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Fluids, Volume 9, Issue 2 (February 2024) – 21 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Hull and bulk cavitation, occurring during underwater explosions, present complex dynamics due to the shock-cavitation and interface interactions. Accurate resolution of phase interfaces, shocks, and structures is vital. This study employs the diffuse interface method to investigate cavitation in underwater explosion cases near various surfaces. Using the open-source software UCNS3D, a high-order CWENO scheme is used in conjunction with the five-equation diffuse interface models. The paper describes the governing equations, and implementation details, and presents results from test cases, analysing parameters like shock loading effects and bubble dynamics. Comparison with analytical and experimental data is provided, with concluding remarks on the models' efficacy. View this paper
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20 pages, 9192 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Mesh Simulations in OpenFOAM: A Hybrid Eulerian–Lagrangian Approach
by Rention Pasolari, Carlos Simão Ferreira, Alexander van Zuijlen and Carlos Fernando Baptista
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020051 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1336
Abstract
The past few decades have witnessed a growing popularity in Eulerian–Lagrangian solvers due to their significant potential for simulating aerodynamic flows, particularly in cases involving strong body–vortex interactions. In this hybrid approach, the two component solvers are mutually coupled in a two-way fashion. [...] Read more.
The past few decades have witnessed a growing popularity in Eulerian–Lagrangian solvers due to their significant potential for simulating aerodynamic flows, particularly in cases involving strong body–vortex interactions. In this hybrid approach, the two component solvers are mutually coupled in a two-way fashion. Initially, the Lagrangian solver can supply boundary conditions to the Eulerian solver, while the Eulerian solver functions as a corrector for the Lagrangian solution in regions where the latter cannot achieve high accuracy. To utilize such tools effectively, it is vital for them to be capable of handling dynamic mesh movements. This study builds upon the previous research conducted by our team and extends the capabilities of the hybrid solver to handle dynamic meshes. While OpenFOAM, the Eulerian component of this hybrid code, incorporates built-in dynamic mesh properties, certain modifications are necessary to ensure its compatibility with the Lagrangian solver. More specifically, the evolution algorithm of the pimpleFOAM solver needs to be divided into two discrete steps: first, updating the mesh, and later, evolving the solution. This division enables a proper coupling between pimpleFOAM and the Lagrangian solver as an intermediate step. Therefore, the primary objective of this specific paper is to adapt the OpenFOAM solver to meet the demands of the hybrid solver and subsequently validate that the hybrid solver can effectively address dynamic mesh challenges using this approach. This approach introduces a pioneering method for conducting dynamic mesh simulations within the OpenFOAM framework, showcasing its potential for broader applications. To validate the approach, various test cases involving dynamic mesh movements are employed. Specifically, all these cases employ the Lamb–Oseen diffusing vortex, but each case incorporates different types of mesh movements, including translational, rotational, oscillational, and combinations thereof. The results from these cases demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed OpenFOAM algorithm, with the maximum relative errors —when compared to the analytical solution across all presented cases—capped at 2.0% for the worst-case scenario. This affirms the algorithm’s capability to successfully handle dynamic mesh simulations with the proposed solver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mathematical and Computational Fluid Mechanics)
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21 pages, 5865 KiB  
Article
Hemodynamic Insights into Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Bridging the Knowledge Gap for Improved Patient Care
by Suvash C. Saha, Isabella Francis, Goutam Saha, Xinlei Huang and Md. Mamun Molla
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020050 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) present a formidable public health concern due to their propensity for localized, anomalous expansion of the abdominal aorta. These insidious dilations, often in their early stages, mask the life-threatening potential for rupture, which carries a grave prognosis. Understanding [...] Read more.
Background: Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) present a formidable public health concern due to their propensity for localized, anomalous expansion of the abdominal aorta. These insidious dilations, often in their early stages, mask the life-threatening potential for rupture, which carries a grave prognosis. Understanding the hemodynamic intricacies governing AAAs is paramount for predicting aneurysmal growth and the imminent risk of rupture. Objective: Our extensive investigation delves into this complex hemodynamic environment intrinsic to AAAs, utilizing comprehensive numerical analyses of the physiological pulsatile blood flow and realistic boundary conditions to explore the multifaceted dynamics influencing aneurysm rupture risk. Our study introduces novel elements by integrating these parameters into the overall context of aneurysm pathophysiology, thus advancing our understanding of the intricate mechanics governing their evolution and rupture. Methods: Conservation of mass and momentum equations are used to model the blood flow in an AAAs, and these equations are solved using a finite volume-based ANSYS Fluent solver. Resistance pressure outlets following a three-element Windkessel model were imposed at each outlet to accurately model the blood flow and the AAAs’ shear stress. Results: Our results uncover elevated blood flow velocities within an aneurysm, suggesting an augmented risk of future rupture due to increased stress in the aneurysm wall. During the systole phase, high wall shear stress (WSS) was observed, typically associated with a lower risk of rupture, while a low oscillatory shear index (OSI) was noted, correlating with a decreased risk of aneurysm expansion. Conversely, during the diastole phase, low WSS and a high OSI were identified, potentially weakening the aneurysm wall, thereby promoting expansion and rupture. Conclusion: Our study underscores the indispensable role of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) techniques in the diagnostic, therapeutic, and monitoring realms of AAAs. This body of research significantly advances our understanding of aneurysm pathophysiology, thus offering pivotal insights into the intricate mechanics underpinning their progression and rupture, informing clinical interventions and enhancing patient care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Hemodynamics and Related Biological Flows)
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13 pages, 872 KiB  
Article
Bursting Sand Balloons
by Gustavo Gómez, Francisco José Higuera, Florencio Sánchez-Silva and Abraham Medina
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020049 - 14 Feb 2024
Viewed by 943
Abstract
Using linear elasticity theory, we describe the mechanical response of dry non-cohesive granular masses of Ottawa sand contained by spherical rubber balloons subject to sudden bursting in the earliest instants of the event. Due to the compression imposed by the balloon, the rupture [...] Read more.
Using linear elasticity theory, we describe the mechanical response of dry non-cohesive granular masses of Ottawa sand contained by spherical rubber balloons subject to sudden bursting in the earliest instants of the event. Due to the compression imposed by the balloon, the rupture produces a fast radial expansion of the sand front that depends on the initial radius R0, the initial pressure p originated by the balloon, and the effective modulus of compression Ke. The hydrostatic compression approximation allows for the theoretical study of this problem. We found a linear decompression wave that travels into the sand and that induces a radial expansion of the granular front in the opposite direction with similar behavior to the wave but with a slightly lower speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Flow of Multiphase Fluids and Granular Materials)
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17 pages, 1331 KiB  
Article
Effect of Droplet Viscosity Ratio and Surfactant Adsorption on the Coalescence of Droplets with Interfacial Viscosity
by Natasha Singh and Vivek Narsimhan
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020048 - 13 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1006
Abstract
Surface rheology becomes important for droplets with adsorbed proteins, solid particulates, lipids, or polymers, and understanding how surface rheology alters basic droplet processes like coalescence provides insight into the processing of dispersions in industrial and biological systems. In this work, we model the [...] Read more.
Surface rheology becomes important for droplets with adsorbed proteins, solid particulates, lipids, or polymers, and understanding how surface rheology alters basic droplet processes like coalescence provides insight into the processing of dispersions in industrial and biological systems. In this work, we model the approach of two equal-size deformable droplets under an axisymmetric, biaxial extensional flow in the Stokes flow limit. We explore how the viscosity contrast between the drop and suspending fluid alters the film drainage behaviour when interfacial viscosity is present. For a clean droplet at a fixed capillary number, the drainage time is observed to be independent of the viscosity ratio (λ) for λO(1), while the drainage increases linearly with the viscosity ratio for λO(1). Surface viscosity increases the drainage time by causing the thin film between the droplets to flatten and widen, and shifts the viscosity ratio at which the aforementioned scaling behaviour changes to larger values. The drainage time is increased more significantly at lower viscosity ratio values than higher values. In the second half of the paper, we examine how surface viscosity alters film drainage when the surfactant can be soluble. We examine the kinetically controlled adsorption/desorption limit. We find that surfactant solubility abolishes surface tension gradients and increases the prominence of surface viscosity effects, the effects of which are quantified for Boussinesq numbers BqO(0.1). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Newtonian Flow: Interfacial and Bulk Phenomena)
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15 pages, 2189 KiB  
Article
Distinctions of the Emergence of Convective Flows at the “Diffusion–Convections” Boundary in Isothermal Ternary Gas Mixtures with Carbon Dioxide
by Vladimir Kossov, Dauren Zhakebayev, Olga Fedorenko and Ainur Zhumali
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020047 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1019
Abstract
This study discusses the influence of the composition of a ternary gas mixture on the possibility of occurrence of convective instability under isothermal conditions due to the difference in the diffusion abilities of the components. A numerical study was carried out to study [...] Read more.
This study discusses the influence of the composition of a ternary gas mixture on the possibility of occurrence of convective instability under isothermal conditions due to the difference in the diffusion abilities of the components. A numerical study was carried out to study the change in “diffusion–concentration gravitational convection” modes in an isothermal three-component gas mixture He + CO2 − N2. The mixing process in the system under study was modeled at different initial carbon dioxide contents. To carry out a numerical experiment, a mathematical algorithm based on the D2Q9 model of lattice Boltzmann equations was used for modeling the flow of gases. We show that the model presented in the paper allows one to study the occurrence of convective structures at different heavy component contents (carbon dioxide). It has been established that in the system under study, the instability of the mechanical equilibrium occurs when the content of carbon dioxide in the mixture is more than 0.3 mole fractions. The characteristic times for the onset of convective instability and the subsequent creation of structural formations, the values of which depend on the initial content of carbon dioxide in the mixture, have been determined. Distributions of concentration, pressure and kinetic energy that allow one to specify the types of mixing and explain the occurrence of convection for a situation where, at the initial moment of time, the density of the gas mixture in the upper part of the diffusion channel is less than in the lower one, were obtained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lattice Boltzmann Methods: Fundamentals and Applications)
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35 pages, 1536 KiB  
Review
The Statistical Mechanics of Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence and a Solution of the Dynamo Problem
by John V. Shebalin
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020046 - 12 Feb 2024
Viewed by 955
Abstract
We review and extend the theory of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The theory contains a solution to the ‘dynamo problem’, i.e., the problem of determining how a planetary or stellar body produces a global dipole magnetic field. We extend the theory [...] Read more.
We review and extend the theory of ideal, homogeneous, incompressible, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. The theory contains a solution to the ‘dynamo problem’, i.e., the problem of determining how a planetary or stellar body produces a global dipole magnetic field. We extend the theory to the case of ideal MHD turbulence with a mean magnetic field that is aligned with a rotation axis. The existing theory is also extended by developing the thermodynamics of ideal MHD turbulence based on entropy. A mathematical model is created by Fourier transforming the MHD equations and dynamical variables, resulting in a dynamical system consisting of the independent Fourier coefficients of the velocity and magnetic fields. This dynamical system has a large but finite-dimensional phase space in which the phase flow is divergenceless in the ideal case. There may be several constants of the motion, in addition to energy, which depend on the presence, or lack thereof, of a mean magnetic field or system rotation or both imposed on the magnetofluid; this leads to five different cases of MHD turbulence that must be considered. The constants of the motion (ideal invariants)—the most important being energy and magnetic helicity—are used to construct canonical probability densities and partition functions that enable ensemble predictions to be made. These predictions are compared with time averages from numerical simulations to test whether or not the system is ergodic. In the cases most pertinent to planets and stars, nonergodicity is observed at the largest length-scales and occurs when the components of the dipole field become quasi-stationary and dipole energy is directly proportional to magnetic helicity. This nonergodicity is evident in the thermodynamics, while dipole alignment with a rotation axis may be seen as the result of dynamical symmetry breaking, i.e., ‘broken ergodicity’. The relevance of ideal theoretical results to real (forced, dissipative) MHD turbulence is shown through numerical simulation. Again, an important result is a statistical solution of the ‘dynamo problem’. Full article
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12 pages, 4128 KiB  
Article
CFD Analysis of Ultra-High-Performance Concrete Rheological Tests
by Tomáš Jirout, Adam Krupica and Alexandr Kolomijec
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020045 - 11 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
This study connects and compares the results from two different rheological measurement techniques, namely, the slump test and rotational rheometry, on UHPC (Ultra-High-Performance Concrete) through the use of commercially available numerical simulation software ANSYS Fluent 2022 R2. The workability and resulting mechanical properties [...] Read more.
This study connects and compares the results from two different rheological measurement techniques, namely, the slump test and rotational rheometry, on UHPC (Ultra-High-Performance Concrete) through the use of commercially available numerical simulation software ANSYS Fluent 2022 R2. The workability and resulting mechanical properties of the UHPC (a material used in construction) are highly dependent on its rheology and, hence, also on the composition and level of homogeneity of the assessed mixture. It is generally understood that the most suitable rheological model for concrete mixtures is the Hershel–Bulkley model. However, obtaining reliable rheological data is complicated as the wide-gap rotational rheometers developed for concrete show bias in their measurements even on precise laboratory equipment, while common industrial tests, such as the slump test, do not produce the usual shear rate–shear stress relation and, hence, do not allow for more complex analysis. Recently, a new methodology for the rheological measurement of non-Newtonian fluids that utilises a simple power input–rotation speed measurement was published. However, in this study, only model liquids were evaluated, and the method was not validated for more complex fluids such as pastes. Therefore, it was the goal of this study to show this method’s suitability for fine pastes through a comparison with the slump test, using numerical simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
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28 pages, 20572 KiB  
Article
Comparative Analysis of Simulation Methodologies for Spindle Pumps
by Pasquale Borriello, Emma Frosina, Pierpaolo Lucchesi and Adolfo Senatore
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020044 - 09 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1231
Abstract
This research conducts a comprehensive comparative analysis of simulation methodologies for spindle pumps, with a specific focus on steady-state CFD, transient-CFD, and lumped-parameter approaches. Spindle pumps, renowned for their reliability, efficiency, and low noise emission, play a pivotal role in Thermal Management for [...] Read more.
This research conducts a comprehensive comparative analysis of simulation methodologies for spindle pumps, with a specific focus on steady-state CFD, transient-CFD, and lumped-parameter approaches. Spindle pumps, renowned for their reliability, efficiency, and low noise emission, play a pivotal role in Thermal Management for Battery Electric Vehicles, aligning with the automotive industry’s commitment to reducing pollutants and CO2 emissions. The study is motivated by the critical need to curtail energy consumption during on-the-road operations, particularly as the automotive industry strives for enhanced efficiency. While centrifugal pumps are commonly employed for such applications, their efficiency is highly contingent on rotational speed, leading to energy wastage in real-world scenarios despite high efficiency at the design point. Consequently, the adoption of precisely designed spindle pumps for thermal management systems emerges as a viable solution to meet evolving industry needs. Recognizing the profound impact of simulation tools on the design and optimization phases for pump manufacturers, this research emphasizes the significance of fast and accurate simulation tools. Transient-CFD emerges as a powerful Tool, enabling real-time monitoring of various performance indicators, while steady-CFD, with minimal simplifications, adeptly captures pressure distribution and machine leakages. Lumped-parameter approaches, though requiring effort in simulation setup and simplifying input geometry, offer rapid computational times and comprehensive predictions, including leakages, Torque, cavitation, and pressure ripple. Breaking new ground, this paper presents, for the first time in the literature, accurate simulation models for the same reference machine using the aforementioned methodologies. The results were rigorously validated against experiments spanning a wide range of pump speeds and pressure drops. The discussion encompasses predicted flow, Torque, cavitation, and pressure ripple, offering valuable insights into the strengths and limitations of each methodology. Full article
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24 pages, 9812 KiB  
Article
Vortex-Breakdown Efficiency of Planar Regular Grid Structures—Towards the Development of Design Guidelines
by Julien Sirois, Marlène Sanjosé, Fabian Sanchez and Vladimir Brailovski
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020043 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
The work presented here aims to provide design guidelines to create vortex-damping structures. A design of experiment was developed to investigate the individual and combined effects of the geometrical properties of planar regular grid structures, i.e., the wire diameter, the porosity, and the [...] Read more.
The work presented here aims to provide design guidelines to create vortex-damping structures. A design of experiment was developed to investigate the individual and combined effects of the geometrical properties of planar regular grid structures, i.e., the wire diameter, the porosity, and the inter-grid spacing, on their vortex-breakdown performance. The simulations were carried out using a commercial unsteady RANS solver. The model relies on the Von Karman street effect to generate vortices in a pipe which are convected downstream, where they interact with an array of grids. The vortex-breakdown efficiency is characterized by the pressure drop, the residual turbulent kinetic energy, the flow homogeneity, and the size of the transmitted vortices. The wire diameter is shown to be an important design lever as it affects the level of distortion of the transmitted vortices. Increasing the number of grids augments the pressure loss, but their contribution to vortex breakdown is otherwise limited when the wire diameter is small. The influence of grid spacing strongly depends on the wire diameter and grid alignment. For instance, minimizing this gap reduces the pressure drop for the inline configurations, but increases the pressure drop for the offset configurations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulence and Combustion)
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21 pages, 5459 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Evaluation of Turbulence Models for Predicting Heat Transfer in Turbulent Channel Flow across Various Prandtl Number Regimes
by Liyuan Liu, Umair Ahmed and Nilanjan Chakraborty
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020042 - 03 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1263
Abstract
Turbulent heat transfer in channel flows is an important area of research due to its simple geometry and diverse industrial applications. Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models are the most-affordable simulation methodology and are often the only viable choice for investigating industrial flows. However, accurate [...] Read more.
Turbulent heat transfer in channel flows is an important area of research due to its simple geometry and diverse industrial applications. Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) models are the most-affordable simulation methodology and are often the only viable choice for investigating industrial flows. However, accurate modelling of wall-bounded flows is challenging in RANS, and the assessment of the performance of RANS models for heated turbulent channel flow has not been sufficiently investigated for a wide range of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers. In this study, five RANS models are assessed for their ability to predict heat transfer in channel flows across a wide range of Reynolds and Prandtl numbers (Pr) by comparing the RANS results with respect to the corresponding Direct Numerical Simulation data. The models include three Eddy Viscosity Models (EVMs): standard kϵ, low Reynolds number kϵLS, and kωSST, as well as two Reynolds Stress Models (RSMs): Launder–Reece–Rodi and Speziale–Sarkar–Gatski models. The study analyses the Reynolds number effects on turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow at a Pr of 0.71 for friction Reynolds number values of 180,395,640, and 1020. The results show that all models accurately predict velocity across all Reynolds numbers, but the accuracy of mean temperature prediction drops with increasing Reynolds number for all models, except for the kωSST model. The study also analyses the Pr effects on turbulent heat transfer in a channel flow with Pr values between 0.025 and 10.0. An error analysis is performed on the results obtained from different turbulence models, and it is shown that the kωSST model has the smallest error for the predictions of the mean temperature and Nusselt number for high-Prandtl-number flows, while the low Reynolds number kϵLS model shows the smallest errors for low-Prandtl-number flows at different Reynolds numbers. An analytical solution is utilised to identify Pr effects on forced convection in a channel flow into three different regimes: analytical region, transitional region, and turbulent diffusion-dominated region. These regimes are helpful to discuss the validity of the models in relation to the Pr. The findings of this paper provide insights into the performance of different RANS models for heat transfer predictions in a channel flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Turbulent Flow, 2nd Edition)
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32 pages, 8912 KiB  
Article
Effect of Dissolved Carbon Dioxide on Cavitation in a Circular Orifice
by Sina Safaei and Carsten Mehring
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020041 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1154
Abstract
In this work, we investigate the effect of dissolved gas concentration on cavitation inception and cavitation development in a transparent sharp-edged orifice, similar to that previously analyzed by Nurick in the context of liquid injectors. The working liquid is water, and carbon dioxide [...] Read more.
In this work, we investigate the effect of dissolved gas concentration on cavitation inception and cavitation development in a transparent sharp-edged orifice, similar to that previously analyzed by Nurick in the context of liquid injectors. The working liquid is water, and carbon dioxide is employed as a non-condensable dissolved gas. Cavitation inception points are determined for different dissolved gas concentration levels by measuring wall-static pressures just downstream of the orifice contraction and visually observing the onset of a localized (vapor) bubble cloud formation and collapse. Cavitation onset correlates with a plateau in wall-static pressure measurements as a function of a cavitation number. An increase in the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide is found to increase the cavitation number at which the onset of cavitation occurs. The transition from cloud cavitation to extended-sheet or full cavitation along the entire orifice length occurs suddenly and is shifted to higher cavitation numbers with increasing dissolved gas content. Volume flow rate measurements are performed to determine the change in the discharge coefficient with the cavitation number and dissolved gas content for the investigated cases. CFD analyses are carried out based on the cavitation model by Zwart et al. and the model by Yang et al. to account for non-condensable gases. Discharge coefficients obtained from the numerical simulations are in good agreement with experimental values, although they are slightly higher in the cavitating case. The earlier onset of fluid cavitation (i.e., cavitation inception at higher cavitation numbers) with increasing dissolved carbon dioxide content is not predicted using the employed numerical model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics)
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17 pages, 5269 KiB  
Article
Interpreting Image Patterns for Agricultural Sprays Using Statistics and Machine Learning Techniques
by Steven Cryer and John Raymond
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020040 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The atomization of liquid spray solutions through nozzles is a mechanism for delivering many pesticides to the target. The smallest drop sizes (<150 μm) are known as driftable fines and have a propensity for wind-induced convection. Many agricultural applications include oil-in-water formulations. The [...] Read more.
The atomization of liquid spray solutions through nozzles is a mechanism for delivering many pesticides to the target. The smallest drop sizes (<150 μm) are known as driftable fines and have a propensity for wind-induced convection. Many agricultural applications include oil-in-water formulations. The experimental metrics obtained from spray images of these formulations include the distance from the nozzle origin to the drop centroid once a drop has formed; the hole location and surface area for holes that form in the liquid sheet (all hole areas approximated as polygons); the angles formed between polygon segments (whose vertices are represented as boundary points); and the ligament dimensions that form from intersecting holes, such as the ligament aspect ratio (R/L), ligament length (L), and ligament radius (width), along with the number of drops a ligament breaks up into. These metrics were used in a principal component regression (PCR) analysis, and the results illustrated that 99% of the variability in the response variable (DT10) was addressed by 10 principal components. Angles formed by the colliding holes, hole distance from the nozzle, drop distance, hole number, ligament number, and drop number were negatively correlated to the atomization driftable fine fraction, while hole area, ligament distance, ligament area, and boundary area were positively correlated. Thus, to decrease/minimize driftable fines, one needs to increase the negatively correlated metrics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multiphase Flow for Industry Applications)
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14 pages, 3884 KiB  
Article
Experimental Studies on Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Piggyback Pipeline
by Difei Xiao, Zhiyong Hao, Tongming Zhou and Hongjun Zhu
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020039 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 960
Abstract
Offshore pipelines of different diameters are often seen in piggyback arrangements in close proximity. Under the effects of external flows, the pipelines may experience vibration. Reliable prediction of the vibration amplitudes is important for the design and operation of these structures. In the [...] Read more.
Offshore pipelines of different diameters are often seen in piggyback arrangements in close proximity. Under the effects of external flows, the pipelines may experience vibration. Reliable prediction of the vibration amplitudes is important for the design and operation of these structures. In the present study, the effect of the position angle (α) and gap ratio (G/D) of a piggyback pipeline on the amplitude of 1DOF vortex-induced vibration (VIV) was investigated experimentally in a wind tunnel. The diameter ratio d/D of the two cylinders was 0.5. Five position angles, namely, α = 0°, 45°, 90°, 135°, and 180°, and six gap ratios at each angle, G/D = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, were tested. It was found that both α and G/D affected the amplitude of vibrations significantly. For all gap ratios, the amplitude of vibrations increased from α = 0° to α = 90° and then decreased to a minimum value around α = 135°. The maximum amplitude occurred around α = 90° when G/D = 0, and the minimum occurred around α = 135°, when G/D = 0.2–0.3. At other position angles, the vibration amplitude was less sensitive to G/D, especially when the latter was between 0.1 and 0.4. These results verified those obtained using numerical methods and are invaluable to engineers when designing offshore piggyback pipelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vortical Flows in Memory of Professor Ippolit Stepanovich Gromeka)
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30 pages, 6032 KiB  
Systematic Review
Hydraulic Flushing of Sediment in Reservoirs: Best Practices of Numerical Modeling
by Yong G. Lai, Jianchun Huang and Blair P. Greimann
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020038 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1800
Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive review and best practices for numerically simulating hydraulic flushing for reservoir sediment management. Three sediment flushing types are discussed: drawdown flushing, pressure flushing, and turbidity current venting. The need for reservoir sediment management and the current practices are [...] Read more.
This article provides a comprehensive review and best practices for numerically simulating hydraulic flushing for reservoir sediment management. Three sediment flushing types are discussed: drawdown flushing, pressure flushing, and turbidity current venting. The need for reservoir sediment management and the current practices are reviewed. Different hydraulic drawdown types are described in terms of the basic physical processes involved as well as the empirical/analytical assessment tools that may be used. The primary focus has been on the numerical modeling of various hydraulic flushing options. Three model categories are reviewed: one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D) depth-averaged or layer-averaged, and three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. General guidelines are provided on how to select a proper model given the characteristics of the reservoir and the flushing method, as well as specific guidelines for modeling. Case studies are also presented to illustrate the guidelines. Full article
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15 pages, 7964 KiB  
Article
Numerical Analysis of Non-Newtonian Fluid Effects on the Equilibrium Position of a Suspended Particle and Relative Viscosity in Two-Dimensional Flow
by Keiya Tomioka and Tomohiro Fukui
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020037 - 01 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1084
Abstract
A solvent in suspension often has non-Newtonian properties. To date, in order to determine these properties, many constitutive equations have been suggested. In particular, power-law fluid, which describes both dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids, has been used in many previous studies because of its [...] Read more.
A solvent in suspension often has non-Newtonian properties. To date, in order to determine these properties, many constitutive equations have been suggested. In particular, power-law fluid, which describes both dilatant and pseudoplastic fluids, has been used in many previous studies because of its simplicity. Then, the Herschel–Bulkley model is used, which describes fluid with yield stress. In this study, we considered how a non-Newtonian solvent affected the equilibrium position of a particle and relative viscosity using the regularized lattice Boltzmann method for fluid and a two-way coupling scheme for the particle. We focused on these methods so as to evaluate the non-Newtonian effects of a solvent. The equilibrium position in Bingham fluid was closer to the wall than that in Newtonian or power-law fluid. In contrast, the tendency of relative viscosity in Bingham fluid for each position was similar to that in power-law fluid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Computational Mechanics of Non-Newtonian Fluids)
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26 pages, 7430 KiB  
Article
Rheological Characterization of a Thixotropic Semisolid Slurry by Means of Numerical Simulations of Squeeze-Flow Experiments
by Georgios C. Florides, Georgios C. Georgiou, Michael Modigell and Eugenio José Zoqui
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020036 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 919
Abstract
We propose a methodology for the rheological characterization of a semisolid metal slurry using experimental squeeze-flow data. The slurry is modeled as a structural thixotropic viscoplastic material, obeying the regularized Herschel–Bulkley constitutive equation. All rheological parameters are assumed to vary with the structure [...] Read more.
We propose a methodology for the rheological characterization of a semisolid metal slurry using experimental squeeze-flow data. The slurry is modeled as a structural thixotropic viscoplastic material, obeying the regularized Herschel–Bulkley constitutive equation. All rheological parameters are assumed to vary with the structure parameter that is governed by first-order kinetics accounting for the material structure breakdown and build-up. The squeeze flow is simulated using finite elements in a Lagrangian framework. The evolution of the sample height has been studied for wide ranges of the Bingham and Reynolds numbers, the power-law exponent as well as the kinetics parameters of the structure parameter. Systematic comparisons have been carried out with available experimental data on a semisolid aluminum alloy (A356), where the sample is compressed from its top side under a specified strain of 80% at a temperature of 582 °C, while the bottom side remains fixed. Excellent agreement with the experimental data could be achieved provided that at the initial instances (up to 0.01 s) of the experiment, the applied load is much higher than the nominal experimental load and that the yield stress and the power-law exponent vary linearly with the structure parameter. The first assumption implies that a different model, such as an elastoviscoplastic one, needs to be employed during the initial stages of the experiment. As for the second one, the evolution of the sample height can be reproduced allowing the yield stress to vary from 0 (no structure) to a maximum nominal value (full structure) and the power-law exponent from 0.2 to 1.4, i.e., from the shear-thinning to the shear-thickening regime. These variations are consistent with the internal microstructure variation pattern known to be exhibited by semisolid slurries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Complex Fluids)
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18 pages, 5321 KiB  
Article
An Experimental Study on the Effect of Distance and Sheltering Area of a Group of Linearly Arranged Sacrificial Piles on Reducing Local Scour around a Circular Bridge Pier under Clear-Water Conditions
by Subodh Guragain and Norio Tanaka
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020035 - 31 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1507
Abstract
One of the major problems associated with bridge piers is ensuring their safety against local scouring caused by the erosive action of flow. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and tested to solve this problem, among which sacrificial piles are highly recognized due to [...] Read more.
One of the major problems associated with bridge piers is ensuring their safety against local scouring caused by the erosive action of flow. Numerous countermeasures have been developed and tested to solve this problem, among which sacrificial piles are highly recognized due to their high performance, economy, durability, and ease of construction. Several factors affect the performance of sacrificial piles, such as their number, size, degree of submergence, and geometric arrangement parameters. In this study, the performance of a group of linearly arranged cylindrical sacrificial piles in reducing local scour around a circular bridge pier was investigated by varying the number of piles (or sheltering area) and distance between piles and the pier under clear-water conditions. Three values of distance between piles and the pier and three values of sheltering area (or number of piles) were tested. The efficiencies of sacrificial piles in different configurations were presented in terms of the percentage reduction in maximum scour depth at an unprotected pier under the same hydraulic conditions. The results of this experiment show that when linearly arranged sacrificial piles are placed close to the pier (at distance D; D is the pier diameter), an increase in the number of piles (or sheltered area) results in an increased scour depth, and when placed far from the pier (2D and 3D), an increase in the number of piles results in a decrease in scour depth around the pier. In addition, for 40% and 60% sheltering conditions, scour depth increased with an increase in the spacing between piles and the pier, while for 80% sheltering conditions, optimum protection was observed at a distance of 2D. Overall, two piles placed at distance D provided optimum protection with a scour depth reduction of 41.6%, while minimum protection was recorded when the same were placed at a spacing of 3D from the pier (25.5%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Advances in Environmental Hydraulics)
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28 pages, 450 KiB  
Review
The Chimera Revisited: Wall- and Magnetically-Bounded Turbulent Flows
by Nils Tångefjord Basse
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020034 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
This review is a first attempt at bringing together various concepts from research on wall- and magnetically-bounded turbulent flows. Brief reviews of both fields are provided: The main similarities identified are coherent (turbulent) structures, flow generation, and transport barriers. Examples are provided and [...] Read more.
This review is a first attempt at bringing together various concepts from research on wall- and magnetically-bounded turbulent flows. Brief reviews of both fields are provided: The main similarities identified are coherent (turbulent) structures, flow generation, and transport barriers. Examples are provided and discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Fluid Mechanics)
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31 pages, 13340 KiB  
Article
Application of Central-Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Finite-Volume Interface-Capturing Schemes for Modeling Cavitation Induced by an Underwater Explosion
by Ebenezer Mayowa Adebayo, Panagiotis Tsoutsanis and Karl W. Jenkins
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020033 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1325
Abstract
Cavitation resulting from underwater explosions in compressible multiphase or multicomponent flows presents significant challenges due to the dynamic nature of shock–cavitation–structure interactions, as well as the complex and discontinuous nature of the involved interfaces. Achieving accurate resolution of interfaces between different phases or [...] Read more.
Cavitation resulting from underwater explosions in compressible multiphase or multicomponent flows presents significant challenges due to the dynamic nature of shock–cavitation–structure interactions, as well as the complex and discontinuous nature of the involved interfaces. Achieving accurate resolution of interfaces between different phases or components, in the presence of shocks, cavitating regions, and structural interactions, is crucial for modeling such problems. Furthermore, pressure convergence in simulations involving shock–cavitation–structure interactions requires accurate algorithms. In this research paper, we employ the diffuse interface method, also known as the interface-capturing scheme, to investigate cavitation in various underwater explosion test cases near different surfaces: a free surface and a rigid surface. The simulations are conducted using the unstructured compressible Navier–Stokes (UCNS3D) finite-volume framework employing central-weighted essentially non-oscillatory (CWENO) reconstruction schemes, utilizing the five-equation diffuse interface family of methods. Quantitative comparisons are made between the performance of both models. Additionally, we examine the effects of cavitation as a secondary loading source on structures, and evaluate the ability of the CWENO schemes to accurately capture and resolve material interfaces between fluids with minimal numerical dissipation or smearing. The results are compared with existing high-order methods and experimental data, where possible, to demonstrate the robustness of the CWENO schemes in simulating cavitation bubble dynamics, as well as their limitations within the current implementation of interface capturing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics)
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13 pages, 2821 KiB  
Article
Numerical Investigation of Gas Bubble Interaction in a Circular Cross-Section Channel in Shear Flow
by Daniel B. V. Santos, Gustavo P. Oliveira, Norberto Mangiavacchi, Prashant Valluri and Gustavo R. Anjos
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020032 - 26 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1190
Abstract
This work’s goal is to numerically investigate the interactions between two gas bubbles in a fluid flow in a circular cross-section channel, both in the presence and in the absence of gravitational forces, with several Reynolds and Weber numbers. The first bubble is [...] Read more.
This work’s goal is to numerically investigate the interactions between two gas bubbles in a fluid flow in a circular cross-section channel, both in the presence and in the absence of gravitational forces, with several Reynolds and Weber numbers. The first bubble is placed at the center of the channel, while the second is near the wall. Their positions are set in such a way that a dynamic interaction is expected to occur due to their velocity differences. A finite element numerical tool is utilized to solve the incompressible Navier–Stokes equations and simulate two-phase flow using an unfitted mesh to represent the fluid interface, akin to the front-tracking method. The results show that the velocity gradient influences bubble shapes near the wall. Moreover, lower viscosity and surface tension force account for more significant interactions, both in the bubble shape and in the trajectory. In this scenario, it can be observed that one bubble is trapped in the other’s wake, with the proximity possibly allowing the onset of coalescence. The results obtained contribute to a deeper understanding of two-phase inner flows. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluids and Surfaces, 2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 4382 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Wing Tone around the Antennae of a Mosquito-like Model
by Yongtao Wang, Zhiteng Zhou and Zhuoyu Xie
Fluids 2024, 9(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/fluids9020031 - 24 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1222
Abstract
Mosquitoes’ self-generated air movements around their antennae, especially at the wing-beat frequency, are crucial for both obstacle avoidance and mating communication. However, the characteristics of these air movements are not well clarified. In this study, the air movements induced by wing tones (sound [...] Read more.
Mosquitoes’ self-generated air movements around their antennae, especially at the wing-beat frequency, are crucial for both obstacle avoidance and mating communication. However, the characteristics of these air movements are not well clarified. In this study, the air movements induced by wing tones (sound generated by flapping wings in flight) around the antennae of a mosquito-like model (Culex quinquefasciatus, male) are investigated using the acoustic analogy method. Both the self-generated wing tone and the wing tone reflected from the ground are calculated. Given that the tiny changes in direction and magnitude of air movements can be detected by the mosquito’s antennae, a novel method is introduced to intuitively characterize the air movements induced by the wing tone. The air movements are decomposed into two basic modes (oscillation and revolution). Our results show that, without considering the scattering on the mosquito’s body, the self-generated sound wave of the wing-beat frequency around the antennae mainly induces air oscillation, with the velocity amplitude exceeding the mosquito’s hearing threshold of the male wingbeat frequency by two orders of magnitude. Moreover, when the model is positioned at a distance from the ground greater than approximately two wing lengths, the reflected sound wave at the male wingbeat frequency attenuates below the hearing threshold. That is, the role of reflected wing tone in the mosquito’s obstacle avoidance mechanism appears negligible. Our findings and method may provide insight into how mosquitoes avoid obstacles when their vision is unavailable and inspire the development of collision avoidance systems in micro-aerial vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fluid Dynamics in Biological, Bio-Inspired, and Environmental Systems)
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