Special Issue "Trends in Poultry Diseases"

A special issue of Veterinary Sciences (ISSN 2306-7381).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 November 2021.

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Giovanni Franzo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padova, Padova, Italy
Interests: evolution; phylogenesis; bioinformatics; circoviruses; genetics
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Dr. Mattia Cecchinato
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Department of Animal Medicine, Production and Health (MAPS), University of Padova, 35122 Padova, Italy
Interests: infectious bronchitis; avian metapneumovirus; avian influenza; infectious bursal disease; viral molecular diagnosis; control strategies; molecular epidemiology
Dr. Konstantinos Koutoulis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Poultry Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, 43100 Karditsa, Greece
Interests: infectious bronchitis; infectious bursal disease; Campylobacter spp; autogenous vaccines; E. coli; probiotics
Dr. Vasilios Tsiouris
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Unit of Avian Medicine, Clinic of Farm Animals, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, School of Health Sciences, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54627 Thessaloniki, Greece
Interests: gut health; necrotic enteritis; feed additives; plant extracts; Campylobacter spp; Eimeria spp

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

It is widely recognized that the demand for poultry meat and eggs has been increasing substantially in recent years due to the changes in food consumption patterns. The poultry industry has reacted to this increased demand by an expansion of broiler and layer production systems, which in turn has allowed ‘new’ and ‘old’ diseases to emerge and spread. Poultry infectious diseases, technopathy, and even those whose etiology is unknown have increased. Therefore, scientists continuously put in an effort to expand their research and hinder these diseases, limiting the associated vast financial losses to the poultry industry. Modern biotechnological tools are helping poultry production, allowing a faster and precise diagnosis, investigation of pathogenic mechanisms, reconstruction of disease spread and improvement of prevention, and control strategies such as the development of new vaccines, alternative to AGP feed additives, and techniques that are able to overcome the limits of the existing ones.

This Special Issue on “Trends in Poultry Diseases” intends to gather and disseminate the latest data and knowledge on different poultry diseases caused by various microorganisms, managerial practices, and technopathy, taking into account several aspects related to their epidemiology, diagnosis, and control.

Dr. Giovanni Franzo
Dr. Mattia Cecchinato
Dr. Konstantinos Koutoulis
Dr. Vasilios Tsiouris
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • poultry diseases
  • infectious diseases
  • vaccines
  • epidemiology
  • diagnosis
  • nutrition
  • technopathy

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Antimicrobial Resistance, FlaA Sequencing, and Phylogenetic Analysis of Campylobacter Isolates from Broiler Chicken Flocks in Greece
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8050068 - 21 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1079
Abstract
Human campylobacteriosis caused by thermophilic Campylobacter species is the most commonly reported foodborne zoonosis. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human infection. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular epidemiology of 205 [...] Read more.
Human campylobacteriosis caused by thermophilic Campylobacter species is the most commonly reported foodborne zoonosis. Consumption of contaminated poultry meat is regarded as the main source of human infection. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility and the molecular epidemiology of 205 Campylobacter isolates derived from Greek flocks slaughtered in three different slaughterhouses over a 14-month period. A total of 98.5% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial agent. In terms of multidrug resistance, 11.7% of isolates were resistant to three or more groups of antimicrobials. Extremely high resistance to fluoroquinolones (89%), very high resistance to tetracycline (69%), and low resistance to macrolides (7%) were detected. FlaA sequencing was performed for the subtyping of 64 C. jejuni and 58 C. coli isolates. No prevalence of a specific flaA type was observed, indicating the genetic diversity of the isolates, while some flaA types were found to share similar antimicrobial resistance patterns. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the neighbor-joining method. Seven clusters of the C. jejuni phylogenetic tree and three clusters of the C. coli tree were considered significant with bootstrap values >75%. Some isolates clustered together were originated from the same or adjacent farms, indicating transmission via personnel or shared equipment. These results are important and help further the understanding of the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance of Campylobacter spp. derived from poultry in Greece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Article
Molecular Epidemiology and Genotyping of Infectious Bronchitis Virus and Avian Metapneumovirus in Backyard and Commercial Chickens in Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(4), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7040187 - 25 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1104
Abstract
Poultry production plays a relevant role in the Ethiopian economy and represents a source of poverty alleviation for several social classes. Infectious diseases can therefore significantly impact the economy and welfare. Despite infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) being present, the [...] Read more.
Poultry production plays a relevant role in the Ethiopian economy and represents a source of poverty alleviation for several social classes. Infectious diseases can therefore significantly impact the economy and welfare. Despite infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) being present, the knowledge of their epidemiology and impact is extremely limited. In the present work, a cross-sectional study based on 500 tracheal swabs collected from 50 intensive and backyard unvaccinated flocks of the Jimma Zone was performed to investigate the circulation of these viruses and molecularly characterize them. IBV and aMPV presence was tested by molecular assays, and genotyping was carried out on positive samples. Accordingly, 6% (95% CI 2.06% to 16.22%) and 8% (95% CI 3.15% to 18.84%) of flocks tested IBV and aMPV positive, respectively. Particularly, IBV 793B (GI-13) strains were detected in backyard flocks only, and identical or closely related sequences (p-distance <2%) were detected in distantly spaced flocks, suggesting relevant viral circulation. On the contrary, both backyard and intensive flocks were affected by aMPV subtype B. Potential epidemiological links associated to the importation of parental birds from foreign countries could be established. These results highlight non-negligible circulation of these viruses, warranting further epidemiological studies and the evaluation of control measure implementation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Article
An Assessment of the Level of Protection Against Colibacillosis Conferred by Several Autogenous and/or Commercial Vaccination Programs in Conventional Pullets upon Experimental Challenge
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7030080 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1137
Abstract
The prevention of avian colibacillosis has historically been investigated through vaccination, with variable outcomes. Commercial live (attenuated) and inactivated vaccines are reported to have limited efficacy in the context of heterologous challenge. Autogenous vaccination, using field isolates, is widely used, but scarcely documented. [...] Read more.
The prevention of avian colibacillosis has historically been investigated through vaccination, with variable outcomes. Commercial live (attenuated) and inactivated vaccines are reported to have limited efficacy in the context of heterologous challenge. Autogenous vaccination, using field isolates, is widely used, but scarcely documented. Different vaccination programs, including a live commercial vaccine and/or an inactivated autogenous vaccine, were compared for three different avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strain (serotypes O78, O18 and O111) challenges. On the pullet farm, four groups of conventional pullets received different vaccination protocols. Group A was kept unvaccinated (control group). Group B was vaccinated three times with a live commercial O78 E. coli vaccine (at one day old, 59 and 110 days of age). Group C was immunized twice (at 79 and 110 days) with a three-valence autogenous vaccine (O78, O18 and O111). Group D was vaccinated first with the commercial vaccine (at one day old and 59 days), then with the autogenous vaccine (110 days). Birds were transferred to the experimental facility at 121 days of age and were challenged 10 days later. In each group, 20 birds were challenged with one of the three APEC strains (O78, O18, O111); in total, 80 birds were challenged by the same strains (20 per group). The recorded outcomes were: mortality rate, macroscopic lesion score in target organs and the bacterial recovery of the challenge strain from bone marrow and pooled organs. When challenged with O78 or O111 strains, birds from groups C and D proved to be significantly better protected, in terms of lesion scoring and bacteriological isolation, than those of groups A and B. With the O18 challenge, only birds of group D presented a statistically significant reduction of their lesion score. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the efficacy of an immunization program in poultry that combines commercial and autogenous vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)

Review

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Review
Infectious Bronchitis Virus Evolution, Diagnosis and Control
Vet. Sci. 2020, 7(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020079 - 22 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1855
Abstract
RNA viruses are characterized by high mutation and recombination rates, which allow a rapid adaptation to new environments. Most of the emerging diseases and host jumps are therefore sustained by these viruses. Rapid evolution may also hinder the understanding of molecular epidemiology, affect [...] Read more.
RNA viruses are characterized by high mutation and recombination rates, which allow a rapid adaptation to new environments. Most of the emerging diseases and host jumps are therefore sustained by these viruses. Rapid evolution may also hinder the understanding of molecular epidemiology, affect the sensitivity of diagnostic assays, limit the vaccine efficacy and favor episodes of immune escape, thus significantly complicating the control of even well-known pathogens. The history of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) fits well with the above-mentioned scenario. Despite being known since the 1930s, it still represents one of the main causes of disease and economic losses for the poultry industry. A plethora of strategies have been developed and applied over time, with variable success, to limit its impact. However, they have rarely been evaluated objectively and on an adequate scale. Therefore, the actual advantages and disadvantages of IBV detection and control strategies, as well as their implementation, still largely depend on individual sensibility. The present manuscript aims to review the main features of IBV biology and evolution, focusing on their relevance and potential applications in terms of diagnosis and control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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Other

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Case Report
A Case of Infectious Laryngotracheitis in an Organic Broiler Chicken Farm in Greece
Vet. Sci. 2021, 8(4), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8040064 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 891
Abstract
Infectious laryngotracheitis is an economically significant viral disease of chickens, that mainly affects the upper respiratory tract, and is present worldwide. This case reports the first outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in a four-week-old organic broiler farm and surrounding flocks in Greece, with typical [...] Read more.
Infectious laryngotracheitis is an economically significant viral disease of chickens, that mainly affects the upper respiratory tract, and is present worldwide. This case reports the first outbreak of infectious laryngotracheitis in a four-week-old organic broiler farm and surrounding flocks in Greece, with typical clinical symptoms and lesions, allegedly provoked by a wild strain of infectious laryngotracheitis virus. Our findings contradict the general perception indicating that the disease appears mainly in older birds and that vaccine strains are the primary cause of infectious laryngotracheitis outbreaks in most continents. A recombinant vectored vaccine was administered, supplementary to biosecurity measures, containing the viral spread. The responsible strain was potentially circulating in the area; therefore, an industry-wide holistic approach was applied, including the vaccination of neighboring broilers and breeders with the same vaccine, the rapid molecular diagnosis of the disease, and strict biosecurity protocols. The results of this holistic effort were effective because, following the application of vaccine and management protocols, manifestations of the disease in regional flocks dropped significantly, and there was no recurrence to date. These findings suggest that vaccination protocols should be modified, especially for organic broilers, to include vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in Poultry Diseases)
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