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Beverages, Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Beverage Emulsions: Key Aspects of Their Formulation and Physicochemical Stability
Received: 1 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
In the last few decades, lifestyle changes and the awareness of the importance of a balanced diet have led the population to increase the consumption of beverages based on fruit juices and/or vegetables. Fruit and vegetables contain health-related compounds that can impact on
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In the last few decades, lifestyle changes and the awareness of the importance of a balanced diet have led the population to increase the consumption of beverages based on fruit juices and/or vegetables. Fruit and vegetables contain health-related compounds that can impact on physiological processes, thus reducing the risk of certain diseases and improving the overall health status. Consumer demand for more appealing and tasting beverages has also increased. In this sense, fortification of beverages with health-related ingredients and/or flavors arises as a potential strategy for the development of new beverage-based products. Nevertheless, most of those compounds are not soluble in water, thus their incorporation in aqueous food systems, such as beverages, requires an emulsification step. Beverage emulsions are concentrated emulsified systems designed to be further diluted and/or incorporated in beverages and drinks as carriers of water insoluble ingredients. This review article aims at discussing the main key aspects of beverage emulsion formulation and their colloidal stability after being added to complex food systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnology, Microtechnology and Nanotechnology for New Beverages)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Oxygen Consumption by Red Wines under Different Micro-Oxygenation Strategies and Q. Pyrenaica Chips. Effects on Color and Phenolic Characteristics
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
The use of alternative oak products (AOP) for wine aging is a common practice in which micro-oxygenation (MOX) is a key factor to obtain a final wine that is more stable over time and with similar characteristics as barrel-aged wines. Therefore, the oxygen
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The use of alternative oak products (AOP) for wine aging is a common practice in which micro-oxygenation (MOX) is a key factor to obtain a final wine that is more stable over time and with similar characteristics as barrel-aged wines. Therefore, the oxygen dosage added must be that which the wine is able to consume to develop correctly. Oxygen consumption by red wine determines its properties, so it is essential that micro-oxygenation be managed properly. This paper shows the results from the study of the influence on red wine of two different MOX strategies: floating oxygen dosage (with dissolved oxygen setpoint of 50 µg/L) and fixed oxygen dosage (3 mL/L·month). The results indicated that the wines consumed all the oxygen provided: those from fixed MOX received between 3 and 3.5 times more oxygen than the floating MOX strategy, the oxygen contribution from the air entrapped in the wood being more significant in the latter. Wines aged with wood and MOX showed the same color and phenolic evolution as those aged in barrels, demonstrating the importance of MOX management. Despite the differences in the oxygen consumed, it was not possible to differentiate wines from the different MOX strategies at the end of the aging period in contact with wood. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Aging Technologies)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle The Effects of Storage Temperature on the Aroma of Whole Bean Arabica Coffee Evaluated by Coffee Consumers and HS-SPME-GC-MS
Received: 15 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Although from a food safety point, coffee is considered a shelf-stable product, changes in volatiles over time due to out-gassing and chemical reactions lead to perceivable differences in coffee aroma and “freshness”. Previous studies have looked at the impact of storage conditions on
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Although from a food safety point, coffee is considered a shelf-stable product, changes in volatiles over time due to out-gassing and chemical reactions lead to perceivable differences in coffee aroma and “freshness”. Previous studies have looked at the impact of storage conditions on ground or brewed coffee. This study seeks to answer the question of how coffee consumers perceive the smell of coffee grounds of whole beans that have been stored under different conditions: freezer vs. room temperature for 9 weeks compared to a newly roasted control (stored for 1 day). Green beans from the same production lot were roasted to two different levels to also evaluate the impact of roast level on aroma changes. Using projective mapping (PM) followed by ultra-flash profiling (UFP), 48 coffee consumers evaluated, using only smell, 6 different freshly ground coffee samples presented in blind duplicates. In parallel, the profiles of 48 previously reported important coffee volatiles were measured by headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) to relate chemical changes to perceivable sensory aroma changes. Overall, consumer product maps mimicked the instrumental measurements in that the lighter roast coffees showed smaller changes due to storage conditions compared to the dark roast samples. Consumers also perceived the frozen dark roast samples to be more similar to the newly roasted control than the samples stored at room temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coffee and its Consumption: Benefits and Risks)
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Open AccessArticle Storage Stability of Novel Functional Drinks Based on Ricotta Cheese Whey and Fruit Juices
Received: 6 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 14 August 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
To study the storage stability of drinks produced by blending ricotta cheese whey (RCW) with fruit juices, apple-RCW and apple and blueberry mix (50:50)-RCW (juice/RCW ratio: 70/30, 14.5% soluble solids content) were prepared. Color, sugar and organic acid profiles, antioxidant composition, and sensory
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To study the storage stability of drinks produced by blending ricotta cheese whey (RCW) with fruit juices, apple-RCW and apple and blueberry mix (50:50)-RCW (juice/RCW ratio: 70/30, 14.5% soluble solids content) were prepared. Color, sugar and organic acid profiles, antioxidant composition, and sensory features were analyzed after 15 to 150 days of storage on an open shelf at room temperature. A browning phenomenon occurred in the apple-RCW-based drink, while no significant color changes occurred in the mix-based drink. Significant degradation of polyphenol compounds (TPC) occurred in both drinks, but more markedly in the mix-based one. Storage strongly influenced the stability of the total monomeric anthocyanins (MAP) due to their sensitivity to temperature and light. Antioxidant capacity was preserved in both drinks, suggesting that the antioxidant capacity of Maillard reaction products and/or polymeric anthocyanins formed during storage compensated for the TPC/MAP loss. Sugar and organic acid profiles changed without influencing the sensory characteristics. Except for the sourness intensity in the apple-based drink, which increased significantly, storage did not negatively influence the sensory parameters, so both RCW-based drinks obtained high acceptance scores at the end of the storage period. Despite the bioactive compound losses, both drinks provided interesting nutritional value at the end of the storage period, particularly the mix-based drink. The overall results showed that both products are stable enough to hypothesize their commercialization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Beverages and Novel Technologies for Their Production)
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Open AccessReview Carbonated Dairy Beverages: Challenges and Opportunities
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 2 September 2018
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Abstract
Yogurt drinks have seen a 66% increase in consumption in the United States over the last five years. Even though there has been an increase in yogurt drink consumption, the market share of drinkable dairy beverages remains small. Carbonated dairy beverages have become
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Yogurt drinks have seen a 66% increase in consumption in the United States over the last five years. Even though there has been an increase in yogurt drink consumption, the market share of drinkable dairy beverages remains small. Carbonated dairy beverages have become increasingly popular in recent years, and innovations in this area could help drive increased consumption of these beverages. Currently traditionally carbonated dairy beverages, like kefir, are the most popular carbonated dairy beverages on the market. Carbonation at appropriate levels in dairy products, especially dairy beverages, has been shown to improve the sensory attributes, quality, and shelf life of these products. Probiotics, which are added to yogurt drinks for their health benefits, are not harmed or negatively affected by carbonation. Several methods have been developed to carbonate dairy beverages in a manufacturing setting, although these methods have not been widely applied to commercially available products. The increased consumption of dairy beverages and the benefits of carbonation upon these beverages means that there are opportunities to develop widely accepted and popular carbonated dairy beverages. The objective of this article was to review available literature on carbonated dairy beverages and to discuss the challenges and opportunities in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diversity and Flavor Innovations of Soft Drinks)
Open AccessArticle Detection of Organochlorine Pesticide (OCPs) Residues and Trace Metals in Some Selected Malt Drinks in Nigeria
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
In this study we evaluated the trace metals and toxic residues of pesticides in commercial malta drinks sold in Nigeria markets. Residual concentrations of seventeen (17) chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace metals were determined in fifteen samples of three batches each of five selected
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In this study we evaluated the trace metals and toxic residues of pesticides in commercial malta drinks sold in Nigeria markets. Residual concentrations of seventeen (17) chlorinated hydrocarbons and trace metals were determined in fifteen samples of three batches each of five selected brands of Malta drink sold in Nigeria markets. Gas Chromatograph-Electron Capture Detector (GC-ECD) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) were employed in quantitative analysis. The results revealed that all the malt drink analyzed have one or more OCPs detected. The presence of eleven (11) OCPs residue were detected at varying concentrations. The total burden of OCPs in the samples was in the following order: AMS > DUB > MAG > HIM > MLT. Trace metals results revealed that Cd was below detection limit in all the samples while Pb; Ni and Cr were above World Health Organization and United State Environmental Protection Agency (WHO/USEPA) limits for drinking water. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Bioactivity of Fucoidan as an Antimicrobial Agent in a New Functional Beverage
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 29 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
Seaweeds are a sustainable source of novel functional ingredients with applicability in pharmaceutics, biotechnology, and food science. The bioactivity of most of these marine compounds has scarcely been studied. The present study overviews the bioactivity of the polysaccharide fucoidan derived from Fucus vesiculosus
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Seaweeds are a sustainable source of novel functional ingredients with applicability in pharmaceutics, biotechnology, and food science. The bioactivity of most of these marine compounds has scarcely been studied. The present study overviews the bioactivity of the polysaccharide fucoidan derived from Fucus vesiculosus brown algae as an antimicrobial agent against Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The results obtained in vitro in reference medium reveal a bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect of fucoidan against both pathogens, this bioactivity being significantly dependent (p-value ≤ 0.05) on the concentration, 5–1000 μg/mL, temperature, 8–37 °C, and exposure time, 0–12 days. The results were validated in the formulation of a new functional pasteurized apple beverage to be commercialized under refrigeration. Fucoidan added at 25–100 μg/mL was highly effective against both pathogens. These results increase knowledge for the future formulation of new functional beverages that include marine compounds (high content in fibre, high content in protein; prebiotic and antioxidant properties), additionally revealing antimicrobial potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiological Safety of Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Distribution and Health Hazards of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Milk and Dairy-Based Products
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract
In a market-basket study conducted in Cairo, Egypt, the most commonly consumed milk products were sampled and the contents of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector. The obtained data showed that the total amount of
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In a market-basket study conducted in Cairo, Egypt, the most commonly consumed milk products were sampled and the contents of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector. The obtained data showed that the total amount of 13 PAHs was within the range of 1.3–8.2 µg/g. The results proved that the, highest mean levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in powdered milk (8.2 μg/g) followed by ultra-heat treatment milk and milk beverages (6.07 μg/g). The lowest level was detected in unsmoked cheese and yogurt (1.3 μg/g). Estimated daily intake (EDI) was used to estimate the carcinogenic risk. The total mean estimated daily intake for children in different age categories (1–10 years) was calculated with respect to benzo[a]pyrene, which ranged from 0.058 to 0.31 mg/day. The total mean value of EDI for the sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs in terms of benzo[a]pyrene ranged from 0.61 to 1.22 mg/day in all age categories. These results were higher than the critical limit set by the European Food Safety Authority. Therefore, there should be concerns regarding the effects of the consumption of different milk products on the local population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Characterization of Craft Filuferru Spirit from Sardinia, Italy
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 4 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Traditional Filuferru is an ancient spirit from Sardinia, Italy, which is usually obtained from the distillation of wine or grape marc. In this contribution, the results of the first chemical characterization of a wide number of crafts Filuferru samples has been accomplished in
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Traditional Filuferru is an ancient spirit from Sardinia, Italy, which is usually obtained from the distillation of wine or grape marc. In this contribution, the results of the first chemical characterization of a wide number of crafts Filuferru samples has been accomplished in terms of an evaluation of the alcoholic strength, qualitative and quantitative gas-chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the volatile composition of the distillate, and its trace element composition by means an inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Both instrumental methods have been validated and applied on 21 craft samples of Filuferru, whereas one sample of commercial distillate has been analyzed for comparison purposes. Alcoholic strength ranged between 41.0 and 62.4% (v/v). Sixty volatile compounds were identified and ten of them have been quantified. Analogies and differences with Grappa (i.e., the Italian distilled spirit closer to Filuferru) have been highlighted in the qualitative and quantitative profile of this matrix. Often meaningful amounts of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, dietyl acetal, and acetic acid were measured. Elemental analysis, performed on toxic, non-toxic elements, and oligoelements, 18 in total, revealed a wide variability of concentrations in both analytes and samples. High concentrations of Cu are sometimes evidenced, which are likely caused by losses from the distillation apparatus. The principal components analysis (PCA) allowed the differentiation of the ten volatile compounds quantified in two groups: the former, as described mainly by PC1, constituted by acetic acid, ethyl acetate, dietyl acetal, and acetaldehyde, and the second, described by PC2, constituted by 1-propanol, 2-methyl-1-propanol, the two coeluiting isomers 2-methyl-1-butanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol,1-hexanol, 2-phenylethanol, and 2,3-butanediol. Data obtained may be useful in order to establish a regulation for the production of high-quality traditional Filuferru from Sardinia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Distilled Beverages: Science and Technology Across the Supply Chain)
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Open AccessReview Nanoencapsulation of Polyphenols towards Dairy Beverage Incorporation
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract
Phenolic compounds, while widely recognized for their biological potential, when added into food matrixes may interact with food constituents. One example of this is the interaction between phenolic compounds and proteins, that may result in the formation of complexes and alter the bioavailability
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Phenolic compounds, while widely recognized for their biological potential, when added into food matrixes may interact with food constituents. One example of this is the interaction between phenolic compounds and proteins, that may result in the formation of complexes and alter the bioavailability of both phenolic compounds and the nutrient availability. Moreover, when adding compounds to improve the functionality of a food matrix, these interactions may compromise the perceived benefits of the additions. Nanoencapsulation has been considered one of the means to circumvent these interactions, as they may function as a physical barrier between the phenolic compounds and the matrix (preventing not only the loss of bioactivity, but eventual sensorial alterations of the foods), protect phenolic compounds through the gastrointestinal tract, and may enhance phenolic absorption through cellular endocytosis. However, despite these advantages the food industry is still limited in its nanotechnological solutions, as special care must be taken to use food-grade encapsulants which will not pose any deleterious effect towards human health. Therefore, this review aims to provide an encompassing view of the existing advantages and limitations of nanotechnology, associated with the inclusion of phenolic compounds in dairy beverages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dairy Beverages: New Trends and Concepts)
Open AccessArticle Phytochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Contents of Commonly Consumed Alcoholic Beverages Flavouredwith Herbal Extract in Nigeria
Received: 20 May 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 6 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
There is proliferation of alcoholic beverages flavoured with herbal-extracts that are perceived to have medicinal values. Information on the phytochemical and heavy metal contents of these products is scarce. This study assessed the phytochemical properties and heavy metal contents of herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic
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There is proliferation of alcoholic beverages flavoured with herbal-extracts that are perceived to have medicinal values. Information on the phytochemical and heavy metal contents of these products is scarce. This study assessed the phytochemical properties and heavy metal contents of herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic beverages in major motor parks in Ibadan, Nigeria. The phytochemical properties of the beverages were determined in triplicate using standard methods, while the heavy metal contents were assessed while using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and means were compared using ANOVA at p < 0.05.The pH range of the beverages was 3.28–6.57 and the alcohol content was 34.0–51.5%. Detected major phytochemicals and concentration ranges were phytic acid (0.72–2.37 mg/g), alkaloids (0.42–4.11 mg/g), flavonoids (0.22–3.64 mg rutin equivalents/g), total phenols (1.13–3.66 mg gallic acid equivalents/g), anthraquinones (0.74–1.93 mg/g),and triterpenoids (0.74–1.93 mg/g). The heavy metal contents were Pb (2.13–4.70 mg/L), Cd (0.06–0.07 mg/L), Co (0.12–0.23 mg/L), Zn (0.14–0.40 mg/L), and Fe (0.72–4.22 mg/L); only Pb and Cd were above the World Health Organization (WHO) limits of 0.01 mg/L and 0.03 mg/L in water, respectively. The herbal-extract flavoured alcoholic beverages contain beneficial phytochemicals and traces of heavy metals. Safety awareness of these products for improved consumers’ health would be of public health importance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Beverage Intake in Vulnerable Population Groups)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant and Sensory Properties of New Beverage Formulations Composed of Palm Sugar, Aframomum melegueta, and Citric Acid
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Non-alcoholic still beverages were prepared from palm sugar, Aframomum melegueta pepper, and citric acid, and their physico-chemical, nutritional, antioxidative, and sensory properties were examined in order to determine their suitability as functional refreshing drinks of good nutritional value. Results for titrable acidity, pH,
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Non-alcoholic still beverages were prepared from palm sugar, Aframomum melegueta pepper, and citric acid, and their physico-chemical, nutritional, antioxidative, and sensory properties were examined in order to determine their suitability as functional refreshing drinks of good nutritional value. Results for titrable acidity, pH, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and antioxidant capacity (total phenolic content, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity, and reducing power), vitamin C, and carbohydrate content indicate that the beverage formulations had suitable chemical, nutritional, and antioxidant characteristics, and may be functional. Sensory evaluation of the formulations showed that they were acceptable and refreshing, thus presenting attractive ways of delivering the health benefits of oil palm sugar and Aframomum melegueta pepper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Compounds in Plant Derived Beverages)
Open AccessArticle Comparison of Iron (III) Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (iRAC) and ABTS Radical Quenching Assays for Estimating Antioxidant Activity of Pomegranate
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 August 2018 / Published: 7 August 2018
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Abstract
Pomegranate juice (PJ) has total antioxidant capacity which is reportedly higher compared to other common beverages. This short study aimed to assess the total antioxidant capacity of commercial PJ and pomegranate fruit using a newly described method for iron (III) reducing antioxidant capacity
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Pomegranate juice (PJ) has total antioxidant capacity which is reportedly higher compared to other common beverages. This short study aimed to assess the total antioxidant capacity of commercial PJ and pomegranate fruit using a newly described method for iron (III) reducing antioxidant capacity (iRAC) and to compare with the ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid)) and Folin–Ciocalteu assays. Commercial PJ, freeze-dried pomegranate, and oven-dried pomegranate were analyzed. The calibration results for iRAC were comparable to ABTS and Folin–Ciocalteu methods in terms of linearity (R2 > 0.99), sensitivity and precision. The total antioxidant capacity for PJ expressed as trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was 33.4 ± 0.5 mM with the iRAC method and 36.3 ± 2.1 mM using the ABTS method. For dried pomegranates, total antioxidant capacity on a dry weight basis (DB) was 89–110 mmol/100 g DB or 76.0 ± 4.3 mmol/100 g DB using iRAC and ABTS methods, respectively. Freeze-dried pomegranate had 15% higher total antioxidant capacity compared with oven-dried pomegranate. In conclusion, pomegranate has high total antioxidant capacity as evaluated by the iRAC and ABTS methods, though variations occur due to the type of cultivar, geographic origin, processing and other factors. The study is relevant for attempts to refine food composition data for pomegranate and other functional foods. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Antioxidant and Anthocyanin Content in Fermented Milks with Sweet Cherry is Affected by the Starter Culture and the Ripening Stage of the Cherry
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 31 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 4 August 2018
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Abstract
Fermented milk-based beverages containing fruits are perceived as healthy foods by consumers and are increasingly demanded. The incorporation of sweet cherry into fermented milks was evaluated in the present study. Maturation stage of cherry 8 and 12 (commercial and over-ripened) and starter culture
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Fermented milk-based beverages containing fruits are perceived as healthy foods by consumers and are increasingly demanded. The incorporation of sweet cherry into fermented milks was evaluated in the present study. Maturation stage of cherry 8 and 12 (commercial and over-ripened) and starter culture (Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus helveticus) were tested. Antioxidant properties, anthocyanin content, color and microbial counts were used to assess the quality of the fermented milks. L. helveticus exhibited the fastest acidification rate; whereas L. casei and L. paracasei presented the highest microbial counts. Fermented milks containing grade 12 sweet cherries yielded the highest concentration of anthocyanins and color intensity and preserved phenolic compounds and anthocyanins during 10 days of refrigerated storage. L. helveticus preserved the highest content of phenols, whereas L. casei and L. paracasei better preserved anthocyanins. Overall, fermented milk with L. helveticus including grade 12 cherry puree provided the best preservation of bioactive compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Traditional Fermented Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Ultrasonic Effects on the Quality of Mulberry Juice
Received: 17 June 2018 / Revised: 26 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ultrasonic treatments on the extraction yield and the quality of mulberry juice. The mulberry mash was treated with ultrasound at different incubation times from 30 to 120 min and different temperatures from 30 to
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This study was conducted to investigate the effects of ultrasonic treatments on the extraction yield and the quality of mulberry juice. The mulberry mash was treated with ultrasound at different incubation times from 30 to 120 min and different temperatures from 30 to 75 °C. The determination of the juice yield, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, antioxidant capacity, l-ascorbic acid content, total soluble solids, and the titratable acidity of the juice were carried out. Overall, applying ultrasound at 45 °C for 60 min resulted in the highest juice yield and antioxidant contents for the mulberry juice. The ultrasonic treatment increased the extraction yield (29.6%), the total soluble solid (8.7%), the titratable acidity (39.3%), the l-ascorbic acid content (94.3%), total phenolic content (174.1%), total anthocyanin content (156.9%) and the antioxidant capacity (40.7%) of the mulberry juice as compared to pressing only. A strong positive correlation between the total phenolic content and the antioxidant capacity indicated that phenolic compounds were the main antioxidants in the beverage. Full article
Open AccessArticle Influence of Chemical and Physical Variables on 87Sr/86Sr Isotope Ratios Determination for Geographical Traceability Studies in the Oenological Food Chain
Received: 18 June 2018 / Revised: 20 July 2018 / Accepted: 24 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
This study summarizes the results obtained from a systematic and long-term project aimed at the development of tools to assess the provenance of food in the oenological sector. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios were measured on a representative set of soils, branches,
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This study summarizes the results obtained from a systematic and long-term project aimed at the development of tools to assess the provenance of food in the oenological sector. 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios were measured on a representative set of soils, branches, and wines sampled from the Chianti Classico wine production area. In particular, owing to the high spatial resolution of the 87Sr/86Sr ratio in the topsoil, the effect of two mill techniques for soil pretreatment was investigated to verify the influence of the particle dimension on the measured isotopic ratios. Samples with particle sizes ranging from 250 to less than 50 µm were investigated, and the extraction was performed by means of the DIN 19730 procedure. For each sample, the Sr isotope ratio was determined as well. The obtained results showed that the 87Sr/86Sr ratio is not influenced by soil particle size and may represent an effective tool as a geographic provenance indicator for the investigated product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle Wine Traceability Using Chemical Analysis, Isotopic Parameters, and Sensory Profiles
Received: 21 May 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 27 July 2018
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Abstract
NMR/IRMS techniques are now widely used to assess the geographical origin of wines. The sensory profile of a wine is also an interesting method of characterizing its origin. This study aimed at elaborating chemical, isotopic, and sensory parameters by means of statistical analysis.
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NMR/IRMS techniques are now widely used to assess the geographical origin of wines. The sensory profile of a wine is also an interesting method of characterizing its origin. This study aimed at elaborating chemical, isotopic, and sensory parameters by means of statistical analysis. The data were determined in some Italian white wines—Verdicchio and Fiano—and red wines—Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso and Nero d’Avola—produced from grapes grown in two different regions with different soil and climatic conditions during the years 2009–2010. The grapes were cultivated in Veneto (northwest Italy) and Marches (central Italy). The results show that the multivariate statistical analysis PCA (Principal Component Analysis) of all the data can be a useful tool to characterize the vintage and identify the origin of wines produced from different varieties. Moreover, it could discriminate wines of the same variety produced in regions with different soil and climatic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine traceability)
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Soundwaves on Foamability Properties and Sensory of Beers with a Machine Learning Modeling Approach
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 25 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
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Abstract
The use of ultrasounds has been implemented to increase yeast viability, de-foaming, and cavitation in foods and beverages. However, the application of low frequency audible sound to decrease bubble size and improve foamability has not been explored. In this study, three treatments using
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The use of ultrasounds has been implemented to increase yeast viability, de-foaming, and cavitation in foods and beverages. However, the application of low frequency audible sound to decrease bubble size and improve foamability has not been explored. In this study, three treatments using India Pale Ale beers were tested, which include (1) a control, (2) the application of audible sound during fermentation, and (3) the application of audible sound during natural carbonation. Five different audible frequencies (20 Hz, 30 Hz, 45 Hz, 55 Hz, and 75 Hz) were applied daily for one minute each (starting from the lowest frequency) during fermentation (11 days, treatment 2) and carbonation (22 days, treatment 3). Samples were measured in triplicates using the RoboBEER to assess color and foam-related parameters. A trained panel (n = 10) evaluated the intensity of sensory descriptors. Results showed that samples with sonication treatment had significant differences in the number of small bubbles, alcohol, and viscosity compared to the control. Furthermore, except for foam texture, foam height, and viscosity, there were non-significant differences in the intensity of any sensory descriptor, according to the rating from the trained sensory panel. The use of soundwaves is a potential treatment for brewing to improve beer quality by increasing the number of small bubbles and foamability without disrupting yeast or modifying the aroma and flavor profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Stevia rebaudiana Bert. Addition on the Antioxidant Activity of Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) Juices
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 25 July 2018
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Abstract
The demand for antioxidant-rich beverages is steadily expanding. At the same time, the possibility of manufacturing products with reduced sugar content, sweetened with natural ingredients, represents a decisive aspect of obtaining quality products with health benefits. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (stevia) is a natural
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The demand for antioxidant-rich beverages is steadily expanding. At the same time, the possibility of manufacturing products with reduced sugar content, sweetened with natural ingredients, represents a decisive aspect of obtaining quality products with health benefits. Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (stevia) is a natural sweetener that can help to control caloric intake and is also a good source of antioxidant compounds. The present study was designed to assess the feasibility of producing high-quality berry juices sweetened with dry-grinded stevia leaves or their crude extract. The effect of the stevia supplementation on the antioxidant activities of raspberry juices was determined at two different production steps by means of the Folin–Ciocalteu, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and the cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. The addition of stevia significantly increased the antioxidant activity of the juices and resulted in significantly higher ascorbic acid and total phenolic content. A positive correlation was observed between ORAC, CAA, and total phenolic values. These findings show that supplementation with stevia not only promotes a healthy diet by reducing sugar intake but may also enhance the antioxidant potential of the beverage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Beverages, from Idea to Functionality)
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Open AccessArticle A Comparative Study of Dry and Wet Milling of Barley Malt and Its Influence on Granulometry and Wort Composition
Received: 5 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 20 July 2018
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Abstract
Beer is a fermented drink produced from a wort comprised of barley malt, hops, and water in combination with activity from the yeast strains of the genus Saccharomyces. The beverage is consumed around the world and has a global market controlled by
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Beer is a fermented drink produced from a wort comprised of barley malt, hops, and water in combination with activity from the yeast strains of the genus Saccharomyces. The beverage is consumed around the world and has a global market controlled by several multinational companies. However, in recent years, it has been possible to note an increase in the number of microbreweries and homebrewers, necessitating additional research both to develop and increase competitiveness of this market sector as well as to improve product quality and promote the reduction of production costs. The process of milling barley malt is often not considered relevant to these goals; however, this operation is influential with regard to, for example, mashing yield, the concentration of polyphenols in beer, and the quality of wort clarification. Therefore, this work evaluates the wet (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% moisture content) and dry barley malt milling process as well as analyzes particle size distribution and the mean diameter of particles. The milled grains were submitted to a mashing process to evaluate how particle size contributes to the conversion of starch to sugars and the availability of polyphenols on sweet wort. The results indicate the best milling conditions to obtain a good mashing yield while preserving as much malt husk as possible to facilitate wort clarification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Brewing and Craft Beer)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Capacity and Physicochemical Characteristics of Carbonated Erica Arborea Tea Beverage
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 8 June 2018 / Accepted: 11 July 2018 / Published: 16 July 2018
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Abstract
The current study was aimed to generate an innovative tea beverage which has water infusion of Erica arborea. Dehydrated Erica arborea leaves were extracted in boiling water and the solution was brix value-balanced to 8° with sucrose, acid, natural lemon flavor, and antimicrobial
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The current study was aimed to generate an innovative tea beverage which has water infusion of Erica arborea. Dehydrated Erica arborea leaves were extracted in boiling water and the solution was brix value-balanced to 8° with sucrose, acid, natural lemon flavor, and antimicrobial agents. Following the blending of additives, carbonation was applied. Besides some physicochemical parameters, total phenolics, bioaccessibility of total phenols, antioxidant capacity, and bioaccessible antioxidants with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity assay (CUPRAC) methods were also investigated. The green- and yellow-tinted beverage was especially rich in potassium and calcium. The total phenolics and bioaccessible phenolics of the beverage were identified as 174.06 ± 24.53 mg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE) 100 mL−1 and 96.07 ± 3.96 mg GAE 100 mL−1, correspondingly. Antioxidant capacity was 27.20 ± 1.09 μmol trolox mL−1, and the bioaccessible antioxidant capacity was 0.17 ± 0.02 μmol trolox mL−1 in DPPH. Measured antioxidant capacity and bioaccessible antioxidant capacity with other assays were 22.41 ± 2.49 and 3.09 ± 0.44 μmol trolox mL−1 for FRAP; 21.09 ± 1.65 and 0.02 ± 0.00 μmol trolox mL−1 for CUPRAC. In addition to its nutritional and functional features, Erica arborea tea beverage is preferred in accordance with the panelists’ sensorial decision. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Probiotic Functional Carbonated Whey Beverages: Development and Quality Evaluation
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 5 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Whey proteins have excellent nutritional characteristics due to their levels of essential amino acids with high bioavailability. However, they have a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a considerable polluting potential, thus, food manufacturers have opted to add whey to food formulations. The
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Whey proteins have excellent nutritional characteristics due to their levels of essential amino acids with high bioavailability. However, they have a high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and a considerable polluting potential, thus, food manufacturers have opted to add whey to food formulations. The demand for beverages, containing vitamins, probiotics, prebiotics, minerals, and bioactive compounds (antioxidants) with health benefits, has increased and driven market growth. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a probiotic functional carbonated beverage from cheese whey and evaluate its microbiological and physicochemical characteristics soon after production and during storage. The viability and stability of probiotics, as well as the microbiological characteristics, titratable acidity and sedimentation of the beverage, were monitored during one month of refrigerated storage. The probiotic to be added to the formulation was established in a preliminary step. The production of this beverage proved to be a simple technology, and the product was suitable for the incorporation of the probiotic, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis. The probiotic showed good viability and stability during storage. The microbiological quality of the beverage met the Brazilian legal standards. The pH and titratable acidity of the probiotic carbonated beverage remained stable during storage, and slight sedimentation was observed after one week of refrigerated storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Probiotic Functional Beverages)
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Open AccessArticle Production and Application of Pectinases from Aspergillus niger Obtained in Solid State Cultivation
Received: 22 March 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 11 July 2018
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Abstract
In this study, different concentrations of the inducer (pectin) and the carbon source (glucose) were evaluated as components of the culture medium for the production of pectinases by Aspergillusniger. Furthermore, it evaluated the stability of the enzymes produced with respect to
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In this study, different concentrations of the inducer (pectin) and the carbon source (glucose) were evaluated as components of the culture medium for the production of pectinases by Aspergillusniger. Furthermore, it evaluated the stability of the enzymes produced with respect to the temperature and the enzyme extract produced was tested for the clarification of strawberry juice. The highest pectinolytic activity (68 U/g) was obtained at a concentration of 6% (w/w) of pectin in the absence of glucose in the medium. Pectinases activity has shown high stability at 20 °C and 30 °C while a gradual decrease of activity was observed when the temperature rose. A reduction of about 50% of the total pectinases activity was measured at 50 °C after 60 min of exposure. The experimental enzymatic extract was compared with a high-quality commercial product for the clarification of strawberry juice. Similar data were obtained for turbidity and viscosity reduction. The enzymatic treatment led to a reduction of about 60% in the turbidity and 40% in the viscosity of the juice. After the enzymatic treatment, the total phenolic compounds, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity were preserved. The results obtained in the present work indicate the potential of the enzymes produced for using in fruit processing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymes in Beverages Processing)
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Open AccessArticle Potentials and Pitfalls on the Use of Passion Fruit By-Products in Drinkable Yogurt: Physicochemical, Technological, Microbiological, and Sensory Aspects
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 11 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 8 July 2018
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Abstract
Peels and seeds are the primary by-products of the passion fruit agroindustry. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of passion fruit peel and seeds flour (PFF) as a source of fiber and minerals to enhance the functional properties of drinkable yogurt.
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Peels and seeds are the primary by-products of the passion fruit agroindustry. This study was designed to evaluate the potential of passion fruit peel and seeds flour (PFF) as a source of fiber and minerals to enhance the functional properties of drinkable yogurt. Proximate composition, mineral content, technological (pH, viscosity, color, and syneresis), and microbiological analyses (lactic acid bacteria, as well as yeast and mold counts), acceptance test, descriptive sensory analysis, and shelf life assessments were analyzed. Drinkable yogurts fortified with PFF showed higher fiber levels (both soluble and insoluble) and mineral content (potassium, magnesium, and manganese). Incorporation of PFF increased the viscosity and promoted changes in the color parameters of yogurts. During storage, the pH and the number of viable lactic acid bacteria decreased while the syneresis and yeast and mold counts increased. The shelf life of drinkable yogurts was estimated to be 21 days. Regarding sensorial aspects, drinkable yogurt fortified with 2% of PFF was considered the most viable product for market exploitation. The present contribution indicates that the use of passion fruit by-products in the development of drinkable yogurts is a viable alternative which can be explored for nutritional, technological, and sensory purposes by the food industry. Full article
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