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Review

How Fermentation Affects the Antioxidant Properties of Cereals and Legumes

1
Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science, University of Bari Aldo Moro, 70126 Bari, Italy
2
Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Granada, Campus Universitario de Cartuja, E-18071 Granada, Spain
3
Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology ‘José Mataix’, Biomedical Research Centre, University of Granada, Avenida del Conocimiento s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(9), 362; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090362
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 20 August 2019 / Accepted: 22 August 2019 / Published: 24 August 2019
The major role of antioxidant compounds in preserving food shelf life, as well as providing health promoting benefits, combined with the increasing concern towards synthetic antioxidants, has led the scientific community to focus on natural antioxidants present in food matrices or resulting from microbial metabolism during fermentation. This review aims at providing a comprehensive overview of the effect of fermentation on the antioxidant compounds of vegetables, with emphasis on cereals- and legumes- derived foods. Polyphenols are the main natural antioxidants in food. However, they are often bound to cell wall, glycosylated, or in polymeric forms, which affect their bioaccessibility, yet several metabolic activities are involved in their release or conversion in more active forms. In some cases, the antioxidant properties in vitro, were also confirmed during in vivo studies. Similarly, bioactive peptides resulted from bacterial and fungal proteolysis, were also found to have ex vivo protective effect against oxidation. Fermentation also influenced the bioaccessibility of other compounds, such as vitamins and exopolysaccharides, enabling a further improvement of antioxidant activity in vitro and in vivo. The ability of fermentation to improve food antioxidant properties strictly relies on the metabolic activities of the starter used, and to further demonstrate its potential, more in vivo studies should be carried out. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria; fungi; phenolic compounds; bioactive peptides; grains Lactic acid bacteria; fungi; phenolic compounds; bioactive peptides; grains
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MDPI and ACS Style

Verni, M.; Verardo, V.; Rizzello, C.G. How Fermentation Affects the Antioxidant Properties of Cereals and Legumes. Foods 2019, 8, 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090362

AMA Style

Verni M, Verardo V, Rizzello CG. How Fermentation Affects the Antioxidant Properties of Cereals and Legumes. Foods. 2019; 8(9):362. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090362

Chicago/Turabian Style

Verni, Michela, Vito Verardo, and Carlo G. Rizzello 2019. "How Fermentation Affects the Antioxidant Properties of Cereals and Legumes" Foods 8, no. 9: 362. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090362

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