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Beverages, Volume 9, Issue 3 (September 2023) – 27 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Alcoholic fermentation of grapes is a complex microbial process. In the 1980s, Saccharomyces cerevisiae was the first species to be used as a yeast starter, as it grows rapidly and carries out alcoholic fermentation. For the past ten years, Torulaspora delbrueckii has been employed as an alternative yeast starter for winemaking, and several T. delbrueckii strains are now available as dry active yeast. This species must be combined with S. cerevisiae to avoid a stuck fermentation. In this study, we investigate the interaction mechanisms between these two species using a fermentor with a double compartment, allowing for physical separation. We confirmed the existence of cell–cell contact mechanism via a proteomic analysis and the benefits of using T. delbrueckii species under winemaking conditions. View this paper
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23 pages, 3449 KiB  
Article
Physical Contact between Torulaspora delbrueckii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Alters Cell Growth and Molecular Interactions in Grape Must
by Laura Chasseriaud, Warren Albertin, Mélisande Blein-Nicolas, Thierry Balliau, Michel Zivy, Joana Coulon and Marina Bely
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030081 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1545
Abstract
The use of multi-starters in oenological conditions (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces species) is becoming increasingly common. For the past ten years, the combination of Torulaspora delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae has been proposed to winemakers to improve the wine aromatic profile compared [...] Read more.
The use of multi-starters in oenological conditions (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces species) is becoming increasingly common. For the past ten years, the combination of Torulaspora delbrueckii and S. cerevisiae has been proposed to winemakers to improve the wine aromatic profile compared to pure inoculation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, two commercial strains, T. delbrueckii Zymaflore® Alpha and S. cerevisiae Zymaflore® X5 (Laffort compagny, Floirac, France), were investigated in Sauvignon blanc must using a fermentor with a double compartment allowing for physical separation of the two yeast species. The physical separation of the two species resulted in significant differences in the growth, fermentation kinetics (maximum fermentation rate (+13%)), fermentation duration (−14%) and the production of 3SH (+35%) in comparison to mixed cultures with contact. Proteomic analysis confirmed cell–cell contact interactions, as strong differences were observed for both species between mixed cultures with and without physical contact. T. delbrueckii mortality in mixed cultures with physical contact may be explained by an oxidative stress. Indeed two proteins implicated in the oxidative stress response were found in significantly higher amounts: a cytosolic catalase T and a cytoplasmic thioredoxin isoenzyme. For S. cerevisiae, an increase in proteins involved in the respiratory chain and proton transport were found in higher amounts in pure cultures and mixed culture without physical contact. Our results confirmed that the two mixed inoculations increased certain minor esters (ethylpropanoate, ethyl dihydrocinnamate and ethyl isobutanoate) specifically produced by T. delbrueckii, 3.4-fold more compared to in the pure S. cerevisiae culture. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into the underlying mechanisms involved in cell–cell contact and confirm the benefits of using T. delbrueckii species under winemaking conditions. Full article
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16 pages, 311 KiB  
Review
Innovations in Sparkling Wine Production: A Review on the Sensory Aspects and the Consumer’s Point of View
by Maria Carla Cravero
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030080 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3195
Abstract
Sparkling wines have a relevant economic value, and they are mostly produced worldwide with the Traditional method (in bottles) or with the Charmat method (in autoclaves). Many varieties are employed in different viticultural areas to obtain white or rosé wines and red (Italy [...] Read more.
Sparkling wines have a relevant economic value, and they are mostly produced worldwide with the Traditional method (in bottles) or with the Charmat method (in autoclaves). Many varieties are employed in different viticultural areas to obtain white or rosé wines and red (Italy and Australia), with different sugar content. This review illustrates the most recent studies (last 5 years) on sparkling wines concerning innovative yeasts, aromatic profile, aging on lees, sugar types, base wine, new varieties, and innovative oenological techniques, which consider the effects on the sensory characteristics and the consumer preferences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Innovations in the Production of Sparkling Wines)
16 pages, 715 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Study of the Effect of Short Maceration with Cherry and Oak Wood Chips on the Volatile Composition of Different Craft Beers
by Ana C. Correia, Maria L. González-SanJosé, Miriam Ortega-Heras and António M. Jordão
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030079 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1566
Abstract
In the last few years, the production and consumption of craft beers has increased notably. However, there is restricted knowledge about the potential impact of chips from different wood species on beer quality. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of the [...] Read more.
In the last few years, the production and consumption of craft beers has increased notably. However, there is restricted knowledge about the potential impact of chips from different wood species on beer quality. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate the effect of the addition of wood chips from cherry and oak species—after the fermentation was completed and during a brief maceration time—on the volatile composition of three different beer groups (Ale, Lager, and Porter) through a headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction (HS-SPDE) and GC-MS analysis. Fifty-six volatile compounds from different chemical families (esters, alcohols, terpenes, acids, aldehydes, ketones, and pyrazines) were detected, identified, and considered in this study. In general, the volatile composition of the beers macerated with wood chips was very similar to that of the control beers. However, the control beers showed higher volatile compound levels. The results suggest potential interactions between beer volatile compounds and the wood chips during maceration. The outcomes of this research could be of practical interest to brewers since they could improve the knowledge of the impact of short-time contact and low wood chip concentration on the volatile composition of different craft beers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Quality, Nutrition, and Chemistry of Beverages)
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21 pages, 327 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Economic Feasibility of Verjus Production in Texas Vineyards and Wineries
by Cassie Marbach, Charlie Hall and Andreea Botezatu
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030078 - 15 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1948
Abstract
This study assessed the economic viability of producing verjus (“green juice”) from cluster-thinned grapes. Utilizing the Delphi Method and insights from an expert panel, a comprehensive partial budget model was constructed for vineyards and wineries, focusing on the financial impact of verjus production. [...] Read more.
This study assessed the economic viability of producing verjus (“green juice”) from cluster-thinned grapes. Utilizing the Delphi Method and insights from an expert panel, a comprehensive partial budget model was constructed for vineyards and wineries, focusing on the financial impact of verjus production. Existing vineyards with cluster thinning practices benefited from verjus production. However, vineyards considering cluster thinning solely for verjus may face lower profit margins without a substantial increase in grape harvest prices. Winery operations were also examined, comparing costs of using verjus as an acidifying agent for wine and producing it as a bottled product. Verjus was relatively more expensive than tartaric acid for acidification, but added volume could offset the cost, making it desirable. Additionally, as a standalone product, verjus showed promising profitability, presenting an opportunity for wineries to explore this niche market and expand product offerings. In conclusion, existing vineyards could benefit from verjus production, while wineries could consider using verjus as an acidifying agent or explore its use as an individual product. Careful consideration of costs and market demand is crucial for informed decisions regarding verjus production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Economy and Consumption)
14 pages, 675 KiB  
Article
Serving Sizes and Energy Content of Grab-and-Go Sweetened Beverages in Australian Convenience Stores, Supermarkets, and Fast-Food Outlets
by Qingzhou Liu, Jing Ying Lai, Kylie Nguyen and Anna Rangan
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030077 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 2130
Abstract
There is a growing demand for convenience grab-and-go (GNG) food and beverages due to the modern, busy lifestyle. The types of food and beverages available in this sector are currently not well defined, although a large selection of discretionary foods is typically on [...] Read more.
There is a growing demand for convenience grab-and-go (GNG) food and beverages due to the modern, busy lifestyle. The types of food and beverages available in this sector are currently not well defined, although a large selection of discretionary foods is typically on display. The aims of this study were (1) to summarise the literature on consumers’ purchasing behaviours of sweetened beverages, in particular the effects of purchasing locations and settings, price, promotion, and serving sizes, followed by (2) a cross-sectional audit of available sweetened beverages (sugar-sweetened and intensely sweetened) in the GNG sector. Three common GNG settings (convenience stores, front of supermarket, and fast-food outlets) within metropolitan Sydney, Australia, were selected in three different socioeconomic localities. Data were collected by in-store visits (n = 18) and using brand websites between March and April 2022. A total of 1204 GNG sweetened beverages were included. Sugar-sweetened beverages comprised 67% of beverages, with the highest proportion in fast-food outlets (80%), followed by convenience stores (67%) and supermarkets (61%). The majority (63%) of sugar-sweetened beverages had an energy content higher than 600 kJ and a serving size over 375 mL. Fast-food outlets in particular had the smallest selection of sugar-sweetened beverages less than or equal to 250 mL (5.1%). No differences across socioeconomic localities in the proportion and serving sizes of available sugar-sweetened beverages were observed. These findings show that the majority of GNG sweetened beverages have large serving sizes and high energy content, and opportunities exist to improve this food environment. An increased selection of smaller serving sizes can nudge consumers towards more appropriate serving size selections. Full article
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13 pages, 1902 KiB  
Article
Determination of Sage Tea Polyphenols and Their Antioxidant Effects Using an Electrochemical DNA-Based Biosensor
by Ivana Tomac, Lea Budić, Josipa Bobovec, Lidija Jakobek and Petra Matić
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030076 - 6 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1583
Abstract
This study describes two polyphenols, caffeic acid (CA) and (+)-catechin, as well as their antioxidant effects, detected by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using an electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based biosensor in sage tea. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) was applied to investigate CA, as one of the [...] Read more.
This study describes two polyphenols, caffeic acid (CA) and (+)-catechin, as well as their antioxidant effects, detected by cyclic voltammetry (CV) using an electrochemical deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-based biosensor in sage tea. Square-wave voltammetry (SWV) was applied to investigate CA, as one of the derivatives of phenolic acids, and (+)-catechin, a representative of flavonoids, in sage tea. Square-wave voltammograms (SWVs) of CA showed one peak (0.197 V) and the presence of anodic and cathodic peaks, which suggests an unfolded reversible process on the surface of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Furthermore, SWVs of (+)-catechin showed two peaks, which proposes a reversible process at the first peak (0.232 V) and an irreversible process at the second peak (0.6 V) on the surface of the GCE. The determination of the antioxidant effects of sage tea polyphenols was carried out by a DNA-based biosensor. The obtained results indicated that the addition of sage tea to the cleavage solution significantly reduces the degree of DNA degradation. The adopted methods have proved to be simple and applicable tools for the electrochemical characterization of sage tea polyphenols and their antioxidant effects. The study also discusses total phenolic content. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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9 pages, 1638 KiB  
Article
Effect of Recipient’s Tactile Properties and Expectations on Beer Perception
by Shubham Sandilya, Natalia Oroya, Teresa Moral and Laura Vázquez-Araújo
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030075 - 5 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1982
Abstract
Our perception of food is influenced by various factors, including its sensory properties, the environment in which it is consumed, and the tools we use to consume it (cutlery, glasses, etc.). The purpose of this study was to examine how the texture of [...] Read more.
Our perception of food is influenced by various factors, including its sensory properties, the environment in which it is consumed, and the tools we use to consume it (cutlery, glasses, etc.). The purpose of this study was to examine how the texture of the glass used to drink beer affects the perception and emotions generated by the experience. Two tasting sessions were conducted, where participants were served two types of beer (alcoholic and non-alcoholic) in four glasses with different textures. The participants rated liking, the perceived differences in several sensory attributes using a Just-About-Right scale, and the emotions elicited by the drinking experience using a Check-All-That-Apply question. The results indicated that the texture of the container did not affect the participants’ perception of the alcoholic beer. However, for the non-alcoholic beer, participants liked the sample served in the glass with a plain surface over the ceramic glass. Participants’ awareness of drinking a non-alcoholic beer did not affect any of the studied attributes. The results of this study suggested that different textured glasses could be used to differentiate brands, restaurants, etc., from competitors and create a unique identity without significantly affecting the perception of beer properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Sensory Analysis of Beverages Section—2nd Edition)
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12 pages, 1532 KiB  
Article
Sensory Analysis as a Simple and Low-Cost Tool to Evaluate and Valorize a New Product from Local Fruits in Rural Communities: The Case of Highly Aromatic Vinegar from Prickly Pear Fruits
by Ikram Es-Sbata, Remedios Castro-Mejías, Carmen Rodríguez-Dodero, Rachid Zouhair and Enrique Durán-Guerrero
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030074 - 4 Sep 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1510
Abstract
Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L). Mill.) is a plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family and can grow in arid and semi-arid climates. This fruit is considered a good source of nutrients, antioxidant constituents and health-promoting substances, such as betalains and polyphenols. [...] Read more.
Prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica (L). Mill.) is a plant that belongs to the Cactaceae family and can grow in arid and semi-arid climates. This fruit is considered a good source of nutrients, antioxidant constituents and health-promoting substances, such as betalains and polyphenols. One of the ways in which the communities in the cultivation areas can revalorize this fruit is by diversifying the products that can be made from it. This research proposes the elaboration of prickly pear vinegars and their sensory characterization. Their aromatic profile has been determined using two different methodologies, the traditional Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA) and the Free Choice Profiling (FCP). Similar aromatic profiles have been obtained by both techniques, QDA and FCP, although the last one has proven to be a less time- and effort-demanding method. The vinegars with the highest aromatic intensity and the highest fruity and floral notes were those that had been produced through submerged culture at 30 °C and using Acetobacter malorum strains. It was revealed that the Free Choice Profiling sensory technique is a useful and low-cost tool for innovating in products obtained from a local sugary raw material. Full article
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18 pages, 9240 KiB  
Article
Protein Soft Drinks: A Retail Market Analysis and Selected Product Characterization
by Niamh Ahern, Elke K. Arendt and Aylin W. Sahin
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030073 - 1 Sep 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 4342
Abstract
The market for protein-based drinks is endlessly growing, as the awareness of health-conscious consumers demands a shift from traditional protein smoothies or shakes to clear beverage alternatives that address thirst and hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate the soft drink [...] Read more.
The market for protein-based drinks is endlessly growing, as the awareness of health-conscious consumers demands a shift from traditional protein smoothies or shakes to clear beverage alternatives that address thirst and hydration. The aim of this study was to investigate the soft drink market on a global scale with a focus on commercially available high-protein soft drinks, carbonated and uncarbonated, from both animal- and plant-based protein sources. Additionally, the physicochemical properties of 25 selected protein soft drinks from the market research were evaluated, including their protein content, density, viscosity, particle size, stability, pH and total titratable acidity (TTA), to explore their quality attributes. From the market research, 6.8% was the highest protein content found out of 138 beverages, with whey protein isolate and collagen hydrolysate being the most popular added protein ingredients. Only 18% of the market contained plant-based proteins, with pea protein isolate being the most common. The pH of all beverages showed acidic values (2.9 to 4.2), where TTA ranged from 0.4 to 1.47 mL (0.1 M NaOH/mL). Protein content, density and viscosity in all beverages exhibited a significantly strong positive correlation. The protein soft drink containing beef protein isolate stood out for highest protein content, density, particle size and TTA. Overall, these results demonstrate the effects and correlations of the different formulations on the quality characteristics. Therefore, the presented results can be utilized in the development and formulation of future protein soft drinks, including nutritional improvement and optimum quality, meeting current consumer trends and that are used as a convenient pre- or post-workout drink for individuals seeking muscle growth and repair. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Innovative Food Processing Technologies—2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 1585 KiB  
Article
Effect of Maturation with American Oak Chips on the Volatile and Sensory Profile of a Cabernet Sauvignon Rosé Wine and Its Comparison with Commercial Wines
by Miguel Ángel Hernández-Carapia, José Ramón Verde-Calvo, Héctor Bernardo Escalona-Buendía and Araceli Peña-Álvarez
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030072 - 29 Aug 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1465
Abstract
Rosé wines are commonly consumed as young wines mainly due to their freshness and fruity character. Nevertheless, in recent years a new market looking for alternatives to traditional wines has emerged. Considering this, the study of the volatile and sensory profiles of a [...] Read more.
Rosé wines are commonly consumed as young wines mainly due to their freshness and fruity character. Nevertheless, in recent years a new market looking for alternatives to traditional wines has emerged. Considering this, the study of the volatile and sensory profiles of a varietal rosé wine aged with oak chips was carried out. Two Cabernet Sauvignon rosé wines were made: one was maturated with oak chips and the other without. Both wines were physicochemically characterized. Then, their volatile and sensory profiles were analyzed, also including two commercial wines. The results showed that the produced wines complied with Mexican regulations. Also, they showed greater relative areas in compounds such as ethyl (E)-2-hexenoate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl nonanoate, ethyl 3-nonenoate, β-citronellol, (±)-trans-nerolidol, and β-damascenone. In their sensory profile, they were mostly related to attributes such as berries, prune, bell pepper, and herbaceous notes. Among the compounds related to barrel maturation, only cis-oak-lactone was identified in the rosé wine matured with chips. However, it was associated with vanilla, woody, smoky, and spicy attributes. According to the results, the maturation of rosé wines with oak chips could be a good alternative to provide them with unusual notes and thus offer new alternatives to traditional and new wine consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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19 pages, 1473 KiB  
Review
Advances in Extraction Techniques for Beer Flavor Compounds
by Inês M. Ferreira and Luis F. Guido
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030071 - 29 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2228
Abstract
Owing to the unique chemical properties exhibited by beer flavor compounds, different extraction methods have been utilized to extract these compounds from the sample matrix. Carbonyl compounds, which significantly contribute to flavor instability in beer, pose challenges in detection due to their low [...] Read more.
Owing to the unique chemical properties exhibited by beer flavor compounds, different extraction methods have been utilized to extract these compounds from the sample matrix. Carbonyl compounds, which significantly contribute to flavor instability in beer, pose challenges in detection due to their low concentrations and reactivity. Consequently, the analysis of beer flavor compounds has focused on improving sensitivity and specificity through techniques that minimize sample preparation requirements and reduce interactions between factors involved in the analysis. Notably, extraction techniques such as headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), and gas diffusion microextraction (GDME) have been successfully applied to the analysis of carbonyl compounds in alcoholic beverages, including beer. Derivatization agents like 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) enhance the volatility and stability of analytes, facilitating their separation and detection in gas chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Chromatographic separation methods, particularly gas chromatography and liquid chromatography, are extensively employed to identify and quantify aroma/flavor compounds in various foodstuffs, including beer. This review provides a comprehensive overview of extraction techniques and chromatographic methods used in the analysis of beer compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section—2nd Edition)
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3 pages, 190 KiB  
Editorial
Phenolic Compounds in Wine
by Ricardo Dias and Rosa Pérez-Gregorio
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030070 - 25 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1113
Abstract
Wine is probably the most popular and oldest human beverage [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phenolic Compounds in Wine—2nd Edition)
10 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Role of p-Coumaric Acid and Micronutrients in Sulfur Dioxide Tolerance in Brettanomyces bruxellensis
by Mahesh Chandra, Patrícia Branco, Catarina Prista and Manuel Malfeito-Ferreira
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030069 - 22 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Sulfite is a common preservative in wine, but the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis can produce volatile phenols even with the recommended sulfite dose. The purpose of this study was to examine how wine components, p-coumaric acid (a precursor of volatile phenols), and micronutrients [...] Read more.
Sulfite is a common preservative in wine, but the spoilage yeast Brettanomyces bruxellensis can produce volatile phenols even with the recommended sulfite dose. The purpose of this study was to examine how wine components, p-coumaric acid (a precursor of volatile phenols), and micronutrients influence culturability, viability, and volatile phenols production by B. bruxellensis under sulfite stress. In red wine, a high sulfite dose (potassium metabisulfite, 100 mg L−1) led to an immediate death phase followed by growth recovery after two weeks. However, 4-ethylphenol (4-EP) was continuously produced by dead or nonculturable cells. Nonetheless, an event of growth recovery could not be observed in the case of the model wine. However, when the model wine was supplemented with minerals and vitamins, both growth recovery and 4-EP production were noticed, suggesting that the minerals and vitamins played an important role in maintaining the viability of cells under the sulfite stress. The yeast could also utilize the p-coumaric acid (p-CA) as an energy source, showing a specific growth rate of 0.0142 h−1 with 1 mM of p-CA in model wine. Furthermore, the sulfite-stressed cells exhibited ATP production by means of proton efflux while utilizing the p-CA. This work highlights the novel finding that the conversion of p-CA into 4-EP provides sufficient energy for the cell to remain metabolically active under the sulfite stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wine, Spirits and Oenological Products)
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22 pages, 1355 KiB  
Article
Fast and Non-Invasive Evaluation of Yeast Viability in Fermentation Processes Using Raman Spectroscopy and Machine Learning
by Raoul Heese, Jens Wetschky, Carina Rohmer, Susanne M. Bailer and Michael Bortz
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030068 - 18 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Fermentation processes used for producing alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and cider have a long history, having been developed early on across different civilizations. In most instances, yeast strains are used for fermentation processes, e.g., at breweries and wineries. Monitoring of yeast [...] Read more.
Fermentation processes used for producing alcoholic beverages such as beer, wine, and cider have a long history, having been developed early on across different civilizations. In most instances, yeast strains are used for fermentation processes, e.g., at breweries and wineries. Monitoring of yeast viability, cell count, and growth behavior is essential to ensure a controlled fermentation process. However, classical microbiological techniques to monitor fermentation process parameters are time-consuming and require sampling, along with the risk of contamination. Nowadays, industries are moving toward automation and digitalization. This necessitates state-of-the-art process analytical technologies to ensure an efficient and controlled process to obtain high-quality product outputs. Hence, there is a strong need for a fast, non-invasive, and generally applicable method to evaluate the viability of yeast cells during fermentation to warrant the standardization and purity of produced products in industrial applications. The aim of our study is to discriminate between viable and non-viable yeast in various culture media using Raman spectroscopy (RS) followed by data analysis with machine learning (ML) tools. These techniques allow for rapid, non-invasive analysis addressing the limitations of traditional methods. The present work primarily focuses on the evaluation of RS combined with predictive ML models in a non-real-time setting. Our goal is to adapt these techniques for future application in real-time monitoring and determination of yeast viability in biotechnological processes. We demonstrate that RS, in combination with ML, is a promising tool for non-invasive inline monitoring of fermentation processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Wine and Beverage: Fermentation and Conservation Technologies)
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12 pages, 2061 KiB  
Article
Exploring Hop Varieties with Discriminating Flavan-3-ol Profiles Likely to Improve Color and Colloidal Stability of Beers
by Cécile Chenot, Margaux Simon, Alexandre Dusart and Sonia Collin
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030067 - 11 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1526
Abstract
While the Saaz aromatic variety remains classified as a total-flavanoid-rich cultivar, no inverse correlation was found between total flavanoids and the α-acid content when the dual-purpose varieties Citra, CTZ, Amarillo, Eureka!, Mandarina Bavaria, Mosaic, Polaris, and Sabro were considered. The levels of hop [...] Read more.
While the Saaz aromatic variety remains classified as a total-flavanoid-rich cultivar, no inverse correlation was found between total flavanoids and the α-acid content when the dual-purpose varieties Citra, CTZ, Amarillo, Eureka!, Mandarina Bavaria, Mosaic, Polaris, and Sabro were considered. The levels of hop flavan-3-ol monomers, dimers, and trimers (quantitated by HPLC-MS/MS) appeared strongly influenced by variety and harvest year. On the other hand, the catechin/epicatechin ratio (and B3/B2 ratio) proved stable within the same variety through two successive harvest years. Among the nine herein-investigated varieties, Citra and Saaz displayed notable catechin/epicatechin ratios (>3.7 compared to <1.6 for the others), whereas Polaris exhibited the lowest monomer content (less than 800 mg/kg). These distinctive profiles could impact the colloidal and color stability of hop-forward beers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Featured Papers in Malting, Brewing and Beer Section—2nd Edition)
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13 pages, 2267 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Two Commercially Available Strains, Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Torulaspora delbrueckii, for the Production of Low-Alcohol Beer
by Mateusz Jackowski, Weronika Czepiela, Laura Hampf, Wiktor Żuczkowski, Tomasz Dymkowski and Anna Trusek
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030066 - 10 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2411
Abstract
Due to current trends in beer consumption, as well as social aspects, such as the education of society on combining drinking and driving, intensive research and development efforts have been recently focused on producing low-alcohol beers and non-alcoholic beers with a sensory profile [...] Read more.
Due to current trends in beer consumption, as well as social aspects, such as the education of society on combining drinking and driving, intensive research and development efforts have been recently focused on producing low-alcohol beers and non-alcoholic beers with a sensory profile appealing to consumers. There are plenty of methods for obtaining such beverages; one of these methods involves utilizing non-conventional yeasts for wort fermentation. In this work, the production of low-alcohol beer using commercially available Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Torulaspora delbrueckii strains were compared. The results showed that Torulaspora delbrueckii achieved the lowest level of attenuation, producing beer with an ethanol concentration of 2.58% vol. Saccharomycodes ludwigii displayed a slightly higher level of attenuation; however, its alcohol concentration was slightly lower than in the case of Torulaspora delbrueckii and reached 2.50% vol. Fully fermented beers produced using Saccharomycodes ludwigii and Torulaspora delbrueckii represented reduced ethanol concentrations by 12% and 15%, respectively, in comparison to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Nevertheless, in order to produce non-alcoholic beers, arrested fermentation is necessary. In such a case, Saccharomycodes ludwigii reached the highest level of attenuation among non-alcoholic beers. Full article
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15 pages, 2162 KiB  
Article
Analysis of the Volatile Organic Compound Fingerprint of Greek Grape Marc Spirits of Various Origins and Traditional Production Styles
by Maria Marinaki, Ioannis Sampsonidis, Alexandros Nakas, Panagiotis Arapitsas, Andreana N. Assimopoulou and Georgios Theodoridis
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030065 - 3 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1712
Abstract
The most well-known traditional Greek grape marc distillate made from winemaking pomace is called “Tsipouro”. Its production involves various grape pomace cultivars, preparation protocols, and anise-flavoring or not, and it should be a colorless liquid with intense organoleptic properties due to the raw [...] Read more.
The most well-known traditional Greek grape marc distillate made from winemaking pomace is called “Tsipouro”. Its production involves various grape pomace cultivars, preparation protocols, and anise-flavoring or not, and it should be a colorless liquid with intense organoleptic properties due to the raw materials used in its production and have a minimum alcoholic strength of 37.5% by volume. This study aimed to characterize the volatilome of tsipouro products by covering as many geographical areas and production styles as possible, as there is a lack of characterization of the aromatic composition of this Greek traditional alcoholic beverage. A Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method was applied in 60 samples, resulting in the identification and semi-quantification of over 90 volatile compounds. The statistical analysis pointed out the metabolites that characterized each traditional product group and underlined the influence of the geographical origin and the production protocol. Aniseed spirits from Northern Greece, Macedonia, Limnos Island, and Thessaly, produced from Muscat pomaces, were found to be richer in terpenes, terpenoids, and flavored compounds, attributing to product aroma and quality; different terpenoids were found to be dominant in Muscat distillates from different regions, showing the importance of geographical origin and production process. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the high aroma variability of the Greek Tsipouro, explained that this diversity is caused mainly by the raw material, and could be helpful in the better protection of the origin of this traditional product and the improvement of its quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavour Chemistry of Fermented Beverages)
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28 pages, 2543 KiB  
Review
Sources of Volatile Aromatic Congeners in Whiskey
by Thomas J. Kelly, Christine O’Connor and Kieran N. Kilcawley
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030064 - 2 Aug 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 7234
Abstract
Whiskey’s complex and diverse flavor stems from a range of reactions that create congeners that are primarily dependent upon the cereal source/mash bill and each stage of the process: malting, mashing, fermentation, distillation, and cask maturation. Therefore, in theory, the congener profile of [...] Read more.
Whiskey’s complex and diverse flavor stems from a range of reactions that create congeners that are primarily dependent upon the cereal source/mash bill and each stage of the process: malting, mashing, fermentation, distillation, and cask maturation. Therefore, in theory, the congener profile of a whiskey is a summation of its ingredients and the specific parameters of each stage of the manufacturing process. Congener profiles have been used as biomarkers for quality and authentication; however, to date, insufficient information has been published in relation to the extensive profiling of congeners associated with specific whiskey styles/types or the intra-and inter-variability within brands, especially in an Irish context due to the recent rapid expansion of the industry. As the ability to extract and identify congeners has progressed appreciably in recent years due to advances in extraction, chromatographic, and chemometric techniques, it is imperative that research is undertaken to gain a better understanding of the impact of specific congeners not only in relation to quality but also as biomarkers for authentication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavour Chemistry of Fermented Beverages)
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13 pages, 606 KiB  
Article
Influence of Different Alcohol Reduction Technologies on the Volatile Composition of La Mancha Tempranillo Rosé Wines
by Maria Osorio Alises, Eva Sánchez-Palomo and Miguel A. González-Viñas
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030063 - 31 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
The objective of the current research was to study the effect of different alcohol reduction technologies on the chemical aromatic composition of La Mancha Tempranillo rosé wines. Volatile compounds were analysed using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), with previous isolation by [...] Read more.
The objective of the current research was to study the effect of different alcohol reduction technologies on the chemical aromatic composition of La Mancha Tempranillo rosé wines. Volatile compounds were analysed using Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), with previous isolation by solid phase extraction (SPE). C6 compounds were the only group of varietal compounds that was modified when the total dealcoholizing process was used. According to their odor descriptor, the volatile compounds were grouped into six odorant series. The total intensity of each aromatic series was calculated by adding the OAVs of the compounds appointed to this series. All wines showed the same sequence, only modified the intensity of the principal aromatic series, mainly in total dealcoholized wines. These studied wines maintain the aromatic typicality independently from ethanol concentration, which highlights the viability of these techniques as an alternative to the traditional winemaking process, which will allow diversifying wine’s actual market. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Flavour Chemistry of Fermented Beverages)
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18 pages, 3092 KiB  
Article
Phytochemical and Structural Changes of Chickpea Beverage Prepared Using Ultrasound-Assisted Fermentation with Optimized Ultrasound Parameters Modelled by Response Surface Methodology
by Nana Adwoa Nkuma Johnson, John-Nelson Ekumah, Selorm Yao-Say Solomon Adade, Yanshu Li, Garba Betchem, Eliasu Issaka and Yongkun Ma
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030062 - 28 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1307
Abstract
To improve the quality of fermented chickpea beverages, a highly nutritious substitute for dairy, the Box-Behnken design and the response surface methodology were used to obtain optimized ultrasonic parameters for producing ultrasound-assisted fermented chickpea beverages. The determining parameters were the lactic acid, reducing [...] Read more.
To improve the quality of fermented chickpea beverages, a highly nutritious substitute for dairy, the Box-Behnken design and the response surface methodology were used to obtain optimized ultrasonic parameters for producing ultrasound-assisted fermented chickpea beverages. The determining parameters were the lactic acid, reducing sugar content, and the cell viability of the treated product. The most significant parameters obtained were frequency and treatment duration, while power density was relatively insignificant. The optimum fermentation parameters obtained were a treatment start time of 3 h, treatment duration of 80 min, frequency of 27.5 kHz, and power density of 100 W/L with optimum yields of 0.23096 mg/mL, 2.92898 mg/mL, and 0.488189 for reducing sugar, lactic acid, and cell viability index, respectively, with desirability above 0.95. Further analysis of the ultrasound treatment’s effect on the product’s structure showed the ultrasound-assisted fermented chickpea beverage was more structurally stable and homogenous, with even distribution of macromolecules present. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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13 pages, 1484 KiB  
Article
Perceptions of Probiotics and Kombucha Consumption in Relation to Emotion Regulation: An Exploratory Study Comparing Portugal and Brazil
by Maria Góis, Patrícia Batista, Magnólia Araújo and Patrícia Oliveira-Silva
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030061 - 24 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2034
Abstract
Probiotic products have been the focus of research for several years due to the potential of their biological properties to impact mental health, mood, and cognitive functions. Kombucha is a probiotic drink that has been reported to be beneficial for mental health, particularly [...] Read more.
Probiotic products have been the focus of research for several years due to the potential of their biological properties to impact mental health, mood, and cognitive functions. Kombucha is a probiotic drink that has been reported to be beneficial for mental health, particularly at the level of emotion regulation. This study aims to understand the perception of the Portuguese and Brazilian populations regarding the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha, as well as to understand these consumers’ perceptions related to the impact on emotion regulation (and the impact of this consumption on emotion regulation). The research was conducted through an online questionnaire and had a total sample of 256 participants. The results show that there are no statistically significant differences between the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha when comparing the Portuguese and Brazilian samples. Additionally, this study reveals a significant association between probiotic consumption patterns in both the Portuguese and Brazilian samples. However, no statistically significant relationship was found between the consumption of probiotics and Kombucha and emotion regulation. This study intends to contribute to the increase in knowledge about the perception of probiotics and Kombucha consumption in relation to emotion regulation, and to draw attention to the importance of this topic in the community (society, academia, and industry). Full article
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19 pages, 1093 KiB  
Article
Exploring the Mineral Composition of Grapevine Canes for Wood Chip Applications in Alcoholic Beverage Production to Enhance Viticulture Sustainability
by Veronica D’Eusanio, Francesco Genua, Andrea Marchetti, Lorenzo Morelli and Lorenzo Tassi
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030060 - 18 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1514
Abstract
This study aimed to assess the metal content of tannic extracts obtained from grapevine canes, to evaluate their suitability as wood shavings for direct infusion during the aging process of alcoholic beverages or vinegars. Traditional barrel aging is a slow and costly process [...] Read more.
This study aimed to assess the metal content of tannic extracts obtained from grapevine canes, to evaluate their suitability as wood shavings for direct infusion during the aging process of alcoholic beverages or vinegars. Traditional barrel aging is a slow and costly process that can be enhanced through direct infusion of wood chips. Our investigation focused on the pruning materials of two widely cultivated Lambrusco cultivars in the Modena (Italy) area, Ancellotta and Salamino. The grapevine chips underwent preliminary heat treatments at temperatures ranging from 120 °C to 260 °C. Tannic extracts were obtained by ethanol maceration at 80 °C for 2 h. The metal composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Generally, the metal content increased with the roasting temperature of the chips. Two exceptions were noted in the Salamino extracts, where the concentrations of Bi and Ni decreased as the roasting temperature increased. The levels of heavy metal, such as Pb and Cd, were low, posing no toxicity concerns for using infused grapevine chips during the beverage aging process. The Ni concentration slightly exceeded the limits imposed by certain regulations. Its content is likely derived from the type of soil in which the plant has grown. Full article
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18 pages, 1919 KiB  
Article
Live, Probiotic, or Neither? Microbial Composition of Retail-Available Kombucha and “Hard” Kombucha in the Pacific Northwest of the United States
by Keisha Harrison, Roxana Navarro, Kristen Jensen, Will Cayler, Tom Nielsen and Chris Curtin
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030059 - 11 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
Kombucha is an acidic non-alcoholic fermented tea beverage that has surged in popularity over the past decade. A key driver of this popularity is the perception that kombucha contains microbes that contribute to gut health, a perception that is reinforced by package claims [...] Read more.
Kombucha is an acidic non-alcoholic fermented tea beverage that has surged in popularity over the past decade. A key driver of this popularity is the perception that kombucha contains microbes that contribute to gut health, a perception that is reinforced by package claims such as “live” and “probiotic”. We surveyed retail-available non-alcoholic (soft) and alcoholic (hard) kombucha and selected 39 products, of which 74.4% included at least one of these claims. Based upon Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) evaluation of the chemical composition, approximately one-third of soft kombucha products were re-categorized as “soft-aberrant” on the basis of their alcohol by volume (ABV) exceeding 0.5%. Across all three categories, the majority (82.1%) of products were “live”, containing culturable yeast and/or bacteria. However, there were no significant differences in median maximum colony-forming unit (CFU) counts between these categories, nor was there a difference according to package claims. Interestingly, only 6.3% of soft and 10% of soft-aberrant kombucha products exceeded 106 CFU/mL, the threshold that would deliver at least one billion cells in one package. None of the sampled hard kombucha exceeded this threshold. Metabarcoding analyses of microbial communities revealed differences in composition between categories and according to package claims. Notably, the subset of products with “probiotic” claims that listed Bacillus coagulans as an ingredient were enriched in read counts for Bacillus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Beverage Technology Fermentation and Microbiology)
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16 pages, 3063 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Ultrasound-Assisted Cold-Brew Method for Developing Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)-Based Tisane with High Antioxidant Activity
by Intan Dewi Larasati, Nurul Mutmainah Diah Oktaviani, Hanifah Nuryani Lioe, Teti Estiasih, Miguel Palma and Widiastuti Setyaningsih
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030058 - 10 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1879
Abstract
Edible flowers, including roselle, contain a varied composition of phenolic compounds that may inhibit the oxidative stress mechanism. Roselle-based tisane with appealing sensory properties is commonly consumed worldwide. However, the conventional hot-brew method may ruin the stability of thermolabile phenolic compounds during the [...] Read more.
Edible flowers, including roselle, contain a varied composition of phenolic compounds that may inhibit the oxidative stress mechanism. Roselle-based tisane with appealing sensory properties is commonly consumed worldwide. However, the conventional hot-brew method may ruin the stability of thermolabile phenolic compounds during the tisane preparation. Hence, this study aimed to develop a new alternative brewing method linked with the new cold-brew method, which involves a lower temperature and applying ultrasound to maximize the extraction of phenolic compounds and to avoid degradation during the tisane preparation. The brewing factors, including particle size (10, 20, 30 mesh), temperature (4, 15, 26 °C), time (10, 20, 30 min), and ultrasound amplitude (20, 60, 100% of the maximum amplitude) have been optimized simultaneously using Box–Behnken design in conjunction with response surface methodology. Seven major phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC-DAD and classified into hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (HCA) and flavonoids. The optimum extraction condition to reach the highest level of the studied phenolic compounds was set to brew roselle with particle size of 30 ± 3.25 mesh at 26 ± 1.32 °C for 18 ± 2.00 min applying 78 ± 5.64% ultrasound amplitude. This method successfully extracted almost all HCA and flavonoid during the first cycle with less than 10% CV and provided higher antioxidant activity in terms of DPPH (IC50 9.77 ± 0.01 µg mL−1), ABTS (IC50 8.05 ± 0.02 µg mL−1), and FRAP (IC50 10.34 ± 0.03 µg mL−1) than the roselle tisane prepared using the conventional method. Additionally, the resulting cold-brew product was stable for up to five days of storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Process Intensification on Beverages Production)
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3 pages, 167 KiB  
Editorial
Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for Their Production
by Konstantinos Papadimitriou, John Kapolos and Marina Papadelli
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030057 - 3 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Beverages have been part of human nutrition for millennia [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for Their Production)
14 pages, 1368 KiB  
Article
Determination of Caffeine and Elements in Hypertonic, Isotonic, and Hypotonic Beverages
by Vassilis Athanasiadis, Theodoros Chatzimitakos, Dimitrios Kalompatsios, Martha Mantiniotou, Eleni Bozinou and Stavros I. Lalas
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030056 - 3 Jul 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
The study focused on the examination of eight commercial hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic beverage samples that were packaged in aluminum cans or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The pH value, caffeine content, and concentration of thirty elements were determined. Caffeine quantification was performed by [...] Read more.
The study focused on the examination of eight commercial hypertonic, isotonic, and hypotonic beverage samples that were packaged in aluminum cans or polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The pH value, caffeine content, and concentration of thirty elements were determined. Caffeine quantification was performed by a high-performance liquid chromatography method. Element determination was conducted by using inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectrometry. The results showed that pH values were much more acidic in all samples, ranging from 2.68 to 3.97. Caffeine concentrations ranged from 0.02–38.93 mg/100 mL between the samples and were found to be below the acceptable daily level (~400 mg) established by the relevant food regulatory authority. The measurable quantity of caffeine (~10 mg/100 mL) was found in two functional beverage samples where caffeine was labeled as an ingredient. Element concentration varied with statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) among all samples. Elements such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead were measured below the corresponding permissible levels set by the European Commission; however, daily consumption of functional beverages should be examined to deteriorate several health risks. Aluminum was quantified above the parametric value by 21 to 117% in the canned samples, whereas antimony was only measured in PET-bottled samples at approximately 3 μg/L. Multivariate methods were applied to investigate any possible correlation between the samples and the examined parameters. Strong positive correlations with statistically significant differences (R > 0.9, p < 0.05) were observed between zinc and copper and between calcium and silver. Finally, similarities and differences between the samples and the examined parameters resulted in satisfactory discrimination of them regarding not only their caffeine content but also their tonicity. Excessive consumption of functional beverages could represent a major public health issue due to elevated amounts of caffeine and elements. Consequently, the results of this research could facilitate the formulation of stricter standards in beverage consumption by revealing potential health hazards to consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Tea, Coffee, Water, and Other Non-Alcoholic Beverages)
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21 pages, 1850 KiB  
Article
Destination-Centric Wine Exports: Offering Design Concepts and Sustainability
by Marc Dressler
Beverages 2023, 9(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages9030055 - 29 Jun 2023
Viewed by 2063
Abstract
With more than 40% of produced wine crossing borders, wine represents a truly global beverage. Wine export serves as a sales lever, especially for producers where home wine consumption diminishes but the global wine business is highly competitive. The literature tells that in [...] Read more.
With more than 40% of produced wine crossing borders, wine represents a truly global beverage. Wine export serves as a sales lever, especially for producers where home wine consumption diminishes but the global wine business is highly competitive. The literature tells that in competitive market innovation, customer centrism, and increasing sustainability are key. Wine export offerings need to meet the customer’s desires in the targeted foreign destinations. German wine providers have to catch-up in regard to destination-specific preferences so they can offer adaptation or suffer a competitive disadvantage in sustainability positioning. The main aims of this study were to validate the importance of sustainability in wine import and to explore destination-specific preferences and potential sustainable offer designs on the basis of new, fungus-resistant grape (FRG) wines by an explorative, qualitative approach. Evaluating the key export markets for German wine, the study delved into a performance assessment on how German providers who are marked by small-scale structures and fragmentation are positioned in regard to the primary purchasing factors in global wine competition, in regard to sustainability, and how to overcome performance gaps by tailoring destination-specific export offerings. In order to close a lack of research on destination-oriented sustainable wine offer design and to provide orientation for practitioners, an empirical study tested wine export offerings in the form of four concepts with a strong emphasis on sustainability and FRGs. More than 100 wine experts in the five key countries for German wine exports served to explore country preferences for offer elements and perceived performance of German wine producers. The interviews revealed (a) that sustainability is a must for wine export sales; (b) that German wine producers limp in sustainability reputation; (c) the existence of country-specific preferences allowing exporters to tailor their offerings to the specific needs in their ambition to increase export performance; (d) that German wine producers can potentially claim sustainability on the basis of a fitting concept; (e) FRGs are potentially suited to reposition innovatively and sustainably; (f) a playful exploitation of stereotypes for German suppliers is risky; (g) that an offer concept on sustainability and “made in Germany” characteristics (design, technology, and reliability) is highly regarded potentially allowing to escape price cutting in their key export destinations. Full article
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