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Hydrology, Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Globally, demand for water is often higher than the supply. Especially in semi-arid regions, this has created the need for transbasin diversions and dams to move water from its source in wildland areas to where the need is, upstream of population centers. With limited data from prior to a diversion, alternative approaches, such as a linkage of hydrologic and hydraulic modeling and datasets, are used to understand how a watershed would function under natural conditions and the change in system response due to flow alteration in a transbasin watershed. Understanding the relation of hydrology and channel form is necessary to assess hydrologic and hydraulic stability, in order to help to meet water use targets and safeguard for environmental sustainability in a complex, hydrologically modified system. View this paper.
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14 pages, 5517 KiB  
Article
Estimation of Actual Evapotranspiration Using the Remote Sensing Method and SEBAL Algorithm: A Case Study in Ein Khosh Plain, Iran
by Amir Ghaderi, Mehdi Dasineh, Maryam Shokri and John Abraham
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020036 - 25 Jun 2020
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 3820
Abstract
The aim of this study was to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) in the Ilam province, Iran. Landsat 8 satellite images were used to calculate ET during the cultivation and harvesting of wheat [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing and the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL) in the Ilam province, Iran. Landsat 8 satellite images were used to calculate ET during the cultivation and harvesting of wheat crops. The evaluation using SEBAL, along with the FAO-Penman–Monteith method, showed that SEBAL has a sufficient accuracy for estimating ET. The values of the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), Mean Bias Error (MBE), and correlation coefficient were 0.466, 2.9%, 0.222 mm/day, and 0.97, respectively. Satellite images showed that rainfall, except for the last month of cultivation, provided the necessary water requirements and there was no requirement for the use of other water resources for irrigation, with the exception of late May and early June. The maximum ET on the Ein Khosh Plain occurred in March. The irrigation requirements showed that the Ein Khosh Plain in March, which witnessed the highest ET, did not experience any deficiency of rainfall that month. However, during April and May, with maxima of 50 and 70 mm, respectively, water was needed for irrigation. During the plant growth periods, the greatest and least amount of water required were 231.23 and 19.47 mm/hr, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rainfall-Induced Landslides Hazard)
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23 pages, 4177 KiB  
Article
Urban Floods: Linking the Overloading of a Storm Water Sewer System to Precipitation Parameters
by Ivan Vorobevskii, Firas Al Janabi, Fabian Schneebeck, Jose Bellera and Peter Krebs
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020035 - 24 Jun 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3591
Abstract
The lack and inefficiency of urban drainage systems, as well as extreme precipitation, can lead to system overloading and, therefore, an urban pluvial flood. The study brings insights into this phenomenon from the perspective of the statistical relationship between precipitation and flooding parameters. [...] Read more.
The lack and inefficiency of urban drainage systems, as well as extreme precipitation, can lead to system overloading and, therefore, an urban pluvial flood. The study brings insights into this phenomenon from the perspective of the statistical relationship between precipitation and flooding parameters. The paper investigates the possibility of predicting sewer overloading based on the characteristics of the upcoming rain event using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) and statistical methods. Additionally, it examines the influence of precipitation resolution on the model sensitivity regarding floods. The study is set in a small urban catchment in Dresden (Germany) with a separated stormwater sewer system (SWSS). The flood-event-based calibrated model runs with observed and designed heavy rain events of various sums, durations, and intensities. Afterward, the analysis focuses on precipitation and model overloading parameters (total flood volume, maximum flooding time and flow rate, and maximum nodal water depth) with pairwise correlation and multi-linear regression (MLR). The results indicate that it is possible to define a certain threshold (or range) for a few precipitation characteristics, which could lead to an urban flood, and fitting MLR can noticeably improve the predictability of the SWSS overloading parameters. The study concludes that design and observed rain events should be considered separately and that the resolution of the precipitation data (1/5/10 min) does not play a significant role in SWSS overloading. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extreme Precipitation and Floods under a Changing Climate)
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15 pages, 2992 KiB  
Article
Importance of Detailed Soil Information for Hydrological Modelling in an Urbanized Environment
by Johan van Tol, George van Zijl and Stefan Julich
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020034 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3342
Abstract
Soil information is critical in watershed-scale hydrological modelling; however, it is still debated which level of complexity the soil data should contain. In the present study, we have compared the effect of two levels of soil data on the hydrologic simulation of a [...] Read more.
Soil information is critical in watershed-scale hydrological modelling; however, it is still debated which level of complexity the soil data should contain. In the present study, we have compared the effect of two levels of soil data on the hydrologic simulation of a mesoscale, urbanised watershed (630 km2) in central South Africa. The first level of soil data, land type (LT) data, is currently the best, readily available soil information that covers the whole of South Africa. In the LT database, the entire study area is covered by only two soil types. The second level of soil data (DSM) was created by means of digital soil mapping based on hydropedological principles. It resulted in six different soil types with different hydrological behaviour (e.g., interflow, recharge, responsive). The two levels of soil data were each included in the revised version of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT+). To compare the effects of different complexity of soil information on the simulated water balance, the outputs of the uncalibrated models were compared to the three nested gauging stations of the watershed. For the LT scenario, the simulation efficiencies calculated with the Kling–Gupta efficiency (KGE) for the three nested gauging stations (640 km2, 550 km2, 54 km2) of 0, 0.33 and −0.23 were achieved, respectively. Under the DSM scenario, KGE increased to 0.28, 0.44 and 0.43 indicating an immediate improvement of the simulation by integrating soil data with detailed information on hydrological behaviour. In the LT scenario, actual evapotranspiration (aET) was clearly underestimated compared to MODIS-derived aET, while surface runoff was overestimated. The DSM scenario resulted in higher simulated aET compared to LT and lower surface runoff. The higher simulation efficiency of DSM in the smaller headwater catchments can be attributed to the inclusion of the interflow soil type, which covers the governing runoff generation process better than the LT scenario. Our results indicate that simulations benefit from more detailed soil information, especially in smaller areas where fewer runoff generation processes dominate. Full article
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25 pages, 4810 KiB  
Article
Regional Climatological Drought: An Assessment Using High-Resolution Data
by Alen Shrestha, Md Mafuzur Rahaman, Ajay Kalra, Balbhadra Thakur, Kenneth W. Lamb and Pankaj Maheshwari
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020033 - 12 Jun 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2734
Abstract
Regional assessments of droughts are limited, and meticulous assessments over larger spatial scales are generally not substantial. Understanding drought variability on a regional scale is crucial for enhancing the resiliency and adaptive ability of water supply and distribution systems. Moreover, it can be [...] Read more.
Regional assessments of droughts are limited, and meticulous assessments over larger spatial scales are generally not substantial. Understanding drought variability on a regional scale is crucial for enhancing the resiliency and adaptive ability of water supply and distribution systems. Moreover, it can be essential for appraising the dynamics and projection of droughts based on regional climate across various spatial and temporal scales. This work focuses on drought analysis using a high-resolution dataset for three drought-prone regions of India between 1950 and 2016. This study also uses monthly values of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI), incorporating Penman–Monteith approximation, which is physically based on potential evapotranspiration. Climate data are statistically downscaled and formulated to form a timeline for characterizing major drought events. The downscaled climate data hold a good statistical agreement with station data with correlation coefficients (R) ranging from 0.91 to 0.96. Drought analysis indicates and identifies several major incidences over the analysis time period considered in this work, which truly adheres to the droughts recorded in reports of various literatures for those regions. Full article
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14 pages, 3284 KiB  
Article
Temporal Analysis of Daily and 10 Minutes of Rainfall of Poprad Station in Eastern Slovakia
by Adam Repel, Vinayakam Jothiprakash, Martina Zeleňáková, Helena Hlavatá and Ionut Minea
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020032 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2342
Abstract
The aim of this paper is the application of temporal analysis of daily and 10 min of rainfall data from Poprad station, located in Eastern Slovakia. There are two types of data used in the analysis, firstly, a daily time step data, manually [...] Read more.
The aim of this paper is the application of temporal analysis of daily and 10 min of rainfall data from Poprad station, located in Eastern Slovakia. There are two types of data used in the analysis, firstly, a daily time step data, manually collected between the years 1951 and 2018 and secondly, 10 min of data, automatically collected between the years 2000 and 2018. For proper comparability, the automatically collected data has been recalculated to the daily form. After a comparison of the sets of data, manually collected daily data has been used in further analysis. The main analysis can be divided into two sections. The first section consists of basic statistics (mean, standard deviation, etc.) and the second section of descriptive statistics, where the subjects of examination were trend, stationarity, homogeneity, periodicity and noise. The results of the basic statistics outlined trend behavior in the data meaning that the annual total rainfall for the period 1951–2018 is slightly increasing but the further investigation supported by the methods of descriptive statistics refuted this thesis. The number of rainy days is decreasing but maximum rainfall intensity is increasing year by year, indicating that total rainfall is happening in lesser and lesser days, with an increase in the number of 0 rainfall days. The results demonstrated no presence of the trend or only a weak trend in daily time step, but a significant increasing trend in annual rainfall. Tests of stationarity proved that the data are stationary and, therefore, suitable for any hydrologic analysis. The tests of homogeneity showed no breakpoints in the data. The interesting result was demonstrated by the periodicity test, which showed exactly a 365.25 days’ period, while 0.25 indicates a leap year. As a summary for the Poprad station, there is no tendency of increasing of daily average rainfall, but slight increasing trend of total annual rainfall, the summer season has the highest ratio on total precipitation per year, September and October are the months with the highest numbers of days without rain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technological Advances in Hydroclimatic Observations)
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18 pages, 9571 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Stage–Discharge Relationship Stability Based on Historical Ratings
by Marcela Rojas, Felipe Quintero and Nathan Young
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020031 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3337
Abstract
We explored the stability of the rating curves at six streamflow gauging sites in the state of Iowa, USA, to examine temporal variability of their stage–discharge relationships. The analyzed sites have up to 10 years of rating and shift records. Rating curve shifts [...] Read more.
We explored the stability of the rating curves at six streamflow gauging sites in the state of Iowa, USA, to examine temporal variability of their stage–discharge relationships. The analyzed sites have up to 10 years of rating and shift records. Rating curve shifts reflect the alteration of channel geometry caused by scouring and sediment deposition. We studied how rating shifts are connected to the occurrence of flood events and drought periods over time. We found that most rating curve changes take place during spring and summer, which are the seasons with more precipitation in Iowa. We quantified stability in terms of standard deviation of stages for a continuous range of discharges in a rating curve, and show that most of the sites exhibit greater standard stage deviation for discharge–flood ratios smaller than 1, while for larger discharge–flood ratios, the deviation decreases. In stable rating curves, the stage deviation tends to decrease as discharge increases. Non-stable rating curves exhibit large stage deviation in the stage–discharge relationship throughout all stages. Full article
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14 pages, 4903 KiB  
Article
Impact of Climate Factors and Human Activities on Water Resources in the Aral Sea Basin
by Timur T Berdimbetov, Zhu-Guo Ma, Chen Liang and Sana Ilyas
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020030 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 4179
Abstract
The Aral Sea in Central Asia plays an essential role in the socio-economic development of the region. During the last six decades, there has been remarkable changes observed in the water level and areal extent of the Aral Sea Basin; however, the causes [...] Read more.
The Aral Sea in Central Asia plays an essential role in the socio-economic development of the region. During the last six decades, there has been remarkable changes observed in the water level and areal extent of the Aral Sea Basin; however, the causes behind these changes are unclear. This study quantifies the impacts of climatic and anthropogenic drivers on Aral Sea and the contributions made by these drivers to the variations observed in the Aral Sea Basin. The spatial and temporal seasonal variations in groundwater budget have been analyzed using the total water storage (TWS) of the basin from 2002 to 2015. The results from this study revealed significant increases in the the mean air temperature, precipitation, and potential evapotranspiration rate from 1960 to 2015 in the Aral Sea Basin. The TWS time-series shows a statistically significant declining trend of about 2 to 4 cm per year presented by the surface water storage. Based on the average monthly values of TWS, March 2005 presented the highest anomaly ~7.85 cm, while October 2008 showed the lowest anomaly ~8.22 cm between 2002 to 2015. The groundwater level indicates a small increasing trend of approximately 0.05 cm/year during the study period. Furthermore, the negative relationship between water level, climatic, and anthropogenic factors showed that these factors projected critical impact on the water level fluctuations within the Aral Sea Basin. Full article
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18 pages, 3637 KiB  
Article
Linking Hydrologic and Hydraulic Data with Models to Assess Flow and Channel Alteration at Hog Park, Wyoming USA
by Tyler J. Carleton and Steven R. Fassnacht
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020029 - 23 May 2020
Viewed by 2523
Abstract
Transbasin diversions and dams allow for water uses when and where there is high demand and low supply, but can come with an expense to the environment. This paper presents a linkage of hydrologic and hydraulic modeling and datasets to assess the hydrologic [...] Read more.
Transbasin diversions and dams allow for water uses when and where there is high demand and low supply, but can come with an expense to the environment. This paper presents a linkage of hydrologic and hydraulic modeling and datasets to assess the hydrologic and hydraulic stability within a transbasin watershed as an approach for meeting water use targets and safeguarding environmental sustainability. The approach used a Prediction in Ungauged Basin (PUB) regionalization technique that completed the parameterization of a study watershed hydrologic model by transferring calibrated parameters from a reference watershed hydrologic model. This resulted in a long-term, simulated natural flow record that was compared to the measured modified flow record for the same time period to assess flow alteration. In the sensitive reach, hydraulic modeling results tracked channel response from before hydrologic modification to baseline using repeated survey years during the hydrologic modification. The combined assessment of hydrology and hydraulics highlighted the relation between flow regime and channel form. Full article
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32 pages, 15712 KiB  
Article
Open-Source Software Application for Hydrogeological Delineation of Potential Groundwater Recharge Zones in the Singida Semi-Arid, Fractured Aquifer, Central Tanzania
by Kassim Ramadhani Mussa, Ibrahimu Chikira Mjemah and Revocatus Lazaro Machunda
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020028 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 4568
Abstract
This study attempted to delineate and map potential groundwater recharge zones of the Singida, semi-arid, fractured crystalline basement aquifer using open source remote sensing and GIS software. Various thematic maps such as lithology/hydrogeology, soil, land-cover/use, slope, lineament density, drainage density and rainfall distribution [...] Read more.
This study attempted to delineate and map potential groundwater recharge zones of the Singida, semi-arid, fractured crystalline basement aquifer using open source remote sensing and GIS software. Various thematic maps such as lithology/hydrogeology, soil, land-cover/use, slope, lineament density, drainage density and rainfall distribution were integrated in QGIS software. Vector input layers were rasterized and resampled using QGIS wrap projection function to make sure that the grid cells are of the same size. Reclassification using SAGA and GRASS reclass algorithms in QGIS was carried out to realign the factor classes in a consistent scale, and reclassification to a scale of 1 to 5 was carried out to harmonize the results. The study identified a number of potential areas for groundwater recharge, groundwater exploration, groundwater development and potential areas for artificial groundwater recharge. Potential groundwater recharge zones for the Singida semi-arid fractured aquifer are restricted to areas with high lineament density, cultivated areas, grassland and flat to gentle slopes. The potential of groundwater recharge is also observed in areas with low drainage density. The delineated zones provide a good understanding of the potential recharge zones, which are a starting point for recharge zone protection. This blended approach can be utilized for carrying out suitability analysis using the weighted overlay analysis approach. Areas designated good and very good are recommended for artificial recharging structures as an alternative technique for enhancing groundwater recharge through rainwater harvesting. This will help to augment groundwater storage in this semi-arid environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Land Surface Hydrological Processes)
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18 pages, 7675 KiB  
Article
Analytical and Numerical Groundwater Flow Solutions for the FEMME-Modeling Environment
by Mustafa El-Rawy, Okke Batelaan, Kerst Buis, Christian Anibas, Getachew Mohammed, Wouter Zijl and Ali Salem
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020027 - 12 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 4794
Abstract
Simple analytical and numerical solutions for confined and unconfined groundwater-surface water interaction in one and two dimensions were developed in the STRIVE package (stream river ecosystem) as part of FEMME (flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment). Analytical and numerical solutions for interaction [...] Read more.
Simple analytical and numerical solutions for confined and unconfined groundwater-surface water interaction in one and two dimensions were developed in the STRIVE package (stream river ecosystem) as part of FEMME (flexible environment for mathematically modelling the environment). Analytical and numerical solutions for interaction between one-dimensional confined and unconfined aquifers and rivers were used to study the effects of a 0.5 m sudden rise in the river water level for 24 h. Furthermore, a two-dimensional groundwater model for an unconfined aquifer was developed and coupled with a one-dimensional hydrodynamic model. This model was applied on a 1 km long reach of the Aa River, Belgium. Two different types of river water level conditions were tested. A MODFLOW model was set up for these different types of water level condition in order to compare the results with the models implemented in STRIVE. The results of the analytical solutions for confined and unconfined aquifers were in good agreement with the numerical results. The results of the two-dimensional groundwater model developed in STRIVE also showed that there is a good agreement with the MODFLOW solutions. It is concluded that the facilities of STRIVE can be used to improve the understanding of groundwater-surface water interaction and to couple the groundwater module with other modules developed for STRIVE. With these new models STRIVE proves to be a powerful example as a development and testing environment for integrated water modeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Surface Water and Groundwater Analysis)
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18 pages, 4449 KiB  
Article
Study on the Improved Method of Urban Subcatchments Division Based on Aspect and Slope- Taking SWMM Model as Example
by Zening Wu, Bingyan Ma, Huiliang Wang and Caihong Hu
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020026 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3432
Abstract
The storm water management model (SWMM) is widely used in urban rainfall runoff simulations, but there are no clear rules for the division of its sub catchment areas. At present, the popular sub catchment area division method takes the average slope as the [...] Read more.
The storm water management model (SWMM) is widely used in urban rainfall runoff simulations, but there are no clear rules for the division of its sub catchment areas. At present, the popular sub catchment area division method takes the average slope as the slope parameter of the sub catchment area, which brings errors to the model in mechanism. Based on the current method, this paper proposes a new method to further subdivide the sub catchment area of the SWMM model, according to the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data of underlying surface, slope and aspect information. By comparing with the previous methods, it was found that the division method based on slope and aspect can make the setting of model parameters and hydraulic exchange conditions clearer, and improve the accuracy of the model on a certain level. Full article
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12 pages, 20180 KiB  
Article
Climate Change Study via the Centennial Trend of Climate Factors
by Nezamoddin N. Kachouie and Osita E. Onyejekwe
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020025 - 03 May 2020
Viewed by 2363
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this work is to discover underlying trends of climate factors, identify their peaks and inflection points between 1880 and 2017, and study their response to climate change. Five climate factors including Land Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature, Temperature Over [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this work is to discover underlying trends of climate factors, identify their peaks and inflection points between 1880 and 2017, and study their response to climate change. Five climate factors including Land Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature, Temperature Over Land Plus Ocean, Carbon Dioxide concentration, and Northern Hemisphere Sea Ice Extent are studied in this paper. Methods: First, the kernel regression is applied to smooth and recover underlying trends of the climate factors between 1880 and 2017. To characterize temporal changes in the global climate via climate factors, peaks and inflection points of each climate factor are located and identified. Results: Five climate factors are studied between 1880 and 2017. Despite locating multiple inflection points in the climate factors and indicating fluctuations in the weather patterns, it was observed that Land Temperature, Sea Surface Temperature, Temperature Over Land Plus Ocean, and Carbon Dioxide concentration have experienced consistent increasing trends since the mid 20 t h century. It was also observed that in response to climate change, the Northern Hemisphere Sea Ice Extent has experienced a consistent decreasing trend since the 1960s. Conclusion: An increasing trend was observed for four climate factors (all but Sea Ice Extent) since the early 1900s. Sea Ice Extent shows a consistent decreasing trend dropping to a new minimum, year after year. Among all factors, the Sea Surface Temperature shows a decreasing trend between the late 1800s and the early 1900s. It reaches its minimum in 1911 and has experienced an increasing trend since then. Our observations agree with the global heat content map during this time interval between 1880 and 2017. The heat content in the Americas, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia shows an increasing trend since the late 1800s. It agrees with what was observed in the Land Temperature anomalies. In contrast, the heat content of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans shows a decreasing trend from the late 1800s to the early 1900s when its trend turns the course to an increasing trend. Full article
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15 pages, 8408 KiB  
Article
Evaluation and Calibration of Alternative Methods for Estimating Reference Evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin
by Papa Malick Ndiaye, Ansoumana Bodian, Lamine Diop, Abdoulaye Deme, Alain Dezetter and Koffi Djaman
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020024 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1003833
Abstract
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is a key element of the water cycle in tropical areas for the planning and management of water resources, hydrological modeling, and irrigation management. The objective of this research is to assess twenty methods in computing ET0 [...] Read more.
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is a key element of the water cycle in tropical areas for the planning and management of water resources, hydrological modeling, and irrigation management. The objective of this research is to assess twenty methods in computing ET0 in the Senegal River Basin and to calibrate and validate the best methods that integrate fewer climate variables. The performance of alternative methods compared to the Penman Monteith (FAO56-PM) model is evaluated using the coefficient of determination (R2), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), percentage of bias (PBIAS), and the Kling–Gupta Efficiency (KGE). The most robust methods integrating fewer climate variables were calibrated and validated and the results show that Trabert, Valiantzas 2, Valiantzas 3, and Hargreaves and Samani models are, respectively, the most robust for ET0 estimation. The calibration improves the estimates of reference evapotranspiration compared to original models. It improved the performance of these models with an increase in KGE values of 45%, 32%, 29%, and 19% for Trabert, Valiantzas 2, Valiantzas 3, and Hargreaves and Samani models, respectively. From a spatial point of view, the calibrated models of Trabert and Valiantzas 2 are robust in all the climatic zones of the Senegal River Basin, whereas, those of Valiantzas 3 and Hargreaves and Samani are more efficient in the Guinean zone. This study provides information on the choice of a model for estimating evapotranspiration in the Senegal River Basin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Ecohydrology of Arid Lands)
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21 pages, 4408 KiB  
Article
Dimensionless Stage-Discharge Relationship for a Non-Linear Water Reservoir: Theory and Experiments
by Giorgio Baiamonte
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020023 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4021
Abstract
In the field of hydrology, stage–discharge relationships are commonly used to estimate the discharge at the basin outlet or by experimental plots. Many experimental efforts have been made in order to derive stage–discharge relationships, according to the Buckingham theorem and dimensional analysis, for [...] Read more.
In the field of hydrology, stage–discharge relationships are commonly used to estimate the discharge at the basin outlet or by experimental plots. Many experimental efforts have been made in order to derive stage–discharge relationships, according to the Buckingham theorem and dimensional analysis, for a multiplicity of gauge geometry. However, these relationships require experimental and physical meaningless numerical coefficients, thus they need extended calibration. The latter issue merits attention, since the empirical coefficients can be applied when the experimental conditions are strictly reproduced in the field. The aim of this paper is to derive a theoretically based stage–discharge relationship of a non-linear water reservoir that requires limited calibration, by using the continuity equation and the principle of conservation of energy. An analysis was performed using a rectangular water tank with a hole at the bottom. However, the suggested approach can be similarly used for tank geometries that differ from the example used in this study. Since the proposed approach is purely hydraulic, only limited calibration of the physical meaningful discharge coefficient characteristic of the hole is needed. A tank design procedure is suggested, and different theoretical and experimental applications of the proposed methodology are performed and discussed. For the considered cases, the mass water balance was also checked. Full article
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14 pages, 3415 KiB  
Article
Disentangling the Main Components of Hydromorphological Modifications at Reach Scale in Rivers of Greece
by Konstantinos Stefanidis, Anna Latsiou, Theodora Kouvarda, Anastasia Lampou, Nektarios Kalaitzakis, Konstantinos Gritzalis and Elias Dimitriou
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020022 - 08 Apr 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires from member states to monitor hydromorphological features of rivers in order to assess their ecological quality. Thus, numerous hydromorphological assessment methods have been developed with most of them focusing on the dynamics of hydrology, geomorphology and riparian [...] Read more.
The Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires from member states to monitor hydromorphological features of rivers in order to assess their ecological quality. Thus, numerous hydromorphological assessment methods have been developed with most of them focusing on the dynamics of hydrology, geomorphology and riparian zone extent. Within the scope of this study, we assessed the hydromorphological features of 106 river reaches distributed among thirteen WFD River Basin Districts (RBDs) to identify the main drivers of hydromorphological perturbation at a national scale. The studied reaches reflect a wide range of natural variability as they include various types of watercourses extending from lowlands to mid-altitude and mountainous systems. We employed the River Habitat Survey (RHS), and we recorded hydromorphological features and modifications in both banks and the channel bed along 500 m for each reach. Then, the Habitat Modification Score (HMS) and the individual sub-scores that indicate the extent of specific modifications (e.g., bridges, fords, weirs, bank reprofiling, bank reinforcement, etc.) were calculated in order to a) assess the severity of the total artificial modification and b) to highlight the most common and severe causes of overall alteration. The results showed that alterations such as reprofiling and reinforcement of banks contributed the most to the total HMS followed by the presence of fords and bridges. Particularly, the bank alterations indicate a serious deterioration of the longitudinal profile of the reaches, while the occurrence of many fords and bridges is the main cause for perturbations that affect locally the stream cross-sectional profile. Overall, these results compile a first nationwide assessment of the hydromorphological status of Greek rivers in line with the WFD and set the basis for further research that will focus on the diversity of stream habitat features as a measure for the overall ecological quality. Full article
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22 pages, 2114 KiB  
Article
Evaluating SWAT Model Performance for Runoff, Percolation, and Sediment Loss Estimation in Low-Gradient Watersheds of the Atlantic Coastal Plain
by Kerry L. Mapes and Narcisa G. Pricope
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020021 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 26 | Viewed by 5553
Abstract
With predicted alterations in climate and land use, managing water resources is of the utmost importance, especially in areas such as the United States (U.S.) Coastal Plain where extensive connections exist between surface and groundwater systems. These changes create the need for models [...] Read more.
With predicted alterations in climate and land use, managing water resources is of the utmost importance, especially in areas such as the United States (U.S.) Coastal Plain where extensive connections exist between surface and groundwater systems. These changes create the need for models that effectively assess shifting hydrologic regimes and, in that context, we examine the performance of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in a low-gradient, shallow-aquifer-dominated watershed of the U.S. Coastal Plain using a gridded reanalysis dataset. We evaluate accuracy, uncertainty, and parameter sensitivity by comparing observed and predicted streamflow at two gaging stations and assess model predictions for yearly average runoff (SURQ), percolation (PERC), and sediment loss (SYLD). Streamflow performance was acceptable during calibration (NSE = 0.67 and 0.60) and very good during validation (NSE = 0.84 and 0.91). Model predictions for SURQ, PERC, and SYLD coincided with expected ranges for this region. Parameters related to shallow aquifer properties or groundwater were highly sensitive, which indicates the need for continued study of spatial and temporal variability within the sub-surface components of these hydrologic systems. Our findings highlight the applicability of this reanalysis dataset for modeling hydrologic processes in poorly gaged watersheds and adds to the body of research that seeks to develop effective assessment tools for shallow-aquifer-dominated systems. Our methodology can effectively assist watershed managers in establishing baseline rates of hydrologic processes as is crucial with future predicted shifts in hydrologic regimes due to land-use alteration and climate change. Full article
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25 pages, 5763 KiB  
Article
On the Ability of LIDAR Snow Depth Measurements to Determine or Evaluate the HRU Discretization in a Land Surface Model
by Michael Weber, Moritz Feigl, Karsten Schulz and Matthias Bernhardt
Hydrology 2020, 7(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7020020 - 29 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2590
Abstract
To find the adequate spatial model discretization scheme, which balances the models capabilities and the demand for representing key features in reality, is a challenging task. It becomes even more challenging in high alpine catchments, where the variability of topography and meteorology over [...] Read more.
To find the adequate spatial model discretization scheme, which balances the models capabilities and the demand for representing key features in reality, is a challenging task. It becomes even more challenging in high alpine catchments, where the variability of topography and meteorology over short distances strongly influences the distribution of snow cover, the dominant component in the alpine water cycle. For the high alpine Research Catchment Zugspitze (RCZ) a new method for objective delineation of hydrological response units (HRUs) using a time series of high resolution LIDAR derived snow depth maps and the physiographic properties of the RCZ is introduced. Via principle component analysis (PCA) of these maps, a dominant snow depth pattern, that turned out to be largely defined during the (winter) accumulation period was identified. This dominant pattern serves as a reference for HRU delineations on the basis of cluster analyses of the catchment’s physiographic properties. The method guarantees for an appropriate, objective, spatial discretization scheme, which allows for a reliable and meaningful reproduction of snow cover variability with the Cold Regions Hydrological Model—at the same time avoiding significant increase of computational demands. Different HRU schemes were evaluated with measured snow depth and the comparison of their model results identified significant differences in model output and best performance of the scheme which best represents measured snow depth distribution. Full article
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