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Caffeine Consumption through Coffee: Content in the Beverage, Metabolism, Health Benefits and Risks

Laboratório de Química e Bioatividade de Alimentos e Núcleo de Pesquisa em Café (NUPECAFÉ), Instituto de Nutrição, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida Carlos Chagas Filho, 373, CCS, Bl.J, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
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Beverages 2019, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages5020037
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 1 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Abstract

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is the most consumed psychoactive substance in the world, acting by means of antagonism to adenosine receptors, mainly A1 and A2A. Coffee is the main natural source of the alkaloid which is quite soluble and well extracted during the brew’s preparation. After consumption, caffeine is almost completely absorbed and extensively metabolized in the liver by phase I (cytochrome P450) enzymes, mainly CYP1A2, which appears to be polymorphically distributed in human populations. Paraxanthine is the major caffeine metabolite in plasma, while methylated xanthines and methyluric acids are the main metabolites excreted in urine. In addition to stimulating the central nervous system, caffeine exerts positive effects in the body, often in association with other substances, contributing to prevention of several chronic diseases. The potential adverse effects of caffeine have also been extensively studied in animal species and in humans. These aspects will be approached in the present review. View Full-Text
Keywords: caffeine; coffee; consumption; metabolism; health benefits; potential adverse effects caffeine; coffee; consumption; metabolism; health benefits; potential adverse effects
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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dePaula, J.; Farah, A. Caffeine Consumption through Coffee: Content in the Beverage, Metabolism, Health Benefits and Risks. Beverages 2019, 5, 37.

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