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Localized Floods, Poverty and Food Security: Empirical Evidence from Rural Pakistan

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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), CSI Complex, NARC, Park Road, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
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International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), El Batan, Texcoco C.P. 56237, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010002
Received: 27 August 2019 / Revised: 10 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 27 December 2019
National level floods affect large sections of the population, and in turn, receive attention from the government and international agencies. Localized natural disasters, including localized floods, do not get the attention of the government and policymakers because their impact is felt within limited geographical areas, despite the fact that these disasters severely affect the livelihood of rural communities. This study examines the impact of localized floods on the livelihood of farmers in Pakistan using a cross-sectional data set collected from 812 households. The empirical results show that localized floods severely affect rural livelihoods, and affected households have lowered cereal crop yields, less income, and reduced food security levels. Farmers adopt a number of strategies, including crop and livestock insurance, bund-making, land-leveling, and tree planting, to combat the impact of localized floods. Among all these mitigating strategies, the tree plantation is ranked as the best mitigating strategy followed by crop and livestock insurance, land leveling, and bund making, respectively. Education, wealth, access to non-governmental organizations (NGOs), extension services, and infrastructure, influence the adoption of measures to mitigate the effect of flood risks. National policy on localized flood risks needs to strengthen local institutions to provide support to families and extension services to train farmers to mitigate the impact of localized floods. View Full-Text
Keywords: localized floods; rural livelihood; flood risk management; Pakistan localized floods; rural livelihood; flood risk management; Pakistan
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Ali, A.; Rahut, D.B. Localized Floods, Poverty and Food Security: Empirical Evidence from Rural Pakistan. Hydrology 2020, 7, 2.

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