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Open AccessArticle

Prevalence, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter spp. in Raw Milk, Beef, and Pork Meat in Northern Poland

Department of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Ergonomics Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń and Ludwik Rydygier Collegium Medicum in Bydgoszcz, 9 Marii Curie Skłodowskiej St., 85-094 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Foods 2019, 8(9), 420; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090420
Received: 14 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosecurity in Meat and Poultry Production)
The purpose of this study was to determine whether raw milk, unpasteurized dairy products, pork, and beef available for sale in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie and Wielkopolska regions in Poland are contaminated with Campylobacter spp. bacteria and may be a potential source of infection. For isolated strains, antibiotic susceptibility and the presence of genes responsible for virulence were examined. Material for research included 1058 food samples collected between 2014 and 2018 with 454 samples of raw milk and unpasteurized dairy products (milk from vending machines, milk from owners of dairy cows, cheese, milk cream) and 604 samples of raw meat (pork, beef). The results indicated that 9.3% of the samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., and Campylobacter jejuni was predominant in this study. Campylobacter bacteria was not found in milk collected from vending machines, as well as cheese and milk cream samples. Campylobacter was noted in 12.7% of beef samples, 11.8% of raw milk purchased from individual suppliers, and 10.9% of pork samples. Resistance to erythromycin (2.0%), azithromycin (3.1%), gentamicin (4.1%), tetracycline (65.3%), and ciprofloxacin (71.4%) was determined using the disc diffusion method. Furthermore, the prevalence of racR, sodB, csrA, virB11, cdtB, iam, and wlaN genes were examined using the PCR method. The sodB, csrA, and cdtB genes exhibited the highest detection rate, but none of the genes were identified in 100% of the isolates. Statistically significant differences between the presence of virulence marker genes, including for iam, racR, and csrA markers, were noted among different sources of the isolates. Differences in the distribution of iam, wlaN, and virB11 were also shown between C. jejuni and C. coli strains. As a result of the analysis, it has been concluded that unpasteurized milk, beef, and pork could be a sources of Campylobacter pathogens. Moreover, this study revealed virulent properties of Campylobacter isolated from such food products and high resistance rates to fluoroquinolones, which may represent difficulties in campylobacteriosis treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: Campylobacter spp., beef; pork; unpasteurized milk; antimicrobial resistance; virulence genes Campylobacter spp., beef; pork; unpasteurized milk; antimicrobial resistance; virulence genes
MDPI and ACS Style

Andrzejewska, M.; Szczepańska, B.; Śpica, D.; Klawe, J.J. Prevalence, Virulence, and Antimicrobial Resistance of Campylobacter spp. in Raw Milk, Beef, and Pork Meat in Northern Poland. Foods 2019, 8, 420.

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