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Beverages 2018, 4(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/beverages4030063

Distribution and Health Hazards of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Milk and Dairy-Based Products

1
Chemistry Department, Faculty of science, Cairo University, Giza 12613, Egypt
2
Egypt Nanotechnology Center, Cairo University, El-Sheikh Zayed 12588, Egypt
3
Chemistry Department, Faculty of science Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
4
Regional Center for Food and Feed, Agricultural Research Center, Giza 12613, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 1 September 2018
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Abstract

In a market-basket study conducted in Cairo, Egypt, the most commonly consumed milk products were sampled and the contents of 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were analyzed using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector. The obtained data showed that the total amount of 13 PAHs was within the range of 1.3–8.2 µg/g. The results proved that the, highest mean levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected in powdered milk (8.2 μg/g) followed by ultra-heat treatment milk and milk beverages (6.07 μg/g). The lowest level was detected in unsmoked cheese and yogurt (1.3 μg/g). Estimated daily intake (EDI) was used to estimate the carcinogenic risk. The total mean estimated daily intake for children in different age categories (1–10 years) was calculated with respect to benzo[a]pyrene, which ranged from 0.058 to 0.31 mg/day. The total mean value of EDI for the sum of seven carcinogenic PAHs in terms of benzo[a]pyrene ranged from 0.61 to 1.22 mg/day in all age categories. These results were higher than the critical limit set by the European Food Safety Authority. Therefore, there should be concerns regarding the effects of the consumption of different milk products on the local population. View Full-Text
Keywords: estimated daily intake (EDI); mass spectrometry; milk products; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s); QuEChERS extraction estimated daily intake (EDI); mass spectrometry; milk products; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH’s); QuEChERS extraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Mohamed, G.G.; Souaya, E.R.; Khalil, L.H.; Rawash, E.-S.A.; El-Chaghaby, G.A.; El-Gammal, M.H. Distribution and Health Hazards of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Egyptian Milk and Dairy-Based Products. Beverages 2018, 4, 63.

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