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Hydrology, Volume 7, Issue 1 (March 2020) – 7 articles

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Open AccessEditorial
Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Hydrology in 2019
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010007 - 20 Jan 2020
Viewed by 87
Abstract
The editorial team greatly appreciates the reviewers who have dedicated their considerable time and
expertise to the journal’s rigorous editorial process over the past 12 months, regardless of whether
the papers are finally published or not [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Permafrost Hydrology Research Domain: Process-Based Adjustment
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010006 - 07 Jan 2020
Viewed by 161
Abstract
Permafrost hydrology is an emerging discipline, attracting increasing attention as the Arctic region is undergoing rapid change. However, the research domain of this discipline had never been explicitly formulated. Both ‘permafrost’ and ‘hydrology’ yield differing meanings across languages and scientific domains; hence, ‘permafrost [...] Read more.
Permafrost hydrology is an emerging discipline, attracting increasing attention as the Arctic region is undergoing rapid change. However, the research domain of this discipline had never been explicitly formulated. Both ‘permafrost’ and ‘hydrology’ yield differing meanings across languages and scientific domains; hence, ‘permafrost hydrology’ serves as an example of cognitive linguistic relativity. From this point of view, the English and Russian usages of this term are explained. The differing views of permafrost as either an ecosystem class or a geographical region, and hydrology as a discipline concerned with either landscapes or generic water bodies, maintain a language-specific touch of the research in this field. Responding to a current lack of a unified approach, we propose a universal process-based definition of permafrost hydrology, based on a specific process assemblage, specific to permafrost regions and including: (1) Unconfined groundwater surface dynamics related to the active layer development; (2) water migration in the soil matrix, driven by phase transitions in the freezing active layer; and (3) transient water storage in both surface and subsurface compartments, redistributing runoff on various time scales. This definition fills the gap in existing scientific vocabulary. Other definitions from the field are revisited and discussed. The future of permafrost hydrology research is discussed, where the most important results would emerge at the interface between permafrost hydrology, periglacial geomorphology, and geocryology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Aquifer Bed Slope and Sea Level on Saltwater Intrusion in Coastal Aquifers
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010005 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 235
Abstract
The quality of groundwater resources in coastal aquifers is affected by saltwater intrusion. Over-abstraction of groundwater and seawater level rise due to climate change accelerate the intrusion process. This paper investigates the effects of aquifer bed slope and seaside slope on saltwater intrusion. [...] Read more.
The quality of groundwater resources in coastal aquifers is affected by saltwater intrusion. Over-abstraction of groundwater and seawater level rise due to climate change accelerate the intrusion process. This paper investigates the effects of aquifer bed slope and seaside slope on saltwater intrusion. The possible impacts of increasing seawater head due to sea level rise and decreasing groundwater level due to over-pumping and reduction in recharge are also investigated. A numerical model (SEAWAT) is applied to well-known Henry problem to assess the movement of the dispersion zone under different settings of bed and seaside slopes. The results showed that increasing seaside slope increased the intrusion of saltwater by 53.2% and 117% for slopes of 1:1 and 2:1, respectively. Increasing the bed slope toward the land decreased the intrusion length by 2% and 4.8%, respectively. On the other hand, increasing the bed slope toward the seaside increased the intrusion length by 3.6% and 6.4% for bed slopes of 20:1 and 10:1, respectively. The impacts of reducing the groundwater level at the land side and increasing the seawater level at the shoreline by 5% and 10% considering different slopes are studied. The intrusion length increased under both conditions. Unlike Henry problem, the current investigation considers inclined beds and sea boundaries and, hence, provides a better representation of the field conditions. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Mathematical Treatment of Saturated Macroscopic Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Medium: Evaluating Darcy’s Law
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010004 - 31 Dec 2019
Viewed by 113
Abstract
We present a rigorous mathematical treatment of water flow in saturated heterogeneous porous media based on the classical Navier-Stokes formulation that includes vorticity in a heterogeneous porous media. We used the mathematical approach proposed in 1855 by James Clark Maxwell. We show that [...] Read more.
We present a rigorous mathematical treatment of water flow in saturated heterogeneous porous media based on the classical Navier-Stokes formulation that includes vorticity in a heterogeneous porous media. We used the mathematical approach proposed in 1855 by James Clark Maxwell. We show that flow in heterogeneous media results in a flow field described by a heterogeneous complex lamellar vector field with rotational flows, compared to the homogeneous lamellar flow field that results from Darcy’s law. This analysis shows that Darcy’s Law does not accurately describe flow in a heterogeneous porous medium and we encourage precise laboratory experiments to determine under what conditions these issues are important. We publish this work to encourage others to perform numerical and laboratory experiments to determine the circumstances in which this derivation is applicable, and in which the complications can be disregarded. Full article
Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Aga, A.O. et al. Estimating the Sediment Flux and Budget for a Data Limited Rift Valley Lake in Ethiopia. Hydrology 2019, 6, 1
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010003 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 276
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper (Aga et al [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Localized Floods, Poverty and Food Security: Empirical Evidence from Rural Pakistan
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010002 - 27 Dec 2019
Viewed by 198
Abstract
National level floods affect large sections of the population, and in turn, receive attention from the government and international agencies. Localized natural disasters, including localized floods, do not get the attention of the government and policymakers because their impact is felt within limited [...] Read more.
National level floods affect large sections of the population, and in turn, receive attention from the government and international agencies. Localized natural disasters, including localized floods, do not get the attention of the government and policymakers because their impact is felt within limited geographical areas, despite the fact that these disasters severely affect the livelihood of rural communities. This study examines the impact of localized floods on the livelihood of farmers in Pakistan using a cross-sectional data set collected from 812 households. The empirical results show that localized floods severely affect rural livelihoods, and affected households have lowered cereal crop yields, less income, and reduced food security levels. Farmers adopt a number of strategies, including crop and livestock insurance, bund-making, land-leveling, and tree planting, to combat the impact of localized floods. Among all these mitigating strategies, the tree plantation is ranked as the best mitigating strategy followed by crop and livestock insurance, land leveling, and bund making, respectively. Education, wealth, access to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), extension services, and infrastructure, influence the adoption of measures to mitigate the effect of flood risks. National policy on localized flood risks needs to strengthen local institutions to provide support to families and extension services to train farmers to mitigate the impact of localized floods. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Lake Volume Data Analyses: A Deep Look into the Shrinking and Expansion Patterns of Lakes Azuei and Enriquillo, Hispaniola
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010001 - 24 Dec 2019
Viewed by 148
Abstract
This paper presents the development of an evenly spaced volume time series for Lakes Azuei and Enriquillo both located on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. The time series is derived from an unevenly spaced Landsat imagery data set which is then exposed to [...] Read more.
This paper presents the development of an evenly spaced volume time series for Lakes Azuei and Enriquillo both located on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola. The time series is derived from an unevenly spaced Landsat imagery data set which is then exposed to several imputation methods to construct the gap filled uniformly-spaced time series so it can be subjected to statistical analyses methods. The volume time series features both gradual and sudden changes the latter of which is attributed to North Atlantic cyclone activity. Relevant cyclone activity is defined as an event passing within 80 km and having regional monthly rainfall averages higher than a threshold value of 87 mm causing discontinuities in the lake responses. Discontinuities are accounted for in the imputation algorithm by dividing the time series into two sub-sections: Before/after the event. Using leave-p-out cross-validation and computing the NRMSE index the Stineman interpolation proves to be the best algorithm among 15 different imputation alternatives that were tested. The final time series features 16-day intervals which is subsequently resampled into one with monthly time steps. Data analyses of the monthly volume change time series show Lake Enriquillo’s seasonal periodicity in its behavior and also its sensitivity due to the occurrence of storm events. Response times feature a growth pattern lasting for one to two years after an extreme event, followed by a shrinking pattern lasting 5–7 years returning the lake to its original state. While both lakes show a remarkable long term increase in size starting in 2005, Lake Azuei is different in that it is much less sensitive to storm events and instead shows a stronger response to just changing seasonal rainfall patterns. Full article
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