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Article

Metabolomic Analysis of Germinated Brown Rice at Different Germination Stages

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Korea Food Research Institute, Research Group of Consumer Safety, 245 Nongsaengmyeong-ro, Iseo-myeon, Wanju-Gun, Jeollabuk-do 55365, Korea
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EZmass.Co. Ltd., 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do 52828, Korea
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Division of Applied Life Sciences (BK21 plus), Department of Food Science and Technology, and Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudaero, Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do 52828, Korea
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081130
Received: 24 June 2020 / Revised: 4 August 2020 / Accepted: 13 August 2020 / Published: 17 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analytical Methods)
Brown rice (BR) is unpolished rice containing many bioactive compounds in addition to the basic nutrients of the rice grain. Herein, BR was germinated for up to 48 h to prepare germinated brown rice (GBR). The physiological and chemical changes in the GBR during germination were analyzed. GBR samples germinated for 48 h were in the radicle-emergence stage, but root formation was not observed. The change in the GBR metabolite profile during germination was analyzed to determine the effect of germination on the chemical profiles of the GBR samples. Twenty-five metabolites including acidic compounds, amino acids, sugars, lipid metabolites, and secondary metabolites were identified as the components that contributed to the variations in the GBR groups germinated for different time periods. Among the metabolites, the carbohydrates associated with energy production and lipid metabolites changed significantly. Based on the identified metabolites, a metabolomic pathway was proposed. Carbohydrate metabolism, citric acid cycle, and lipid metabolism were the main processes that were affected during germination. Although further studies on the relationship between the metabolite profile and nutritional quality of the GBR are needed, these results are useful for understanding the effect of germination on the physiological and chemical changes in BR. View Full-Text
Keywords: brown rice; germination; metabolomics; GC-MS; LC-MS brown rice; germination; metabolomics; GC-MS; LC-MS
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, H.; Kim, O.-W.; Ahn, J.-H.; Kim, B.-M.; Oh, J.; Kim, H.-J. Metabolomic Analysis of Germinated Brown Rice at Different Germination Stages. Foods 2020, 9, 1130. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081130

AMA Style

Kim H, Kim O-W, Ahn J-H, Kim B-M, Oh J, Kim H-J. Metabolomic Analysis of Germinated Brown Rice at Different Germination Stages. Foods. 2020; 9(8):1130. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081130

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kim, Hoon, Oui-Woung Kim, Jae-Hwan Ahn, Bo-Min Kim, Juhong Oh, and Hyun-Jin Kim. 2020. "Metabolomic Analysis of Germinated Brown Rice at Different Germination Stages" Foods 9, no. 8: 1130. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081130

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