way (increased modulus and elongation, low dielectric losses, and electrical conductivity) for applications as thermal management materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers to Celebrate the First Impact Factor of Batteries)
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Communication
Testing a Lithium-Oxygen (Air) Battery: Catalytic Properties of Positive Electrode Materials
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080094 - 16 Aug 2022
Viewed by 555
Abstract
Although research in the field of lithium-oxygen (air) batteries (LOB) is rapidly developing, few comprehensive studies on the dependence of the catalytic properties of positive electrode materials on LOB test conditions are present. In this paper, the influence of the current density, the [...] Read more.
Although research in the field of lithium-oxygen (air) batteries (LOB) is rapidly developing, few comprehensive studies on the dependence of the catalytic properties of positive electrode materials on LOB test conditions are present. In this paper, the influence of the current density, the type of oxidizer (pure oxygen or air), and a solvent in the electrolyte (DMSO or tetraglyme) on the electrocatalytic properties of PtM/CNT systems (M = Ru, Co, Cr) used as a positive electrode is investigated. It is shown that at a current density of 500 mA/g, more pronounced catalytic effects are observed during the LOB operation than that at 200 mA/g. The obtained results may be explained by the reduced adverse impact of surface passivation with lithium peroxide in the presence of catalysts compared to a similar effect when using unmodified carbon nanotubes (CNT). It is established that the influence of the current density on the catalytic properties continues upon the transition from oxygen to air as an oxidizer. When studying the effect of electrolytes on the catalytic properties of materials subjected to long-term LOB cycling, it is shown that the catalytic effects are most prominent when charged in a tetraglyme medium. Although using a catalyst has practically no effect on the number of cycles for both electrolytes, LOB having tetraglyme exceeds the cyclability of LOB having DMSO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage Technology)
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Article
A Novel Synchronized Multiple Output DC-DC Converter Based on Hybrid Flyback-Cuk Topologies
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080093 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 769
Abstract
This paper proposes a new hybrid flyback-Cuk (HFC) converter. The new converter consists of a single switch, a single isolated input, and dual output based on flyback and Cuk topologies. The new HFC topology is proposed to reduce switching losses and improve the [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a new hybrid flyback-Cuk (HFC) converter. The new converter consists of a single switch, a single isolated input, and dual output based on flyback and Cuk topologies. The new HFC topology is proposed to reduce switching losses and improve the duty cycle range over which voltage can be stepped down, which would ultimately lead to an increase in efficiency. For step-down capability, the traditional single topologies (flyback or Cuk) require a less than 50% duty cycle. The low duty cycle of conventional converters leads to low operational efficiency. Therefore, the developed HFC can operate at a duty cycle of up to 85% for the same capability. The analysis, derivations, design, and simulation of the proposed HFC are thoroughly discussed for two different applications at two different power levels. The simulation results are obtained using MATLAB 2020a. The developed HFC’s efficiency as a function of the duty cycle is plotted, which reaches 89%, representing a significant efficiency improvement. The proposed converter can supply and absorb power simultaneously, giving it a significant edge over other converters. It is suitable for energy conversion and storage systems, such as renewable energy systems and electric vehicles (EV). To show the effectiveness and validate the new topology proposed, an EV along with battery energy storage (BES), is applied to charge (EV) and recharge (BES) simultaneously. The simulation results of 1.5 kW of HFC-PFC over the universal voltage range show that the proposed HFC can achieve a high power factor up to 97.5% at 260 Vrms. Moreover, the total harmonics distortion is measured between 36.25 and 27.69%. Thus, the results can achieve all required functions efficiently with minimum losses at a high range of duty cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Battery Management Systems)
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Article
Effects of Cell Design Parameters on Zinc-Air Battery Performance
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080092 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 547
Abstract
Zn-air batteries have attracted considerable attention from researchers owing to their high theoretical energy density and the abundance of zinc on Earth. The modification of battery component materials represent a common approach to improve battery performance. The effects of cell design on cell [...] Read more.
Zn-air batteries have attracted considerable attention from researchers owing to their high theoretical energy density and the abundance of zinc on Earth. The modification of battery component materials represent a common approach to improve battery performance. The effects of cell design on cell performance are seldom investigated. In this study, we designed four battery structures as follows. Cell 1: close-proximity electrode, Cell 2: equal-area electrode, Cell 3: large zinc electrode, and Cell 4: air channel flow. The effects of four factors: (1) carbon paste, (2) natural and forced air convection, (3) anode/cathode area ratio, and (4) anode–cathode distance were also investigated. Results showed that the addition of carbon paste on the air side of 25BC increased cell power density under forced air convection. Moreover, cell performance also improved by increasing the anode/cathode ratio and by decreasing the anode–cathode distance. These four types of cells were compared based on the oxygen reduction reaction electrode area. Cell 3 displayed the highest power density. In terms of volumetric power density, the proximity cell (Cell 1) exhibited the highest power density among the cells. Therefore, this cell configuration may be suitable for portable applications. Full article
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Article
Influence of Fluoroethylene Carbonate in the Composition of an Aprotic Electrolyte on the Electrochemical Characteristics of LIB’s Anodes Based on Carbonized Nanosilicon
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080091 - 15 Aug 2022
Viewed by 493
Abstract
Here, we study an effect of FEC addition to TC-E918 electrolyte on the electrochemical performance of Si/C negative electrodes. The anodes were fabricated from nanosilicon powder coated with a carbon shell by means of a standard slurry technique. The low-temperature reduction of fluorocarbon [...] Read more.
Here, we study an effect of FEC addition to TC-E918 electrolyte on the electrochemical performance of Si/C negative electrodes. The anodes were fabricated from nanosilicon powder coated with a carbon shell by means of a standard slurry technique. The low-temperature reduction of fluorocarbon on the surface of Si nanoparticles was used to form the shell. It was shown that the presence of FEC in the electrolyte increases the cyclic stability of the electrodes and maintains a 1.5-fold higher discharge capacity during 300 cycles. Impedance measurements were used to study changes in the electrode parameters during long-term cycling with and without FEC additives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High Energy Lithium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Parameter Identification Method for a Fractional-Order Model of Lithium-Ion Batteries Considering Electrolyte-Phase Diffusion
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080090 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 589
Abstract
The physics-based fractional-order model (FOM) for lithium-ion batteries has shown good application prospects due to its mechanisms and simplicity. To adapt the model to higher-level applications, this paper proposes an improved FOM considering electrolyte-phase diffusion (FOMe) and then proposes a complete method for [...] Read more.
The physics-based fractional-order model (FOM) for lithium-ion batteries has shown good application prospects due to its mechanisms and simplicity. To adapt the model to higher-level applications, this paper proposes an improved FOM considering electrolyte-phase diffusion (FOMe) and then proposes a complete method for parameter identification based on three characteristic SOC intervals: the positive solid phase, negative solid phase, and electrolyte phase. The method mainly determines the above three characteristic intervals and identifies four thermodynamic parameters and five dynamic parameters. Furthermore, the paper describes a framework, which first verifies the model and parameter identification method separately based on pseudo two-dimensional model simulations, and secondly verifies FOMe and its parameters as a whole based on the experiments. The results, which are based on simulations and actual Li0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 lithium-ion batteries under multiple typical operating profiles and comparisons with other parameter identification methods, show that the proposed model and parameter identification method is highly accurate and efficient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Modelling, Simulation, Management and Application)
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Article
Nanocomposite Janus Gel Polymer Electrolytes for Lithium Metal Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080089 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 670
Abstract
Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are a key product for sustainable and efficient electric transport. Long-life and safe LMBs require the development of solid or semisolid (e.g., gel polymer) electrolytes capable of blocking lithium dendrites. In this context, Janus double-faced membranes (JMs) offer interesting [...] Read more.
Lithium metal batteries (LMBs) are a key product for sustainable and efficient electric transport. Long-life and safe LMBs require the development of solid or semisolid (e.g., gel polymer) electrolytes capable of blocking lithium dendrites. In this context, Janus double-faced membranes (JMs) offer interesting perspectives, as they allow for modulating the properties of each side according to specific requests. In this paper, we report on facile fabrication via the solvent casting of JMs based on poly(vinylidene fluoride hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP). Here, an electronically insulating layer containing Al2O3 is in contact with the anode, whereas a mixed ionically–electronically conducting layer containing Al2O3, carbon nanotubes, and Super P carbon black is in contact with the cathode. We also investigate the role of the JM thickness and show that a 40 μm membrane allows for ~45% of the specific nominal capacity at 2C with Coulombic efficiency of ~100%. The proposed JMs are very promising for LMBs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Battery Materials)
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Article
Development of an Innovative Procedure for Lithium Plating Limitation and Characterization of 18650 Cycle Aged Cells for DCFC Automotive Applications
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080088 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 771
Abstract
Since lithium-ion batteries seem to be the most eligible technology to store energy for e-mobility applications, it is fundamental to focus attention on kilometric ranges and charging times. The optimization of the charging step can provide the appropriate tradeoff between time saving and [...] Read more.
Since lithium-ion batteries seem to be the most eligible technology to store energy for e-mobility applications, it is fundamental to focus attention on kilometric ranges and charging times. The optimization of the charging step can provide the appropriate tradeoff between time saving and preserving cell performance over the life cycle. The implementation of new multistage constant current profiles and related performances after 1000 cycles are presented and compared with respect to a reference profile. A physicochemical (SEM, XRD, particle size analysis, etc.) and electrochemical (incremental capacity analysis, internal resistance measurements) characterization of the aged cells is shown and their possible implementation on board is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries Aging Mechanisms II)
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Article
Effect of Si-Based Anode Lithiation on Charging Characteristics of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Battery
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080087 - 14 Aug 2022
Viewed by 655
Abstract
The description of the design, manufacturing technology, and test results of thin-film solid-state lithium-ion batteries with a nanocomposite negative electrode [email protected]@Al is given herein. This electrochemical system features the hike on the charging curve plateau, which is interpreted as the change from I–V [...] Read more.
The description of the design, manufacturing technology, and test results of thin-film solid-state lithium-ion batteries with a nanocomposite negative electrode [email protected]@Al is given herein. This electrochemical system features the hike on the charging curve plateau, which is interpreted as the change from I–V of the [email protected]@Al contact. The latter is due to the change in the type of silicon conductivity during lithiation, as a result of which the ohmic metal-semiconductor contact proves to be biased in the reverse direction, and the charging current is maintained by minority charge carriers. It is shown that the current-conducting component [email protected]@Al is formed by a solid solution a-Si(Al), which has a p-type conductivity. The change in the type of conductivity occurs as a result of silicon compensation through lithiation. It was found that [email protected]@Al is nonlinear conductor, which can be considered as a percolation cluster formed by amorphous silicon nanoparticles and molecular clusters of silicon dioxide. The height of the Schottky barrier of the Ti|a-Si(Al) contact and the electron affinity of the a-Si(Al) solid solution were estimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Battery Energy Storage Technology)
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Article
A Novel Evaluation Criterion for the Rapid Estimation of the Overcharge and Deep Discharge of Lithium-Ion Batteries Using Differential Capacity
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080086 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 628
Abstract
Differential capacity dQ/dU (capacitance) can be used for the instant diagnosis of battery performance in common constant current applications. A novel criterion allows state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) monitoring of lithium-ion batteries during cycling. Peak values indicate impeding overcharge or [...] Read more.
Differential capacity dQ/dU (capacitance) can be used for the instant diagnosis of battery performance in common constant current applications. A novel criterion allows state-of-charge (SOC) and state-of-health (SOH) monitoring of lithium-ion batteries during cycling. Peak values indicate impeding overcharge or deep discharge, while dSOC/dU = dU/dSOC = 1 is close to “full charge” or “empty” and can be used as a marker for SOC = 1 (and SOC = 0) at the instantaneous SOH of the aging battery. Instructions for simple state-of-charge control and fault diagnosis are given. Full article
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Article
Model for Rating a Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Stack through Constant Power Charge–Discharge Characterization
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080085 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 618
Abstract
A method for estimating the stack rating of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) through constant power characterization was developed. A stack of 22 cells, each with 1500 cm2 of nominal electrode area, was constructed and tested using constant current and constant power [...] Read more.
A method for estimating the stack rating of vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) through constant power characterization was developed. A stack of 22 cells, each with 1500 cm2 of nominal electrode area, was constructed and tested using constant current and constant power protocols. Typical ratios of charging to discharging power that prevail in various applications (e.g., peak shaving, wind power/solar photovoltaic power integration) were employed in the test protocols. The results showed that fractional energy storage capacity utilization and round-trip energy efficiency varied linearly with the power at which the energy was charged or discharged. A zero-dimensional electrochemical model was proposed based on the area-specific resistance to account for the energy stored/extracted during constant power discharge in the state of charge (SoC) window of 20% to 80%. It was shown that this could be used to rate a given stack in terms of charging and discharging power from the point of view of its application as a power unit. The proposed method enables stack rating based on a single polarization test and can be extended to flow battery systems in general. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Battery Management Systems)
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Article
Multi-Functional Potassium Ion Assists Ammonium Vanadium Oxide Cathode for High-Performance Aqueous Zinc-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080084 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 563
Abstract
Ammonium vanadium oxide (NH4V4O10) is a promising layered cathode for aqueous zinc-ion batteries owing to its high specific capacity (>300 mA h g−1). However, the structural instability causes serious cycling degradation through irreversible insertion/extraction of [...] Read more.
Ammonium vanadium oxide (NH4V4O10) is a promising layered cathode for aqueous zinc-ion batteries owing to its high specific capacity (>300 mA h g−1). However, the structural instability causes serious cycling degradation through irreversible insertion/extraction of NH4+. Herein, a new potassium ammonium vanadate Kx(NH4)1−xV4O10 (named KNVO) is successfully synthesized by a one-step hydrothermal method. The inserted of K+ can act as structural pillars, connect the adjacent layers closer and partially reduce the de-insertion of NH4+. Due to the multi-functional of K+, the prepared KNVO presents a high specific discharge capacity of 432 mA h g−1 at a current density of 0.4 A g−1, long cycle stability (2000 cycles, 94.2%) as well as impressive rate performance (200 mA h g−1 at 8 A g−1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Zn-Ion and Zn–Air Batteries: Materials, Mechanisms and Applications)
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Article
A Techno-Economic Model for Benchmarking the Production Cost of Lithium-Ion Battery Cells
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080083 - 05 Aug 2022
Viewed by 987
Abstract
In response to the increasing expansion of the electric vehicles (EVs) market and demand, billions of dollars are invested into the battery industry to increase the number and production volume of battery cell manufacturing plants across the world, evident in Giga-battery factories. On [...] Read more.
In response to the increasing expansion of the electric vehicles (EVs) market and demand, billions of dollars are invested into the battery industry to increase the number and production volume of battery cell manufacturing plants across the world, evident in Giga-battery factories. On the other side, despite the increase in the battery cell raw material prices, the total production cost of battery cells requires reaching a specific value to grow cost-competitive with internal combustion vehicles. Further, obtaining a high-quality battery at the end of the production line requires integrating numerous complex processes. Thus, developing a cost model that simultaneously includes the physical and chemical characteristics of battery cells, commodities prices, process parameters, and economic aspects of a battery production plant is essential in identifying the cost-intensive areas of battery production. Moreover, such a model is helpful in finding the minimum efficient scale for the battery production plant which complies with the emergence of Giga-battery plants. In this regard, a process-based cost model (PBCM) is developed to investigate the final cost for producing ten state-of-the-art battery cell chemistries on large scales in nine locations. For a case study plant of 5.3 GWh.year−1 that produces prismatic NMC111-G battery cells, location can alter the total cost of battery cell production by approximately 47 US$/kWh, which is dominated by the labor cost. This difference could decrease by approximately 31% at the minimum efficient scale of the battery production plant, which is 7.8 GWh.year−1 for the case study in this work. Finally, a comprehensive sensitivity analysis is conducted to investigate the final prices of battery cell chemistries due to the changes in commodities prices, economic factors of the plant, battery cell production parameters, and production volume. The outcomes of this work can support policy designers and battery industry leaders in managing production technology and location. Full article
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Article
Synergistic Effect of Dual-Ceramics for Improving the Dispersion Stability and Coating Quality of Aqueous Ceramic Coating Slurries for Polyethylene Separators in Li Secondary Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080082 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 589
Abstract
We demonstrate that dispersion stability and excellent coating quality are achieved in polyethylene (PE) separators by premixing heterogeneous ceramics such as silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) in an aqueous solution, without the need for functional additives such [...] Read more.
We demonstrate that dispersion stability and excellent coating quality are achieved in polyethylene (PE) separators by premixing heterogeneous ceramics such as silica (SiO2) and alumina (Al2O3) in an aqueous solution, without the need for functional additives such as dispersing agents and surfactants. Due to the opposite polarities of the zeta potentials of SiO2 and Al2O3, SiO2 forms a sheath around the Al2O3 surface. Electrostatic repulsion occurs between the Al2O3 particles encapsulated in SiO2 to improve the dispersion stability of the slurry. The CCSs fabricated using a dual ceramic (SiO2 and Al2O3)-containing aqueous coating slurry, denoted as DC-CCSs, exhibit improved physical properties, such as a wetting property, electrolyte uptake, and ionic conductivity, compared to bare PE separators and CCSs coated with a single ceramic of Al2O3 (SC-CCSs). Consequently, DC-CCSs exhibit an improved electrochemical performance, in terms of rate capability and cycle performance. The half cells consisting of DC-CCSs retain 93.8% (97.12 mAh g−1) of the initial discharge capacity after 80 cycles, while the bare PE and SC-CCSs exhibit 22.5% and 26.6% capacity retention, respectively. The full cells consisting of DC-CCSs retain 90.9% (102.9 mAh g−1) of the initial discharge capacity after 400 cycles, while the bare PE and SC-CCS exhibit 64.7% and 73.4% capacity retention, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Processing, Manufacturing and Recycling)
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Article
Influence of Growth Parameters on the Electrochemical Performance of Electrodeposited Carbons
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080081 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Generating useful chemicals from CO2 is driving research into carbon capture and utilization. In this work, hard carbons are electrodeposited on various substrates from molten carbonate melts in CO2 atmospheres. These electrodeposited carbons are subsequently used as anodes in sodium-ion batteries, [...] Read more.
Generating useful chemicals from CO2 is driving research into carbon capture and utilization. In this work, hard carbons are electrodeposited on various substrates from molten carbonate melts in CO2 atmospheres. These electrodeposited carbons are subsequently used as anodes in sodium-ion batteries, with preliminary investigations into their performance in potassium-ion batteries. The hard carbons were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Hard carbons grown on graphite substrates produced initial reversible capacities of 405 ± 29 mAh/g and capacity retention of 85.2 ± 1.1% after 50 cycles when cycled at 10 mA/g which are amongst the highest capacities reported for hard carbons to date. This work clearly illustrates that the carbons generated via CO2 mediated electrodeposition are suitable for application in next generation batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-Performance Sodium-Ion Batteries)
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Article
Nanomechanical, Structural and Electrochemical Investigation of Amorphous and Crystalline MoO3 Thin-Film Cathodes in Rechargeable Li-Ion Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080080 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 601
Abstract
In this work, a comprehensive investigation of amorphous and crystalline modification of identical electrode active material as a thin-film electrode for a future all-solid-state Li-ion battery application is presented and discussed. Using the proposed micro-battery system, we aim to unravel the effect of [...] Read more.
In this work, a comprehensive investigation of amorphous and crystalline modification of identical electrode active material as a thin-film electrode for a future all-solid-state Li-ion battery application is presented and discussed. Using the proposed micro-battery system, we aim to unravel the effect of the crystallinity of the positive electrode material on the intrinsic durability of all-solid-state thin-film Li-ion batteries during prolonged electrochemical cycling. We demonstrate the preparation, structural-, nanomechanical and electrochemical characteristics of molybdenum (VI) oxide (MoO3) thin-film cathodes based on their different crystallinity. The nanomechanical properties of the electrode layers were determined using nanoindentation along with acoustic emission studies. Based on the electrochemical test results, as-prepared thin films that did not go under any heat treatment showed the best performance and stability throughout cycling around 50 μAh initial capacity when cycled at C/2. This suits well their nanomechanical properties, which showed the highest hardness but also the highest flexibility in comparison with the heat-treated layers with lower hardness, high brittleness, and numerous cracks upon mechanical loads. According to our results, we state that amorphous-type electrode materials are more durable against electro-chemo-mechanical-aging related battery performance loss in all-solid-state Li-ion batteries compared to their crystalline counterparts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Battery Performance, Ageing, Reliability and Safety)
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Article
Influence of the Ambient Storage of LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 Powder and Electrodes on the Electrochemical Performance in Li-ion Technology
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080079 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Nickel-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) is one of the most promising Li-ion battery cathode materials and has attracted the interest of the automotive industry. Nevertheless, storage conditions can affect its properties and performance. In this work, both NMC811 [...] Read more.
Nickel-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) is one of the most promising Li-ion battery cathode materials and has attracted the interest of the automotive industry. Nevertheless, storage conditions can affect its properties and performance. In this work, both NMC811 powder and electrodes were storage-aged for one year under room conditions. The aged powder was used to prepare electrodes, and the performance of these two aged samples was compared with reference fresh NMC811 electrodes in full Li-ion coin cells using graphite as a negative electrode. The cells were subjected to electrochemical as well as ante- and postmortem characterization. The performance of the electrodes from aged NM811 was beyond expectations: the cycling performance was high, and the power capability was the highest among the samples analyzed. Materials characterization revealed modifications in the crystal structure and the surface layer of the NMC811 during the storage and electrode processing steps. Differences between aged and fresh electrodes were explained by the formation of a resistive layer at the surface of the former. However, the ageing of NMC811 powder was significantly mitigated during the electrode processing step. These novel results are of interest to cell manufacturers for the widespread implementation of NMC811 as a state-of-the-art cathode material in Li-ion batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries Aging Mechanisms II)
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Article
How the Sodium Cations in Anode Affect the Performance of a Lithium-ion Battery
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080078 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Large cations such as potassium ion (K+) and sodium ion (Na+) could be introduced into the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system during material synthesis or battery assembly. However, the effect of these cations on charge storage or electrochemical performance has [...] Read more.
Large cations such as potassium ion (K+) and sodium ion (Na+) could be introduced into the lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery system during material synthesis or battery assembly. However, the effect of these cations on charge storage or electrochemical performance has not been fully understood. In this study, sodium ion was taken as an example and introduced into the lithium titanium oxide (LTO) anode through the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) binder. After the charge/discharge cycles, these ions doped into the LTO lattice and improved both the lithium-ion diffusivity and the electronic conductivity of the anode. The sodium ion’s high concentration (>12.9%), however, resulted in internal doping of Na+ into the LTO lattice, which retarded the transfer of lithium ions due to repulsion and physical blocking. The systematic study presented here shows that large cations with an appropriate concentration in the electrode would be beneficial to the electrochemical performance of the Li-ion battery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries and Beyond: Outlook on Present and Future)
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Article
Characteristics of Open Circuit Voltage Relaxation in Lithium-Ion Batteries for the Purpose of State of Charge and State of Health Analysis
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080077 - 26 Jul 2022
Viewed by 726
Abstract
Open circuit voltage relaxation to a steady state value occurs, and is measured, at the terminals of a lithium-ion battery when current stops flowing. It is of interest for use in determining state of charge and state of health. As voltage relaxation can [...] Read more.
Open circuit voltage relaxation to a steady state value occurs, and is measured, at the terminals of a lithium-ion battery when current stops flowing. It is of interest for use in determining state of charge and state of health. As voltage relaxation can take several hours, a representative model and curve fitting is necessary for practical usage. Previous studies of lithium-ion voltage relaxation investigate four characteristics: relationship between voltage relaxation magnitude and state of charge; length of relaxation required; model complexity for state of charge estimation; and model complexity for state of health evaluation. However, previous studies have inconsistent methodology or use only one type of lithium-ion cell, making comparison and generalization difficult. To address this, we conducted 3 h and 24 h voltage relaxation experiments over a range of states of charge on three different lithium ion chemistries (nickel cobalt aluminum NCA; nickel manganese cobalt NMC532; lithium iron phosphate LFP) and fitted them with a new voltage relaxation equivalent circuit model. It was found that a 3 h relaxation period was sufficient for NMC and LFP for state of charge and state of health investigations. Voltage relaxation of the NCA cell continued to evolve past 24 h. It was shown that voltage relaxation shape and magnitude changes as a function of state of charge, and the accuracy of estimating state of charge was explored. Strategically choosing a state of charge for state of health assessment can be optimized to accentuate voltage relaxation magnitude and this differs by chemistry. This suggested technique and experimental findings can be paired with battery degradation studies to determine accuracy of assessing state of health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Recent Advances in Battery Management Systems)
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Article
Life Cycle Assessment of a Lithium-Ion Battery Pack Unit Made of Cylindrical Cells
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080076 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Saving energy is a fundamental topic considering the growing energy requirements with respect to energy availability. Many studies have been devoted to this question, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly acquiring importance in several fields as an effective way to evaluate the [...] Read more.
Saving energy is a fundamental topic considering the growing energy requirements with respect to energy availability. Many studies have been devoted to this question, and life cycle assessment (LCA) is increasingly acquiring importance in several fields as an effective way to evaluate the energy demand and the emissions associated with products’ life cycles. In this work, an LCA analysis of an existent lithium-ion battery pack (BP) unit is presented with the aim to increase awareness about its consumption and offering alternative production solutions that are less energy intensive. Exploiting the literature data about cradle-to-grave and cradle-to-gate investigations, and after establishing reasonable approximations, the main BP sub-elements were considered for this study, such as the plastic cells support, the Li-ion cells brick, the PCBs for a battery management system (BMS), the liquid-based battery thermal management system (BTMS) and the BP container. For each of these components, the impacts of the extraction, processing, assembly, and transportation of raw materials are estimated and the partial and total values of the energy demand (ED) and global warming potential (GWP) are determined. The final interpretation of the results allows one to understand the important role played by LCA evaluations and presents other possible ways of reducing the energy consumption and CO2 emissions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Circular Battery Technologies)
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Article
Numerical Parametric Investigation of Nonaqueous Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
Batteries 2022, 8(8), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/batteries8080075 - 23 Jul 2022
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage technologies. However, the effect of structural design and key factors limiting the performance are still not thoroughly understood. In this work, we constructed a physical model to study the effect of various [...] Read more.
Nonaqueous redox flow batteries are promising candidates for large-scale energy storage technologies. However, the effect of structural design and key factors limiting the performance are still not thoroughly understood. In this work, we constructed a physical model to study the effect of various design parameters on the performance of such a battery. It was found that the kinetics of redox reaction was improved with active material concentration and electrode surface area. The modeling results also showed that the local current density was much higher in the vicinity of membrane than near the current collector due to relatively low ionic conductivity of electrolytes. Furthermore, decreasing the electrode thickness and increasing the membrane conductivity both reduced the voltage loss associated with ohmic resistance, thereby resulting in improved battery performance. The obtained numerical simulation results would be helpful not only for understanding the physicochemical process in nonaqueous vanadium flow batteries but also for future structural optimization of these batteries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Flow Batteries: Recent Advances and Perspectives)
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