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Open AccessArticle

Effects of 3 Different Commercial Vaccines Formulations against BVDV and BHV-1 on the Inflammatory Response of Holstein Heifers

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of Sao Paulo, 87, Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva Avenue, Cidade Universitária, Butantã, Sao Paulo 05508-270, Brazil
Department of Anatomy, Pathology and Clinical Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, 500, Adhemar de Barros Avenue, Ondina, Salvador 40170-110, Brazil
Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 69;
Received: 19 June 2019 / Revised: 7 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 26 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Microbiology and Immunology)
After vaccination, vaccine components must activate the immune response, but the ideal vaccine should not result in undesirable effects in cattle. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inflammatory and humoral responses and adverse reactions induced by three adjuvanted commercial vaccines against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). Holstein heifers (n = 35) were divided into four groups by adjuvant compounds: Vaccine A (Alum; n = 9), Vaccine B (Oil-in-water; n = 10), Vaccine C (Amphigen/Quil A cholesterol and dimethyl-dioctadecyl ammonium (DDA) bromide (QAD; n = 10), and Control (n = 6). Heifers were assessed at 0 h, 6, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h post-vaccination; serology was evaluated at first dose (D0), booster (D21) and D42. Heifers vaccinated with Vaccine B (p = 0.0001) and C (p = 0.0001) had a more intense local reaction, while there was a higher rectal temperature detected in heifers vaccinated with Vaccine C (p = 0.020). There was greater systemic reaction observed for heifers vaccinated with Vaccines B and C at 48 h (p = 0.002) after a second dose. Clinical pathology parameters [white blood count (WBC) (p = 0.001), neutrophils (p = 0.0001) and haptoglobin concentrations (p = 0.0001)] were higher in animals vaccinated with Vaccine C. Neutralizing Abs against BVDV type 1 strains, NADL and Singer, were detected in animals vaccinated with Vaccines A or C at D42, while BVDV-2 antibodies were detected only in animals vaccinated with Vaccine C. A BHV-1 antibody was detected in all three vaccine groups (Vaccines A, B or C) at day 42 (21 days post booster vaccination). The findings of this research were based on three different commercial laboratory formulations and also according to the conditions which the study was conducted. In this context, vaccine containing mineral oil or Amphigen/QAD presented greater local reactivity and induced a significant systemic inflammatory response. Vaccinated heifers with Alum and Amphigen/QAD commercial vaccines enhanced humoral immune response against BVDV and BHV-1. View Full-Text
Keywords: vaccine formulation; adverse reactions; adjuvants; inflammation; antibodies vaccine formulation; adverse reactions; adjuvants; inflammation; antibodies
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Costa Baccili, C.; Martin, C.C.; Decaris, N.; Medici Madureira, K.; Chase, C.; Gomes, V. Effects of 3 Different Commercial Vaccines Formulations against BVDV and BHV-1 on the Inflammatory Response of Holstein Heifers. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 69.

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