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Vet. Sci., Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 45 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Tumors of mesenchymal origin are rarely reported in the pancreas. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Infectious Bronchitis Virus Evolution, Diagnosis and Control
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020079 - 22 Jun 2020
Viewed by 382
Abstract
RNA viruses are characterized by high mutation and recombination rates, which allow a rapid adaptation to new environments. Most of the emerging diseases and host jumps are therefore sustained by these viruses. Rapid evolution may also hinder the understanding of molecular epidemiology, affect [...] Read more.
RNA viruses are characterized by high mutation and recombination rates, which allow a rapid adaptation to new environments. Most of the emerging diseases and host jumps are therefore sustained by these viruses. Rapid evolution may also hinder the understanding of molecular epidemiology, affect the sensitivity of diagnostic assays, limit the vaccine efficacy and favor episodes of immune escape, thus significantly complicating the control of even well-known pathogens. The history of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) fits well with the above-mentioned scenario. Despite being known since the 1930s, it still represents one of the main causes of disease and economic losses for the poultry industry. A plethora of strategies have been developed and applied over time, with variable success, to limit its impact. However, they have rarely been evaluated objectively and on an adequate scale. Therefore, the actual advantages and disadvantages of IBV detection and control strategies, as well as their implementation, still largely depend on individual sensibility. The present manuscript aims to review the main features of IBV biology and evolution, focusing on their relevance and potential applications in terms of diagnosis and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Open AccessReview
Palmitoylethanolamide and Related ALIAmides: Prohomeostatic Lipid Compounds for Animal Health and Wellbeing
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020078 - 16 Jun 2020
Viewed by 390
Abstract
Virtually every cellular process is affected by diet and this represents the foundation of dietary management to a variety of small animal disorders. Special attention is currently being paid to a family of naturally occurring lipid amides acting through the so-called autacoid local [...] Read more.
Virtually every cellular process is affected by diet and this represents the foundation of dietary management to a variety of small animal disorders. Special attention is currently being paid to a family of naturally occurring lipid amides acting through the so-called autacoid local injury antagonism, i.e., the ALIA mechanism. The parent molecule of ALIAmides, palmitoyl ethanolamide (PEA), has being known since the 1950s as a nutritional factor with protective properties. Since then, PEA has been isolated from a variety of plant and animal food sources and its proresolving function in the mammalian body has been increasingly investigated. The discovery of the close interconnection between ALIAmides and the endocannabinoid system has greatly stimulated research efforts in this field. The multitarget and highly redundant mechanisms through which PEA exerts prohomeostatic functions fully breaks with the classical pharmacology view of “one drug, one target, one disease”, opening a new era in the management of animals’ health, i.e., an according-to-nature biomodulation of body responses to different stimuli and injury. The present review focuses on the direct and indirect endocannabinoid receptor agonism by PEA and its analogues and also targets the main findings from experimental and clinical studies on ALIAmides in animal health and wellbeing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Characterization of Global DNA Methylation in Different Gene Regions Reveals Candidate Biomarkers in Pigs with High and Low Levels of Boar Taint
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020077 - 13 Jun 2020
Viewed by 430
Abstract
DNA methylation of different gene components, including different exons and introns, or different lengths of exons and introns is associated with differences in gene expression. To investigate the methylation of porcine gene components associated with the boar taint (BT) trait, this study used [...] Read more.
DNA methylation of different gene components, including different exons and introns, or different lengths of exons and introns is associated with differences in gene expression. To investigate the methylation of porcine gene components associated with the boar taint (BT) trait, this study used reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) data from nine porcine testis samples in three BT groups (low, medium and high BT). The results showed that the methylation levels of the first exons and first introns were lower than those of the other exons and introns. The first exons/introns of CpG island regions had even lower levels of methylation. A total of 123 differentially methylated promoters (DMPs), 194 differentially methylated exons (DMEs) and 402 differentially methylated introns (DMIs) were identified, of which 80 DMPs (DMP-CpGis), 112 DMEs (DME-CpGis) and 166 DMIs (DMI-CpGis) were discovered in CpG islands. Importantly, GPX1 contained one each of DMP, DME, DMI, DMP-CpGi, DME-CpGi and DMI-CpGi. Gene-GO term relationships and pathways analysis showed DMP-CpGi-related genes are mainly involved in methylation-related biological functions. In addition, gene–gene interaction networks consisted of nodes that were hypo-methylated GPX1, hypo-methylated APP, hypo-methylated ATOX1, hyper-methylated ADRB2, hyper-methylated RPS6KA1 and hyper-methylated PNMT. They could be used as candidate biomarkers for reducing boar taint in pigs, after further validation in large cohorts. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Microbial Profile of the Ventriculum of Honey Bee (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) Fed with Veterinary Drugs, Dietary Supplements and Non-Protein Amino Acids
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020076 - 06 Jun 2020
Viewed by 481
Abstract
The effects of veterinary drugs, dietary supplements and non-protein amino acids on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) ventriculum microbial profile were investigated. Total viable aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., aerobic bacterial [...] Read more.
The effects of veterinary drugs, dietary supplements and non-protein amino acids on the European honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica Spinola, 1806) ventriculum microbial profile were investigated. Total viable aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, staphylococci, Escherichia coli, lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp., aerobic bacterial endospores and Enterococcus spp. were determined using a culture-based method. Two veterinary drugs (Varromed® and Api-Bioxal®), two commercial dietary supplements (ApiHerb® and ApiGo®) and two non-protein amino acids (GABA and beta-alanine) were administered for one week to honey bee foragers reared in laboratory cages. After one week, E. coli and Staphylococcus spp. were significantly affected by the veterinary drugs (p < 0.001). Furthermore, dietary supplements and non-protein amino acids induced significant changes in Staphylococcus spp., E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the results of this investigation showed that the administration of the veterinary drugs, dietary supplements and non-protein amino acids tested, affected the ventriculum microbiological profile of Apis mellifera ligustica. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
Open AccessArticle
Public Perceptions of Veterinarians from Social and Online Media Listening
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020075 - 06 Jun 2020
Viewed by 939
Abstract
The public perception of the veterinary medicine profession is of increasing concern given the mounting challenges facing the industry, ranging from student debt loads to mental health implications arising from compassion fatigue, euthanasia, and other challenging aspects of the profession. This analysis employs [...] Read more.
The public perception of the veterinary medicine profession is of increasing concern given the mounting challenges facing the industry, ranging from student debt loads to mental health implications arising from compassion fatigue, euthanasia, and other challenging aspects of the profession. This analysis employs social media listening and analysis to discern top themes arising from social and online media posts referencing veterinarians. Social media sentiment analysis is also employed to aid in quantifying the search results, in terms of whether they are positivity/negativity associated. From September 2017-November 2019, over 1.4 million posts and 1.7 million mentions were analyzed; the top domain in the search results was Twitter (74%). The mean net sentiment associated with the search conducted over the time period studied was 52%. The top terms revealed in the searches conducted revolved mainly around care of or concern for pet animals. The recognition of challenges facing the veterinary medicine profession were notably absent, except for the mention of suicide risks. While undeniably influenced by the search terms selected, which were directed towards client–clinic related verbiage, a relative lack of knowledge regarding veterinarians’ roles in human health, food safety/security, and society generally outside of companion animal care was recognized. Future research aimed at determining the value of veterinarians’ contributions to society and, in particular, in the scope of One Health, may aid in forming future communication and education campaigns. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparative Genome Analysis of a Pathogenic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae Isolate WH13013 from Pig Reveals Potential Genes Involve in Bacterial Adaptions and Pathogenesis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020074 - 04 Jun 2020
Viewed by 402
Abstract
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a common pathogen responsible for pig erysipelas. However, the molecular basis for the pathogenesis of E. rhusiopathiae remains to be elucidated. In this study, the complete genome sequence of the E. rhusiopathiae strain WH13013, a pathogenic isolate from a diseased [...] Read more.
Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is a common pathogen responsible for pig erysipelas. However, the molecular basis for the pathogenesis of E. rhusiopathiae remains to be elucidated. In this study, the complete genome sequence of the E. rhusiopathiae strain WH13013, a pathogenic isolate from a diseased pig, was generated using a combined strategy of PacBio RSII and Illumina sequencing technologies. The strategy finally generated a single circular chromosome of approximately 1.78 Mb in size for the complete genome of WH13013, with an average GC content of 36.49%. The genome of WH13013 encoded 1633 predicted proteins, 55 tRNAs, as well as 15 rRNAs. It contained four genomic islands and several resistance-associated genes were identified within these islands. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that WH13013 was close to many other sequenced E. rhusiopathiae virulent strains. The comprehensive comparative analysis of eight E. rhusiopathiae virulent strains, including WH13013, identified a total of 1184 core genes. A large proportion (approximately 75.31%) of these core genes participated in nutrition and energy uptake and metabolism as well as the other bioactivities that are necessary for bacterial survival and adaption. The core genes also contained those encoding proteins participating in the biosynthesis and/or the components of the proposed virulence factors of E. rhusiopathiae, including the capsule (cpsA, cpsB, cpsC), neuraminidase (nanH), hyaluronidase (hylA, hylB, hylC), and surface proteins (spaA, rspA, rspB). The obtaining of the complete genome sequence of this virulent strain, WH13013, and this comprehensive comparative genome analysis will help in further studies of the genetic basis of the pathogenesis of E. rhusiopathiae. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence and Diversity of Avian Influenza Virus Hemagglutinin Sero-Subtypes in Poultry and Wild Birds in Bangladesh
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020073 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses have pandemic potential, cause significant economic losses and are of veterinary and public health concerns. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and diversity of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry and wild [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza H5 viruses have pandemic potential, cause significant economic losses and are of veterinary and public health concerns. This study aimed to investigate the distribution and diversity of hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes of avian influenza virus (AIV) in poultry and wild birds in Bangladesh. We conducted an avian influenza sero-surveillance in wild and domestic birds in wetlands of Chattogram and Sylhet in the winter seasons 2012–2014. We tested serum samples using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), and randomly selected positive serum samples (170 of 942) were tested using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) to detect antibodies against the 16 different HA sero-subtypes. All AIV sero–subtypes except H7, H11, H14 and H15 were identified in the present study, with H5 and H9 dominating over other subtypes, regardless of the bird species. The diversity of HA sero-subtypes within groups ranged from 3 (in household chickens) to 10 (in migratory birds). The prevalence of the H5 sero-subtype was 76.3% (29/38) in nomadic ducks, 71.4% (5/7) in household chicken, 66.7% (24/36) in resident wild birds, 65.9% (27/41) in migratory birds and 61.7% (29/47) in household ducks. Moreover, the H9 sero-subtype was common in migratory birds (56%; 23/41), followed by 38.3% (18/47) in household ducks, 36.8% (14/38) in nomadic ducks, 30.6% (11/66) in resident wild birds and 28.5% (2/7) in household chickens. H1, H4 and H6 sero-subtypes were the most common sero-subtypes (80%; 8/10, 70%; 7/10 and 70%; 7/10, respectively) in migratory birds in 2012, H9 in resident wild birds (83.3%; 5/6) and H2 in nomadic ducks (73.9%; 17/23) in 2013, and the H5 sero-subtype in all types of birds (50% to 100%) in 2014. The present study demonstrates that a high diversity of HA subtypes circulated in diverse bird species in Bangladesh, and this broad range of AIV hosts may increase the probability of AIVs’ reassortment and may enhance the emergence of novel AIV strains. A continued surveillance for AIV at targeted domestic–wild bird interfaces is recommended to understand the ecology and evolution of AIVs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Symmetric Dimethylarginine (SDMA) in Dogs with Acute Pancreatitis
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020072 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 494
Abstract
Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is considered an important biomarker of kidney dysfunction. The aims of the study were to evaluate SDMA in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP) and its relationship with the presence of kidney injury and mortality. A cohort study including fifty-four dogs [...] Read more.
Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is considered an important biomarker of kidney dysfunction. The aims of the study were to evaluate SDMA in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP) and its relationship with the presence of kidney injury and mortality. A cohort study including fifty-four dogs with AP diagnosed using compatible clinical and laboratory parameters, abnormal SNAP cPL and compatible abdominal ultrasound within 48 h from admission, was conducted. Dogs with history of renal and/or urinary diseases were excluded, along with dogs exposed to nephrotoxic drugs. Serum urea and creatinine and urinary output (UO) were recorded. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was diagnosed and graded using International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) guidelines. SDMA was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Fifty-four dogs were included and divided in non-AKI (n = 37) and AKI dogs (n = 17). Twenty-three dogs (14 non-AKI) had SDMA > 15 μg/dL. Median SDMA was higher in AKI dogs than non-AKI dogs (25.7 vs. 13.93 μg/dL; p = 0.03). Dogs with normal creatinine (AP and AKI 1 dogs) had SDMA above reference range in 38% and 33% of cases, respectively. In AKI dogs, SDMA and creatinine were positively correlated (p = 0.006 r = 0.7). SDMA was not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. Although further studies are warranted, SDMA may be a useful tool in canine AP, as a high SDMA may be related to subclinical kidney impairment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
Strategies to Combat Heat Stress in Broiler Chickens: Unveiling the Roles of Selenium, Vitamin E and Vitamin C
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020071 - 01 Jun 2020
Viewed by 523
Abstract
Heat stress compromises efficient poultry production by impairing growth performance and increasing mortality. Mechanisms to dissipate excess heat divert energy from efficient production. This includes increased energy expenditure for respiration, oxidative stress and micronutrient absorption. The fortification of diets with particular feed additives [...] Read more.
Heat stress compromises efficient poultry production by impairing growth performance and increasing mortality. Mechanisms to dissipate excess heat divert energy from efficient production. This includes increased energy expenditure for respiration, oxidative stress and micronutrient absorption. The fortification of diets with particular feed additives has been known as one of the most important approaches to minimize the negative impacts of heat stress on broiler production. In this context, the promising functional feed additives appeared to be selenium and vitamins E and C. The fortification of broiler diets with these feed additives has been proven to enhance the function of vital organs, immune system response and growth performance of broilers under heat stress. The current review highlights recent successful experiences in the alleviation of heat stress symptoms in broilers using the above-mentioned additives. Selenium and vitamins E and C enhanced production performance in broiler chickens challenged with acute heat stress. The combination of these additives, by employing multiple mechanisms and through synergistic effects, improves heat stress symptoms more efficiently than their individual forms. Emerging literature reveals that selenium and vitamins E and C are involved in close interactions to protect proteins and lipids from oxidative damage and boost immune system function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Immunohistochemical Studies of Cytokeratins and Differentiation Markers in Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020070 - 29 May 2020
Viewed by 452
Abstract
Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma is considered the most common bovine tumour, causing significant economic losses, mainly by abattoir condemnations. To obtain a better insight into the genesis and neoplastic transformation, 19 samples collected at slaughter from Holstein Friesian cattle and diagnosed as [...] Read more.
Bovine Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma is considered the most common bovine tumour, causing significant economic losses, mainly by abattoir condemnations. To obtain a better insight into the genesis and neoplastic transformation, 19 samples collected at slaughter from Holstein Friesian cattle and diagnosed as Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma were studied. Tumours were histologically classified into three categories: poorly (26.3%), moderately (26.3%), and well differentiated (47.4%). Expression of keratins (MNF116 and LP34) and of cornified envelope precursors (involucrin and profilaggrin) was studied. Expression of MNF116 was observed in all carcinomas. LP34 immunostaining was seen in all but three carcinomas, one from each degree. Involucrin immunoreaction was observed in all but one poorly differentiated carcinoma. Profilaggrin was present in only two moderately differentiated carcinomas, in all but one well differentiated, and in all but one poorly differentiated. MNF116 is a useful marker to confirm the epithelial origin of the tumour and stain most neoplastic cells in these tumours. The expression of involucrin and LP34 demonstrates that, in all tumours, cells have reached the final program of differentiation, regardless of the grade. The expression of profilaggrin could indicate molecular changes during malignant transformation but their expression does not seem to be of diagnostic value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of the Age and Body Weight of the Broiler Breeders Male on the Presentation of Oxidative Stress and Its Correlation with the Quality of Testicular Parenchyma and Physiological Antioxidant Levels
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020069 - 26 May 2020
Viewed by 460
Abstract
Chicken meat is a food of high nutritional quality; its production requires birds called broilers breeders and looking after all aspects that influence their reproductive capacity. An ongoing controversy exists among researchers related to the weight of the rooster and its fertilization capacity. [...] Read more.
Chicken meat is a food of high nutritional quality; its production requires birds called broilers breeders and looking after all aspects that influence their reproductive capacity. An ongoing controversy exists among researchers related to the weight of the rooster and its fertilization capacity. By histological and biochemical tests, the association between weight and age with oxidant damage, testicular parenchyma and antioxidant capacity was evaluated in Ross 308 roosters. Testicular integrity was assessed by histological analysis, oxidative stress was determined by malondialdehyde content, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was determined by oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and enzymatic antioxidant capacity through glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase activities. Histological analysis showed vacuolization of the epithelium from the seminiferous tubules. A significant negative association was observed between malondialdehyde and the deterioration of the integrity of the seminiferous epithelium, as well as between age and integrity of the seminiferous epithelium. It became evident that oxidative damage directly affects the quality of testicular parenchyma. Weight and age were not associated with the antioxidant enzymes activities, but with non-enzymatic capacity. The data obtained suggest that weight is not the most important factor that influences the fertility of the rooster. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Minimal Invasive Piezoelectric Osteotomy in Neurosurgery: Technic, Applications, and Clinical Outcomes of a Retrospective Case Series
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020068 - 22 May 2020
Viewed by 528
Abstract
Objective: To report the physical and technical principles, clinical applications, and outcomes of the minimal invasive piezoelectric osteotomy in a consecutive veterinary neurosurgical series. Methods: A series of 292 dogs and 32 cats underwent an osteotomy because a neurosurgical pathology performed with a [...] Read more.
Objective: To report the physical and technical principles, clinical applications, and outcomes of the minimal invasive piezoelectric osteotomy in a consecutive veterinary neurosurgical series. Methods: A series of 292 dogs and 32 cats underwent an osteotomy because a neurosurgical pathology performed with a Mectron Piezosurgery® bone scalpel (Mectron Medical Technology, Genoa, Italy) was retrospectively reviewed. Efficacy, precision, safety, and blood loss were evaluated intraoperatively by two different surgeons, on a case-by-case basis. Postoperative Rx and CT scans were used to assess the selectivity and precision of the osteotomy. A histological study on bony specimens at the osteotomized surface was carried out to evaluate the effects of piezoelectric cutting on the osteocytes and osteoblasts. All the patients underwent a six-months follow-up. A series of illustrative cases was reported. Results: All the osteotomies were clear-cut and precise. A complete sparing of soft and nervous tissues and vasculature was observed. The operative field was blood- and heat-free in all cases. A range of inserts, largely different in shape and length, were allowed to treat deep and difficult-to-reach sites. Two mechanical complications occurred. Average blood loss in dogs’ group was 52, 47, and 56 mL for traumatic, degenerative, and neoplastic lesions, respectively, whereas it was 25 mL for traumatized cats. A fast recovery of functions was observed in most of the treated cases, early on, at the first sixth-month evaluation. Histology on bone flaps showed the presence of live osteocytes and osteoblasts at the osteotomized surface in 92% of cases. Conclusions: Piezosurgery is based on the physical principle of the indirect piezo effect. Piezoelectric osteotomy is selective, effective, and safe in bone cutting during neurosurgical veterinary procedures. It can be considered a minimal invasive technique, as it is able to spare the neighboring soft tissues and neurovascular structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessCommunication
Thalidomide Reduces Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Immunostaining in Canine Splenic Hemangiosarcoma
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020067 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 640
Abstract
Hemangiosarcomas (HSA) are common neoplasms of dogs that often metastasize and are typically fatal. Recently it was demonstrated that thalidomide extends the survival time of dogs with HSA, potentially due to thalidomide-induced inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by the neoplastic [...] Read more.
Hemangiosarcomas (HSA) are common neoplasms of dogs that often metastasize and are typically fatal. Recently it was demonstrated that thalidomide extends the survival time of dogs with HSA, potentially due to thalidomide-induced inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by the neoplastic cells. To investigate this, immunostaining was used to evaluate VEGF within HSA metastases that developed after thalidomide treatment. The immunostaining was then compared to VEGF immunostaining in primary tumors from the same dogs prior to treatment with thalidomide and in metastatic tumors from untreated dogs with splenic HSA. Immunostaining was scored from 1 to 4 for each sample. Immunostaining in the metastatic lesions that had been treated with thalidomide had a mean immunostaining score of 1.4 which was significantly lower than the mean score in the corresponding primary splenic HSA (3.8, p = 0.02) and in metastases from untreated dogs (3.5, p = 0.02). This supports the hypothesis that thalidomide prolongs survival time in dogs with HSA due to inhibition of VEGF production by the neoplastic cells. As VEGF remained visible within HSAs exposed to thalidomide, additional treatments to inhibit VEGF production may further prolong survival times of dogs with these common canine neoplasms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessCommunication
Comparison of Real-Time PCR, Bacteriologic Culture and Fluorescent Antibody Test for the Detection of Leptospira borgpetersenii in Urine of Naturally Infected Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020066 - 15 May 2020
Viewed by 645
Abstract
Cattle are susceptible to infection with multiple serovars of pathogenic leptospires, resulting in abortion, stillbirth, premature birth, reproductive failure and milk drop syndrome. Cattle also act as a reservoir host for L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo which is excreted from renal tubules via urine [...] Read more.
Cattle are susceptible to infection with multiple serovars of pathogenic leptospires, resulting in abortion, stillbirth, premature birth, reproductive failure and milk drop syndrome. Cattle also act as a reservoir host for L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo which is excreted from renal tubules via urine into the environment where it persists in suitable moist conditions. Our previous work demonstrated that 7% of urine samples from beef cattle were positive for L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo by culture and/or the fluorescent antibody test (FAT). In this study, a real-time PCR (rtPCR) assay was applied to determine the relative performance of rtPCR based detection of L. borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo compared to previously reported culture and FAT techniques. Of 42 bovine urine samples positive for leptospires by culture and/or FAT, 60% (25/42) were positive by rtPCR. Of 22 culture-positive samples, 91% (20/22) were rtPCR-positive. Of 32 FAT-positive samples, 50% (16/32) were rtPCR-positive. For 10 samples that were culture-positive but FAT-negative, 90% (9/10) were rtPCR-positive. For 20 samples that were FAT-positive but culture-negative, 25% (5/20) were rtPCR-positive. Collectively, these results indicate that no single assay is optimal, and the use of more than one assay to detect leptospires in urine from naturally infected cattle is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Efficacy of Live Attenuated Vaccine and Commercially Available Lectin against Avian Pathogenic E. coli Infection in Broiler Chickens
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020065 - 13 May 2020
Viewed by 898
Abstract
In this study, the protective efficacy of an E. coli live attenuated vaccine was compared to the preventive administration of lectin preparation before the challenge. Two hundred broiler chicks were divided into eight equal groups. The first group was used as a negative [...] Read more.
In this study, the protective efficacy of an E. coli live attenuated vaccine was compared to the preventive administration of lectin preparation before the challenge. Two hundred broiler chicks were divided into eight equal groups. The first group was used as a negative control group. Three groups were vaccinated at day 1 with the avian colibacillosis live vaccine of which one group served as a vaccinated nonchallenged group. Another two groups were treated with lectin product (0.5 mL/L drinking water) for three days before the challenge. The last two groups served as challenge control for either E. coli O78 or O125 strains. The challenge was conducted at three weeks of age with either homologous O78 or heterologous O125 E. coli strains, using 0.5 mL/bird of each avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain (~108 colony forming units “CFU”/mL)/subcutaneously. The bodyweight and feed conversion ratios (FCR) were calculated for four weeks. Clinical signs and gross and histopathological lesions were scored at two and seven days post inoculation (dpi). The heart and liver of euthanized chickens at 2 dpi were removed aseptically and homogenized to evaluate pathogenic E. coli colonization. Results showed that live avian colibacillosis vaccine reduced mortalities and APEC colonization in the homologous challenge group but not in the heterologous challenge group. Lectin-treated groups showed 20% and 16% mortality after challenge with E. coli O78 and O125, respectively, and both groups showed performance parameters, clinical signs, and histopathological lesion scores comparable to the negative control group, with variable E. coli colonization of heart and liver. The study demonstrated the efficacy of live attenuated avian colibacillosis vaccine against homologous but not heterologous APEC challenge in broiler chickens. The lectin-containing products can be used as a preventive medication to reduce the clinical impacts of colibacillosis regardless of the challenge strain. Standardization of the evaluation parameters for APEC vaccines is recommended. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessReview
Pneumoperitoneum in Veterinary Laparoscopy: A Review
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020064 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 607
Abstract
Objective: To review the effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy, evaluate alternative techniques to establishing a working space and compare this to current recommendations in veterinary surgery. Study Design: Literature review. Sample Population: 92 peer-reviewed articles. Methods: An electronic database search identified [...] Read more.
Objective: To review the effects of carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopy, evaluate alternative techniques to establishing a working space and compare this to current recommendations in veterinary surgery. Study Design: Literature review. Sample Population: 92 peer-reviewed articles. Methods: An electronic database search identified human and veterinary literature on the effects of pneumoperitoneum (carbon dioxide insufflation for laparoscopy) and alternatives with a focus on adaptation to the veterinary field. Results: Laparoscopy is the preferred surgical approach for many human and several veterinary procedures due to the lower morbidity associated with minimally invasive surgery, compared to laparotomy. The establishment of a pneumoperitoneum with a gas most commonly facilitates a working space. Carbon dioxide is the preferred gas for insufflation as it is inert, inexpensive, noncombustible, colorless, excreted by the lungs and highly soluble in water. Detrimental side effects such as acidosis, hypercapnia, reduction in cardiac output, decreased pulmonary compliance, hypothermia and post-operative pain have been associated with a pneumoperitoneum established with CO2 insufflation. As such alternatives have been suggested such as helium, nitrous oxide, warmed and humidified carbon dioxide and gasless laparoscopy. None of these alternatives have found a consistent benefit over standard carbon dioxide insufflation. Conclusions: The physiologic alterations seen with CO2 insufflation at the current recommended intra-abdominal pressures are mild and of transient duration. Clinical Significance: The current recommendations in veterinary laparoscopy for a pneumoperitoneum using carbon dioxide appear to be safe and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
Open AccessCommunication
Characterizing the Role of SMYD2 in Mammalian Embryogenesis—Future Directions
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020063 - 12 May 2020
Viewed by 572
Abstract
The SET and MYND domain-containing (SMYD) family of lysine methyltransferases are essential in several mammalian developmental pathways. Although predominantly expressed in the heart, the role of SMYD2 in heart development has yet to be fully elucidated and has even been shown to be [...] Read more.
The SET and MYND domain-containing (SMYD) family of lysine methyltransferases are essential in several mammalian developmental pathways. Although predominantly expressed in the heart, the role of SMYD2 in heart development has yet to be fully elucidated and has even been shown to be dispensable in a murine Nkx2-5-associated conditional knockout. Additionally, SMYD2 was recently shown to be necessary not only for lymphocyte development but also for the viability of hematopoietic leukemias. Based on the broad expression pattern of SMYD2 in mammalian tissues, it is likely that it plays pivotal roles in a host of additional normal and pathological processes. In this brief review, we consider what is currently known about the normal and pathogenic functions of SMYD2 and propose specific future directions for characterizing its role in embryogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Factors of Embryological Development and Tumorigenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
Canine Epithelial Skin Tumours: Expression of the Stem Cell Markers Lgr5, Lgr6 and Sox9 in Light of New Cancer Stem Cell Theories
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020062 - 08 May 2020
Viewed by 739
Abstract
Evidence is accumulating that tumour development is driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs). In order to understand the presence and potential contribution of stem cells (SCs) as tumour-initiating cells in canine cutaneous tumours, we selected three putative SC markers (Lgr5, Lgr6 and Sox9) [...] Read more.
Evidence is accumulating that tumour development is driven by cancer stem cells (CSCs). In order to understand the presence and potential contribution of stem cells (SCs) as tumour-initiating cells in canine cutaneous tumours, we selected three putative SC markers (Lgr5, Lgr6 and Sox9) and investigated their expression pattern, level of protein and mRNA expression, in 43 canine hair follicle (HF) and 18 canine cutaneous epidermal tumours by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, using normal skin samples as controls. Lgr5 protein expression was not detected in epidermal and HF tumours; however, Lgr5 mRNA overexpression was evident in some HF tumours. Sox9 was expressed in several tumour cases, both at the protein and mRNA level. The Lgr6 antibody tested was not suitable for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples, but Lgr6 gene showed higher expression in several samples of both HF and epidermal tumours compared with normal skin. Significantly higher mRNA expression levels of the three SC markers were found in trichoblastomas (TB) compared with basal cell carcinomas (BCC). The present results indicated that canine HF and epidermal tumours might have common tumour-initiating cells. The mRNA expression of the three selected SC markers, especially Lgr5, could be potentially useful in the distinction between canine TB and BCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Anatomy, Histology and Pathology)
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Open AccessArticle
Using Manual and Computer-Based Text-Mining to Uncover Research Trends for Apis mellifera
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020061 - 06 May 2020
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
Honey bee research is believed to be influenced dramatically by colony collapse disorder (CCD) and the sequenced genome release in 2006, but this assertion has never been tested. By employing text-mining approaches, research trends were tested by analyzing over 14,000 publications during the [...] Read more.
Honey bee research is believed to be influenced dramatically by colony collapse disorder (CCD) and the sequenced genome release in 2006, but this assertion has never been tested. By employing text-mining approaches, research trends were tested by analyzing over 14,000 publications during the period of 1957 to 2017. Quantitatively, the data revealed an exponential growth until 2010 when the number of articles published per year ceased following the trend. Analysis of author-assigned keywords revealed that changes in keywords occurred roughly every decade with the most fundamental change in 1991–1992, instead of 2006. This change might be due to several factors including the research intensification on the Varroa mite. The genome release and CCD had quantitively only minor effects, mainly on honey bee health-related topics post-2006. Further analysis revealed that computational topic modeling can provide potentially hidden information and connections between some topics that might be ignored in author-assigned keywords. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Honey Bee Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Color Flow Doppler Echocardiography in Healthy Racing Pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) and the Evidence of Physiological Blood Flow Vortex Formations
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020060 - 04 May 2020
Viewed by 591
Abstract
In avian medicine, Doppler sonographic techniques are used to visualize and estimate blood flow in the heart. In the literature there is a lack of standardized studies of the use of color Doppler flow on healthy avian species. For this purpose, we examined [...] Read more.
In avian medicine, Doppler sonographic techniques are used to visualize and estimate blood flow in the heart. In the literature there is a lack of standardized studies of the use of color Doppler flow on healthy avian species. For this purpose, we examined blood flow in the heart in the four-chamber view of clinically healthy awake racing pigeons (n = 43) by color flow Doppler sonography. With this technique the diastolic and systolic blood flow in the heart chambers and the heart valve regions were well visualized. However, the pulse repetition frequency must be adapted to the specific blood flow velocities of the heart region to be measured to reduce aliasing in higher velocities and to visualize blood flow of lower velocities. With the help of color Doppler imaging in the four-chamber view, typical physiological atrial and ventricular blood flow vortex formations were visualized in the avian heart for the first time. In the left ventricle an asymmetric vortex ring in the passive and active ventricular filling, in the right ventricle a great counter-clockwise blood vortex in the active ventricular filling, in the left atrium a vortex clockwise, and in the right atrium counter-clockwise were observed. The knowledge of these physiological blood flow vortices is important to identify pathological blood flow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Toxicity in Goats Exposed to Arsenic in the Region Lagunera, Northern Mexico
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020059 - 04 May 2020
Viewed by 732
Abstract
The Region Lagunera, a region in northeast Mexico, is undergoing significant problems with the quality of its groundwater, which exceeds the permissible limits of contaminants and/or heavy metals stipulated in Mexican legislation. The present study evaluated chronic toxicity in male goats exposed to [...] Read more.
The Region Lagunera, a region in northeast Mexico, is undergoing significant problems with the quality of its groundwater, which exceeds the permissible limits of contaminants and/or heavy metals stipulated in Mexican legislation. The present study evaluated chronic toxicity in male goats exposed to arsenic via one ex situ Group 1 (n = 5) and one in situ female goats Group 3 (n = 10). The treatment in Group 1 was carried out in the La Laguna experimental field of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP), located in Matamoros, Coahuila, Mexico. Sodium arsenite (2 mg/kg) was orally administered for 84 days to five male Creole goats, aged between four and five years old and weighing between 60 and 70 kg, in order to determine its effect on urine toxicity, libido, and physiological condition, an untreated group (n = 5) was included (Group 2). The experiment in group 3 was conducted on ten female Creole goats, aged between four and six years old and weighing between 40 and 49 kg, in both the contaminated sampling area in the rural community of El Venado and the control sampling area in the rural community of Nuevo Reynosa (Group 4 (n = 5)), in which the arsenic levels were measured in the urine of the exposed goats, as was their physiological condition. Significant differences (p < 0.01) between the groups were found in both the arsenic concentration in the urine and the physiological condition observed in both experimental groups. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Outcome and Economic Viability of Embryo Production Using IVF and SOV Techniques in the Wagyu Breed of Cattle
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020058 - 01 May 2020
Viewed by 741
Abstract
The Japanese black cattle breed (Wagyu) has an improved metabolism, which allows them to have a higher marbling score when compared with other cattle breeds. However, this may affect other aspects of the animal’s physiology, including hormone secretion and their reproductive success, such [...] Read more.
The Japanese black cattle breed (Wagyu) has an improved metabolism, which allows them to have a higher marbling score when compared with other cattle breeds. However, this may affect other aspects of the animal’s physiology, including hormone secretion and their reproductive success, such as their response to synchronization protocols and embryo production. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to test a superovulation protocol (SOV) developed with low doses of FSH and to evaluate the outcome and economic viability of embryo production using the SOV and in vitro fertilization (IVF) approaches in the Wagyu cattle breed. For that, ten Wagyu cows were submitted to five SOVs over a period of 15 months using a standard protocol: CIDR + 3 mg estradiol benzoate (D0), 35 mg FSH (Folltropin®) a.m. and p.m. (D4), 35 mg Folltropin® a.m. and 20 mg p.m. (D5), 20 mg Folltropin® a.m. and 10 mg p.m. (D6), 10 mg Folltropin® and 0.5 mg cloprostenol, both a.m. and p.m., + CIDR removal (D7), 0.05 mg GnRH + insemination 12 and 24 h after (D8) and embryo collection + 0.5 mg of cloprostenol (D16). Thirty days after each SOV, a follicular aspiration was conducted to produce IVF embryos without any pre-synchronization using standard semen in the same group of animals. The average number of embryos produced was 7.63 ± 5.61 (SOV) and 4.52 ± 2.44 (IVF) (p = 0.303). There was no significant correlation between the number of embryos produced by the different techniques (SOV and IVF), indicating that cows that respond well to SOV did not respond well to IVF and vice versa (r = 0.379, p = 0.529). The total cost of each embryo produced by SOV was R$215.00 and R$410.00 for IVF. Therefore, cows that produce less than five embryos by SOV are not economically viable due their lack of response to FSH, and the use of IVF in those animals may be more effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physiology and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Joint Lavage with Dimethylsulfoxide on LPS-Induced Synovitis in Horses—Clinical and Laboratorial Aspects
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020057 - 30 Apr 2020
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Several studies in human and equine medicine have produced controversial results regarding the role of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a therapeutic agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of joint lavage with different DMSO concentrations on biomarkers of synovial fluid inflammation and cartilage [...] Read more.
Several studies in human and equine medicine have produced controversial results regarding the role of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as a therapeutic agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of joint lavage with different DMSO concentrations on biomarkers of synovial fluid inflammation and cartilage degradation in joints with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced synovitis. Twenty-six tibiotarsal joints of 13 horses were randomly distributed into four groups (lactated Ringer’s solution; 5% DMSO in lactated Ringer’s; 10% DMSO in lactated Ringer’s; and sham). All animals were evaluated for the presence of lameness, and synovial fluid analyses were performed at 0 h, 1 h, 8 h, 24 h, and 48 h (T0, T1, T8, T24, and T48, respectively). The white blood cell counts (WBC), total protein (TP), urea, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), hyaluronic acid (HA), and chondroitin sulfate (CS) concentrations were measured. The WBC counts and PGE2, IL-1β, IL-6, and TP concentrations increased in all groups at T8 compared to baseline values (p < 0.05). At T48, only the 5% DMSO and 10% DMSO groups showed a significant decrease in WBC counts (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the 10% DMSO group had lower concentrations of PGE2 and IL-1β at T48 than at T8 (p < 0.05) and presented lower IL-6 levels than the5% DMSO and lactated Ringer’s groups at T24. All groups showed an increase in CS concentration after LPS-induced synovitis. Joint lavage with 10% DMSO in lactated Ringer’s has anti-inflammatory but not chondroprotective effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Veterinary Medicine)
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Open AccessReview
A Review of the Public Health Challenges of Salmonella and Turtles
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020056 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars are recognized as zoonotic pathogens. Although human salmonellosis is frequently associated with ingestion of contaminated foods of animal origin, contact with animals may also be a significant source of Salmonella infection, especially contact with turtles, which have shown to be [...] Read more.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella serovars are recognized as zoonotic pathogens. Although human salmonellosis is frequently associated with ingestion of contaminated foods of animal origin, contact with animals may also be a significant source of Salmonella infection, especially contact with turtles, which have shown to be an important reservoir of Salmonella, specifically through their intestinal tracts. Turtles are among the most common reptiles kept as house pets that may pose a public health risk associated with Salmonella exposure, especially among infants and young children. This review discusses the literature reporting the link between turtles and Salmonella as well as turtle-associated human salmonellosis in the last ten years. In most outbreaks, a high proportion of patients are children under five years of age, which indicates that children are at the greatest risk of turtle-associated salmonellosis. Therefore, turtles should not be preferred as recommended pets for children under five years of age. Reducing turtle stress to minimise Salmonella shedding as well as providing client education handouts at the points of sale of these animals may reduce the risk of transmitting such significant pathogen to humans. Further studies are required to investigate the role of both direct contact with turtles as well as indirect contact through cross-contamination in the transmission of turtles-associated Salmonella to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical and Pathological Data of 17 Non-Epithelial Pancreatic Tumors in Cats
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020055 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 953
Abstract
Tumors of mesenchymal origin are rarely reported in the pancreas. Therefore, this study characterized 17 feline non-epithelial pancreatic tumors, including clinical data, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Seventeen feline pancreatic tissue samples were investigated histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Selected pancreatic and inflammatory serum parameters, e.g., feline [...] Read more.
Tumors of mesenchymal origin are rarely reported in the pancreas. Therefore, this study characterized 17 feline non-epithelial pancreatic tumors, including clinical data, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry. Seventeen feline pancreatic tissue samples were investigated histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Selected pancreatic and inflammatory serum parameters, e.g., feline pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (fPLI), 1,2-o-dilauryl-rac-glycero-3-glutaric acid-(6′-methylresorufin) ester (DGGR) lipase and serum amyloid A (SAA), were recorded, when available. The neoplasms were characterized as round (n = 13) or spindle (n = 4) cell tumors. Round cell tumors included 12 lymphomas and one mast cell tumor in ectopic splenic tissue within the pancreas. Lymphomas were of T-cell (n = 9) or B-cell (n = 3) origin. These cats showed leukocytosis (3/3) and increased fPLI (5/5), DGGR lipase (3/5) and SAA (4/5) values. Spindle cell tumors included two hemangiosarcomas, one pleomorphic sarcoma and one fibrosarcoma. The cat with pleomorphic sarcoma showed increased SAA value. Overall survival time was two weeks to seven months. These are the first descriptions of a pancreatic pleomorphic sarcoma and a mast cell tumor in accessory spleens within feline pancreas. Although rare, pancreatic tumors should be considered in cats presenting with clinical signs and clinical pathology changes of pancreatitis. Only histopathology can certainly distinguish solitary pancreatitis from a neoplasm with inflammation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Poultry Species in Algeria: Long-Term Study on Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020054 - 27 Apr 2020
Viewed by 707
Abstract
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known pathogen with a serious impact on human and veterinary public health. To determine antibiotic resistance of MRSA in poultry, 4248 nasal swabs were collected from 840 poultry farms in 18 different Wilayas (provinces) of Algeria. Swabs [...] Read more.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a well-known pathogen with a serious impact on human and veterinary public health. To determine antibiotic resistance of MRSA in poultry, 4248 nasal swabs were collected from 840 poultry farms in 18 different Wilayas (provinces) of Algeria. Swabs were collected between 2011 and 2018 from breeding hens, laying hens, broilers, and turkeys. Identification was carried out by the classical culture methods, and the disc diffusion test was used to determine the antibiotic resistance patterns. S. aureus was isolated from 477 (56.8%) farms, and flock prevalence was 52.8%, 48.8%, 48.4%, and 75.6% in breeding hens, laying hens, broilers, and turkeys, respectively. MRSA was isolated from 252 (30%) farms and flock prevalence was 22%, 33.5%, 27.4%, and 36%, respectively. As expected, all MRSA isolates were resistant to cefoxitin, penicillin G, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and oxacillin. High levels of resistance were found for tetracycline (82.5%), erythromycin (70.6%), clindamycin (68.6%), and ciprofloxacin (50%). Almost all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin (100%) and mupirocin and rifampicin (99.2%), followed by chloramphenicol (82.3%), and gentamicin (76%). This moderate proportion of MRSA in poultry poses a considerable risk to public health. The results of this study highlight the need for control programs that encompass primary animal production and the food chain to mitigate contamination and spread of MRSA in the poultry industry of Algeria, and consequently to humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resistant Staphylococci in Animals)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Inhibiting Effects of Three Fungal Species on Eggs of Donkey Gastrointestinal Strongyles
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020053 - 25 Apr 2020
Viewed by 626
Abstract
Recently, donkeys have gained popularity mainly due to the use of donkey milk by the cosmetic industry and for human consumption. Gastrointestinal strongyles (GIS) are considered a potential cause of disease and reduced production in infected donkeys. European laws limit the use of [...] Read more.
Recently, donkeys have gained popularity mainly due to the use of donkey milk by the cosmetic industry and for human consumption. Gastrointestinal strongyles (GIS) are considered a potential cause of disease and reduced production in infected donkeys. European laws limit the use of anthelmintic drugs for the control of GIS in dairy donkey farms, thus the need to develop alternative control methods. This study aimed to test the in vitro inhibiting effects of three chitin degrading fungi (Scopulariopsis brevicaulis, Metarhizium anisopliae, and Beauveria bassiana) on the hatch and viability of donkey GIS eggs by using the egg hatch test, and to compare their activity to that of Pochonia chlamydosporia. About 150 eggs were added to 0.5 mL of sterile saline solution containing about 1.4 × 108 spores of each fungal species or with 0.5 mL of sterile saline solution only (untreated controls). After incubation, the percentage of egg hatch reduction was calculated, and data were statistically analyzed. All fungi were able to significantly reduce (p < 0.05) the hatch of GIS eggs compared to the untreated controls. Further studies that aim to investigate the efficiency of these fungi in reducing donkey GIS eggs in contaminated environments are encouraged. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Oral Administration of 1,3-1,6 β-Glucans in DWV Naturally Infected Newly Emerged Bees (Apis mellifera L.)
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020052 - 25 Apr 2020
Viewed by 602
Abstract
Honeybee pathogens have an important role in honeybee colony mortality and colony losses; most of them are widely spread and necessitate worldwide solutions to contrast honeybee’s decline. Possible accepted solutions to cope with the spread of honeybee’s pathogens are focused on the study [...] Read more.
Honeybee pathogens have an important role in honeybee colony mortality and colony losses; most of them are widely spread and necessitate worldwide solutions to contrast honeybee’s decline. Possible accepted solutions to cope with the spread of honeybee’s pathogens are focused on the study of experimental protocols to enhance the insect’s immune defenses. Honeybee’s artificial diet capable to stimulate the immune system is a promising field of investigation as ascertained by the introduction of 1,3-1,6 β-glucans as a dietary supplement. In this work, by collecting faecal samples of honeybees exposed to different dietary conditions of 1,3-1,6 β-glucans (0.5% and 2% w/w), it has been possible to investigate the Deformed wing virus (DWV) viral load kinetic without harming the insects. Virological data obtained by a one-step TaqMan RT-PCR highlighted the ability of 1,3-1,6 β-glucans to reduce the viral load at the 24th day of rearing. The results indicated that the diet supplemented with 1,3-1,6 β-glucans was associated with a dose-dependent activation of phenoloxidase. The control group showed a higher survival rate than the experimental groups. This research confirmed 1,3-1,6 β-glucans as molecules able to modulate honeybees’ defense pathways, and this is the first report in which the kinetic of DWV infection in honeybee faeces has been monitored by a RT-qPCR. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Nitric Oxide as a Potential Adjuvant Therapeutic for Neuroblastoma: Effects of NO on Murine N2a Cells
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020051 - 23 Apr 2020
Viewed by 934
Abstract
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Pharmaceutical applications of S-Nitrosylation, which, under normal conditions is involved with a host of epigenetic and embryological development pathways, have exhibited great potential for use as [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor in children, accounts for 15% of all pediatric cancer deaths. Pharmaceutical applications of S-Nitrosylation, which, under normal conditions is involved with a host of epigenetic and embryological development pathways, have exhibited great potential for use as adjuvant therapeutics in the clinical management of cancer. Herein, an evaluation of the impact of nitric oxide (NO) as a potent anticancer agent on murine neuroblastoma cells is presented. Excitingly cell viability, colony formation, and non-carcinogenic cell analysis illustrate the significance and practicality of NO as a cytotoxic anticancer therapeutic. Resazurin, WST-8 (2-(2-methoxy-4-nitrophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, monosodium salt), and MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphyltetrazolium bromide) assays consistently displayed a moderate, ~20–25% reduction in cell viability after exposure to 1 mM S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). A colony formation assay demonstrated that treated cells no longer exhibited colony formation capacity. Identically GSNO-treated Adult Human Dermal Fibroblasts (HDFa) exhibited no decrease in viability, indicating potential discrimination between neoplastic and normal cells. Collectively, our findings indicate a potential application for NO as an adjuvant therapeutic in the clinical management of neuroblastoma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epigenetic Factors of Embryological Development and Tumorigenesis)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparison of Public Perceptions of Physicians and Veterinarians in the United States
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020050 - 22 Apr 2020
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Veterinary medicine consists of virtually the same medical specialties as human medicine, with veterinarians performing similar roles as medical doctors, albeit with different species. Despite these similarities, anecdotally, some perceptions of veterinarians as not “real doctors” persist. The purpose of this study was [...] Read more.
Veterinary medicine consists of virtually the same medical specialties as human medicine, with veterinarians performing similar roles as medical doctors, albeit with different species. Despite these similarities, anecdotally, some perceptions of veterinarians as not “real doctors” persist. The purpose of this study was to explore and compare public perceptions of physicians and veterinarians. Participants were provided brief definitions of a physician and a veterinarian and then asked to provide a rating that best describes their perception with respect to 25 different personality characteristics/traits. A sample of 606 participants (unweighted) in the United States completed the survey. The results of this research show that the public tends to perceive veterinarians more favorably than physicians. More specifically, veterinarians were viewed as more approachable, sensitive, sympathetic, patient and understanding, while physicians were viewed as more proud, arrogant and overconfident. These results point to the favorable public perceptions of veterinarians. These findings are particularly relevant for veterinary educators who train the future workforce and have a significant role both in how the profession is portrayed and emphasizing the relationship between the public trust and social responsibility. Reinforcing the public’s strong trust in the veterinary profession throughout students’ education could enhance their own self-concept, self-esteem and overall mental health and well-being. Full article
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