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Open AccessArticle

Biogenic Amines Determination in “Plant Milks”

Department of Management, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Beverages 2019, 5(2), 40;
Received: 1 March 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 April 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Composition Determination and Beverage Safety)
“Plant milks” are water-based beverages, such as, extracts from cereals, pseudo-cereals, oil seeds, legumes or fruits. Plant milk consumption is rising in European and North American markets due to problems related to cow milk allergies, intolerances, but also because of vegan diets and sensitivity to environmental issues. There is no specific regulation for these beverages, therefore their composition can vary considerably, even in the same category. The aim of this study is to characterize the main categories of cereal and pseudo-cereal milks on the market by studying the profile of 8 biogenic amines (histamine, serotonin, spermine, spermidine, putrescine, β-phenylethylamine, cadaverine, tyramine) through a RP-HPLC/FD method with a pre-column derivatization. Biogenic amines are ubiquitous compounds, produced by the decarboxylation of the respective amino acids and they have been proposed as quality and safety markers of different foods and beverages. In the analyzed samples, the total biogenic amines content ranged from a minimum of 1.92 mg/L, to a maximum of 9.27 mg/L. The main biogenic amine found in the samples was histamine. The results show a low content of biogenic amines in all types of analyzed products. This ensures the quality and safety of cereal and pseudo-cereal milk samples. View Full-Text
Keywords: plant milk; cereal milk; pseudo-cereal milk; biogenic amines; histamine; quality & safety assessment; RP-HPLC/FD plant milk; cereal milk; pseudo-cereal milk; biogenic amines; histamine; quality & safety assessment; RP-HPLC/FD
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Gobbi, L.; Ciano, S.; Rapa, M.; Ruggieri, R. Biogenic Amines Determination in “Plant Milks”. Beverages 2019, 5, 40.

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