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An Empirical Approach for Modeling Hysteresis Behavior of Pyroclastic Soils
Open AccessCase Report

Subsoil Reconstruction in Geostatistics beyond Kriging: A Case Study in Veneto (NE Italy)

1
Department of Geosciences, University of Padova, Via G. Gradenigo 6, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Department of Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics, “Ca’ Foscari” University of Venezia, Via Torino 155, 30172 Venezia Mestre, Italy
3
National Institute of Statistical Science, 19 T.W. Alexander Drive, P.O. Box 14006, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-4006, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Hydrology 2020, 7(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/hydrology7010015
Received: 14 February 2020 / Revised: 3 March 2020 / Accepted: 5 March 2020 / Published: 7 March 2020
The reconstruction of hydro-stratigraphic units in subsoil (a general term indicating all the materials below ground level) plays an important role in the assessment of soil heterogeneity, which is a keystone in groundwater flow and transport modeling. A geostatistical approach appears to be a good way to reconstruct subsoil, and now other methods besides the classical indicator (co)kriging are available as alternative approximations of the conditional probabilities. Some of these techniques take specifically into account categorical variables as lithologies, but they are computationally prohibitive. Moreover, the stage before subsoil prediction/simulation can be very informative from a hydro-stratigraphic point of view, as the detailed transiogram analysis of this paper demonstrates. In this context, an application of the spMC package for the R software is presented by using a test site located within the Venetian alluvial plain (NE Italy). First, a detailed transiogram analysis was conducted, and then a maximum entropy approach, based on transition probabilities, named Markovian-type Categorical Prediction (MCP), was applied to approximate the posterior conditional probabilities. The study highlights some advantages of the presented approach in term of hydrogeological knowledge and computational efficiency. The spMC package couples transiogram analysis with a maximum entropy approach by taking advantage of High-Performance Computing (HPC) techniques. These characteristics make the spMC package useful for simulating hydro-stratigraphic units in subsoil, despite the use of a large number of lithologies (categories). The results obtained by spMC package suggest that this software should be considered a good candidate for simulating subsoil lithological distributions, especially of limited areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: subsoil reconstruction; heterogeneity assessment; hydrofacies distribution; categorical variables; transiograms; Markovian-type categorical prediction; parallel computation; Venetian plain; NE Italy subsoil reconstruction; heterogeneity assessment; hydrofacies distribution; categorical variables; transiograms; Markovian-type categorical prediction; parallel computation; Venetian plain; NE Italy
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Fabbri, P.; Gaetan, C.; Sartore, L.; Dalla Libera, N. Subsoil Reconstruction in Geostatistics beyond Kriging: A Case Study in Veneto (NE Italy). Hydrology 2020, 7, 15.

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