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Open AccessArticle

The Effect of Calcium, Citrate, and Urea on the Stability of Ultra-High Temperature Treated Milk: A Full Factorial Designed Study

1
Department of Molecular Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, P.O. 7015, 75007 Uppsala, Sweden
2
Tetra Pak Processing Systems AB, Ruben Rausings Gata, 22186 Lund, Sweden
3
Norrmejerier Ek. Förening, Mejerivägen 2, 90622 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Foods 2019, 8(9), 418; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8090418
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 10 September 2019 / Accepted: 12 September 2019 / Published: 17 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Processing and Technology of Dairy Products)
The composition of raw milk is important for the stability of dairy products with a long shelf-life. Based on known historical changes in raw milk composition, the aim of this study was to get a better understanding of how possible future variations in milk composition may affect the stability of dairy products. The effects of elevated calcium, citrate, and urea levels on the stability of ultra-high temperature (UHT) treated milk stored for 52 weeks at 4, 20, 30, and 37 °C were investigated by a two-level full factorial designed study with fat separation, fat adhesion, sedimentation, color, pH, ethanol stability, and heat coagulation time as response variables. The results showed that elevated level of calcium lowered the pH, resulting in sedimentation and significantly decreased stability. Elevated level of citrate was associated with color, but the stability was not improved compared to the reference UHT milk. Elevated levels of urea or interaction terms had little effect on the stability of UHT milk. Storage conditions significantly affected the stability. In conclusion, to continue produce dairy products with high stability, the dairy industry should make sure the calcium content of raw milk is not too high and that storage of the final product is appropriate. View Full-Text
Keywords: UHT milk; interaction effects; calcium; citrate; urea; storage temperature; storage time; shelf-life UHT milk; interaction effects; calcium; citrate; urea; storage temperature; storage time; shelf-life
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Karlsson, M.A.; Lundh, Å.; Innings, F.; Höjer, A.; Wikström, M.; Langton, M. The Effect of Calcium, Citrate, and Urea on the Stability of Ultra-High Temperature Treated Milk: A Full Factorial Designed Study. Foods 2019, 8, 418.

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