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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Age and Environment on Adaptive Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Vaccination in Dairy Goats in Relation to Paratuberculosis Control Strategies

Department of Bacteriology and Epidemiology, Wageningen Bioveterinary Research, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands
Department of Farm Animal Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht University, 3584 CL Utrecht, The Netherlands
GD Animal Health, 7418 EZ Deventer, the Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Niedersächsische Tierseuchenkasse, Brühlstrasse 9, 30156 Hannover, Germany.
Vet. Sci. 2019, 6(3), 62;
Received: 30 April 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 28 June 2019 / Published: 1 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycobacterial Diseases in Animals)
Paratuberculosis infection is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). In the Netherlands, 75% herd level prevalence of caprine paratuberculosis has been estimated, and vaccination is the principal control strategy applied. Most goat dairy farms with endemic paratuberculosis systematically vaccinate goat kids in the first months of life with a commercially available whole cell MAP vaccine. We hypothesized that the development of adaptive immune responses in goats vaccinated at young age depends on the environment they are raised in, and this has implications for the application of immune diagnostic tests in vaccinated dairy goats. We evaluated the early immune response to vaccination in young goat kids sourced from a MAP unsuspected non-vaccinated herd and raised in a MAP-free environment. Subsequently we compared these with responses observed in birth year and vaccination matched adult goats raised on farms with endemic paratuberculosis. Results indicated that initial adaptive immune responses to vaccination are limited in a MAP-free environment. In addition, adult antibody positive vaccinated goats raised in a MAP endemic environment are less likely to be IS900 PCR-positive as compared to antibody negative herd mates. We conclude that test-and-cull strategies in a vaccinated herd are currently not feasible using available immune diagnostic tests. View Full-Text
Keywords: paratuberculosis; vaccination; immunity; mycobacterium; diagnostics paratuberculosis; vaccination; immunity; mycobacterium; diagnostics
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Koets, A.; Ravesloot, L.; Ruuls, R.; Dinkla, A.; Eisenberg, S.; Lievaart-Peterson, K. Effects of Age and Environment on Adaptive Immune Responses to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) Vaccination in Dairy Goats in Relation to Paratuberculosis Control Strategies. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 62.

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