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Foods, Volume 7, Issue 3 (March 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Dairy fats have been associated with saturated fatty acids (SFA) and increased cholesterol levels [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Antibiofilm Effect of DNase against Single and Mixed Species Biofilm
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Biofilms are aggregates of microorganisms that coexist in socially coordinated micro-niche in a self-produced polymeric matrix on pre-conditioned surfaces. The biofilm matrix reduces the efficacy of antibiofilm strategies. DNase degrades the extracellular DNA (e-DNA) present in the matrix, rendering the matrix weak and
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Biofilms are aggregates of microorganisms that coexist in socially coordinated micro-niche in a self-produced polymeric matrix on pre-conditioned surfaces. The biofilm matrix reduces the efficacy of antibiofilm strategies. DNase degrades the extracellular DNA (e-DNA) present in the matrix, rendering the matrix weak and susceptible to antimicrobials. In the current study, the effect of DNase I was evaluated during biofilm formation (pre-treatment), on preformed biofilms (post-treatment) and both (dual treatment). The DNase I pre-treatment was optimized for P. aeruginosa PAO1 (model biofilm organism) at 10 µg/mL and post-treatment at 10 µg/mL with 15 min of contact duration. Inclusion of Mg2+ alongside DNase I post-treatment resulted in 90% reduction in biofilm within only 5 min of contact time (irrespective of age of biofilm). On extension of these findings, DNase I was found to be less effective against mixed species biofilm than individual biofilms. DNase I can be used as potent antibiofilm agent and with further optimization can be effectively used for biofilm prevention and reduction in situ. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Propolis Prepared in Different Forms and in Different Solvents Useful for Finished Products
Received: 20 February 2018 / Revised: 6 March 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 19 March 2018
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Abstract
Different products from a unique propolis extract obtained by using various solvents such as hydroalcoholic, glycolic (98% propylene glycol), and glyceric solutions, and oil, as well as in powder form, named ESIT12, were prepared. The molecular composition of the different preparations was evaluated
[...] Read more.
Different products from a unique propolis extract obtained by using various solvents such as hydroalcoholic, glycolic (98% propylene glycol), and glyceric solutions, and oil, as well as in powder form, named ESIT12, were prepared. The molecular composition of the different preparations was evaluated and their antioxidant activity determined. All the preparations showed a quite similar polyphenol composition and comparable percentage even if ESIT12 was found to be richer in phenolic acids (caffeic, coumaric, ferulic, and isoferulic). Overall, flavones and flavonols ranged from ~20% up to ~36% in the glyceric extract, while flavanones and diidroflavonols were between ~28% and ~41%. Besides their quite similar composition, glycolic and hydroalcoholic extracts were found to be richer in the total polyphenols content. When the antioxidant properties were determined for the four preparations, the activity was similar among them, thus revealing that it is strictly related to the polyphenols content for propolis products whose composition is quite comparable. To date, very few data are available on propolis composition in glyceric and glycolic extracts and information has never been published on propolis in oil. This study could be of interest to the food and nutraceutical industries to choose suitable solvents and conditions to produce propolis preparations useful for active finished products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Function and Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Profile of Raw Lamb Meat Stored at 4 ± 1 °C: The Potential of Specific Aldehyde Ratios as Indicators of Lamb Meat Quality
Received: 22 February 2018 / Revised: 13 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the aroma evolution of raw lamb packaged in multi-layer coating film and stored at 4 ± 1 °C, with respect to storage time and (b) to investigate whether specific aldehyde ratios could serve
[...] Read more.
The objectives of the present study were: (a) to evaluate the aroma evolution of raw lamb packaged in multi-layer coating film and stored at 4 ± 1 °C, with respect to storage time and (b) to investigate whether specific aldehyde ratios could serve as markers of lamb meat freshness and degree of oxidation. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results showed that the most dominant volatiles were 2,2,4,6,6-pentamethyl-heptane, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-hexanol, carbon disulfide and p-cymene. Volatile compound content was increased during storage time. However, statistically significant differences were recorded only for hexanal, heptanal, and nonanal (p < 0.05). Additionally, the evolution of aldehydes during storage recorded a positive Pearson’s correlation (r) (p < 0.05), whereas hexanal to nonanal, heptanal to nonanal, octanal to nonanal ratios, along with the sum of aldehydes to nonanal ratio, were positively correlated (r = 0.83–1.00) with the degree of oxidation (mg malonic dialdehyde per kg of lamb meat). A perfect Pearson’s correlation (r = 1) was obtained for the ratio hexanal to nonanal. Therefore, this ratio is proposed as an indicator of lamb meat freshness and overall quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
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Open AccessArticle Cholesterol-Lowering Effects of Plant Sterols in One Serve of Wholegrain Wheat Breakfast Cereal Biscuits—A Randomised Crossover Clinical Trial
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 16 March 2018
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Abstract
The meta-analysis of plant sterol supplement studies suggests an 8% lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for 2 to 2.5 g/day of plant sterols. Cereal foods have been rarely tested, and one study showed a lower LDL lowering of 5.4% with 1.6
[...] Read more.
The meta-analysis of plant sterol supplement studies suggests an 8% lowering of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol for 2 to 2.5 g/day of plant sterols. Cereal foods have been rarely tested, and one study showed a lower LDL lowering of 5.4% with 1.6 g of plant sterol in breakfast cereal. We aimed to test a breakfast wheat biscuit with 2 g of plant sterols in a single serve of two wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuits. Fifty volunteers with a total cholesterol of >5.5 mmol/L were recruited for a randomised crossover study with two 4-week periods with no washout, of which 45 successfully completed the study. After exclusion of four outliers, the difference in LDL cholesterol between standard wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuit and plant sterol-enriched wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuit was 0.23 mmol/L or 5.6% (p = 0.001) with a 95% confidence interval of 2.4–8.9%. Men and daily cereal consumers had greater responses 9.8% vs. 3.6% and 7.2% vs. 3.8% respectively (p < 0.05). The LDL lowering effect of 2 g of plant sterol enriched from one serve of wholegrain wheat breakfast cereal biscuit was not significantly different from other food products delivering 2–2.5 g of plant sterols daily. Regular cereal consumers have a better response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Function and Nutrition)
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Open AccessEditorial Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides: New and Novel Sources, Characterisation Strategies and Applications
Received: 7 March 2018 / Revised: 12 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 14 March 2018
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Abstract
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but
[...] Read more.
By 2050, the world population is estimated to reach 9.6 billion, and this growth continues to require more food, particularly proteins. Moreover, the Westernisation of society has led to consumer demand for protein products that taste good and are convenient to consume, but additionally have nutritional and health maintenance and well-being benefits. Proteins provide energy, but additionally have a wide range of functions from enzymatic activities in the body to bioactivities including those associated with heart health, diabetes-type 2-prevention and mental health maintenance; stress relief as well as a plethora of other health beneficial attributes. Furthermore, proteins play an important role in food manufacture and often provide the binding, water- or oil-holding, emulsifying, foaming or other functional attributes required to ensure optimum sensory and taste benefits for the consumer. The purpose of this issue is to highlight current and new protein sources and their associated functional, nutritional and health benefits as well as best practices for quantifying proteins and bioactive peptides in both a laboratory and industry setting. The bioaccessibility, bioavailability and bioactivities of proteins from dairy, cereal and novel sources including seaweeds and insect protein and how they are measured and the relevance of protein quality measurement methods including the Protein Digestibility Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS) and Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Score (DIAAS) are highlighted. In addition, predicted future protein consumption trends and new markets for protein and peptide products are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Proteins and Bioactive Peptides) Printed Edition available
Open AccessReview Factors Influencing the Flavour of Bovine Milk and Cheese from Grass Based versus Non-Grass Based Milk Production Systems
Received: 22 December 2017 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 8 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
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Abstract
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm
[...] Read more.
There has been a surge in interest in relation to differentiating dairy products derived from pasture versus confined systems. The impact of different forage types on the sensory properties of milk and cheese is complex due to the wide range of on farm and production factors that are potentially involved. The main effect of pasture diet on the sensory properties of bovine milk and cheese is increased yellow intensity correlated to β-carotene content, which is a possible biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Pasture grazing also influences fat and fatty acid content which has been implicated with texture perception changes in milk and cheese and increased omega-3 fatty acids. Changes in polyunsaturated fatty acids in milk and cheese due to pasture diets has been suggested may increase susceptibility to lipid oxidation but does not seem to be an issue to due increased antioxidants and the reducing environment of cheese. It appears that pasture derived milk and cheese are easier to discern by trained panellists and consumers than milk derived from conserved or concentrate diets. However, milk pasteurization, inclusion of concentrate in pasture diets, cheese ripening time, have all been linked to reducing pasture dietary effects on sensory perception. Sensory evaluation studies of milk and cheese have, in general, found that untrained assessors who best represent consumers appear less able to discriminate sensory differences than trained assessors and that differences in visual and textural attributes are more likely to be realized than flavour attributes. This suggests that sensory differences due to diet are often subtle. Evidence supports the direct transfer of some volatiles via inhalation or ingestion but more so with indirect transfer post rumen metabolism dietary components. The impact of dietary volatiles on sensory perception of milk and dairy products obviously depends upon their concentration and odour activity, however very little quantitative studies have been carried out to date. Some studies have highlighted potential correlation of pasture with enhanced “barny” or “cowy” sensory attributes and subsequently linked these to accumulation of p-cresol from the metabolism of β-carotene and aromatic amino acids or possibly isoflavones in the rumen. p-Cresol has also been suggested as a potential biomarker for pasture derived dairy products. Other studies have linked terpenes to specific sensory properties in milk and cheese but this only appears to be relevant in milk and cheese derived from unseeded wild pasture where high concentrations accumulate, as their odour threshold is quite high. Toluene also a product of β-carotene metabolism has been identified as a potential biomarker for pasture derived dairy products but it has little impact on sensory perception due to its high odour threshold. Dimethyl sulfone has been linked to pasture diets and could influence sensory perception as its odour threshold is low. Other studies have linked the presence of maize and legumes (clover) in silage with adverse sensory impacts in milk and cheese. Considerably more research is required to define key dietary related impacts on the flavour of milk and cheese. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Foods of Animal Origin)
Open AccessArticle Optimization of Conditions for Extraction of Polyphenols and the Determination of the Impact of Cooking on Total Polyphenolic, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Potato
Received: 21 January 2018 / Revised: 2 March 2018 / Accepted: 6 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
In this work we optimized the cooking and extraction conditions for obtaining high yields of total polyphenols from potato and studied the effect of three domestic methods of cooking on total phenols, antioxidant activity, and anticholinesterase activities. The optimization of the experiment was
[...] Read more.
In this work we optimized the cooking and extraction conditions for obtaining high yields of total polyphenols from potato and studied the effect of three domestic methods of cooking on total phenols, antioxidant activity, and anticholinesterase activities. The optimization of the experiment was carried out by the experimental designs. The extraction of the polyphenols was carried out by maceration and ultrasonication. Determination of the polyphenols was performed by using the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent method. The antioxidant activity was evaluated by three methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), and CUPRAC(Cupric reducing antioxidant capacity), the anticholinesterase activity was evaluated by the method of Elmann. The optimum of total phenolic obtained was: 4.668 × 104, 1.406 × 104, 3357.009, 16,208.99 µg Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE)/g of dry extract for crude potato, steamed potatoes, in boiling water, and by microwave, respectively. The three modes of cooking cause a decrease in the total polyphenol contents, antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Sulfites on Antioxidant Activity, Total Polyphenols, and Flavonoid Measurements in White Wine
Received: 7 February 2018 / Revised: 5 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant
[...] Read more.
Polyphenols content and antioxidant activity are directly related to the quality of wine. Wine also contains sulfites, which are added during the winemaking process. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of sulfites on the assays commonly used to measure the antioxidant activity and polyphenols and flavonoids content of white wines. The effects of sulfites were explored both in the standard assays and in white wine. The addition of sulfites (at 1–10 μg) in the standard assays resulted in a significant, positive interference in the Folin–Ciocalteu’s assay used for polyphenols measurements and in both the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power and 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt radical cation decolorization assays, which were used for antioxidant activity evaluation. A negative interference of sulfites (at 1–20 μg) was observed for the colorimetric aluminium-chloride flavonoids assay. The addition of sulfites to organic white wines (at 25–200 mg/L wine) clearly resulted in a significant overestimation of antioxidant activity and polyphenols content, and in an underestimation of flavonoids concentration. To overcome sulfite interferences, white wines were treated with cross-linked polyvinylpyrrolidone. The total polyphenols content and antioxidant activity measurements obtained after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment were significantly lower than those obtained in the untreated wines. Flavonoids were expected to be higher after polyvinylpyrrolidone treatment, but were instead found to be lower than for untreated wines, suggesting that in addition to sulfites, other non-phenolic reducing compounds were present in white wine and interfered with the flavonoid assay. In view of our results, we advise that a purification procedure should be applied in order to evaluate the quality of white wine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wine Composition and Quality Analysis)
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Open AccessArticle Meat Quality Derived from High Inclusion of a Micro-Alga or Insect Meal as an Alternative Protein Source in Poultry Diets: A Pilot Study
Received: 23 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 8 March 2018
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Abstract
The effects on meat quality resulting from alternative dietary protein sources (Spirulina and Hermetia meal) in poultry diets are studied to determine the overall suitability of these ingredients considering state-of-the-art packaging practices—highly oxygenated modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx MAP). We monitored standard slaughterhouse parameters,
[...] Read more.
The effects on meat quality resulting from alternative dietary protein sources (Spirulina and Hermetia meal) in poultry diets are studied to determine the overall suitability of these ingredients considering state-of-the-art packaging practices—highly oxygenated modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx MAP). We monitored standard slaughterhouse parameters, such as live weight, carcass weight, dressed yield, and pH at 20 min and 24 h post mortem. In addition, we studied the effects that 3 and 7-day storage in HiOx MAP has on the overall product physico-chemical and sensory properties. In addition to previously supported effects of HiOx MAP, we found that meat quality could be improved when Spirulina replaces 50% of the soy protein in broiler diets; however, this substitution results in a dark reddish-yellowish meat colour. On the other hand, the substitution with Hermetia larval meal results in a product that does not differ from the standard fed control group, with the exception that the breast filet has a more intense flavour that decreases over storage time. All-in-all Spirulina and Hermetia meal have the potential to replace soybean meal in broiler diets without deteriorating meat quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Safety of Meat Products)
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Open AccessReview A Review on the Rising Prevalence of International Standards: Threats or Opportunities for the Agri-Food Produce Sector in Developing Countries, with a Focus on Examples from the MENA Region
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 18 February 2018 / Accepted: 26 February 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
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Abstract
Food safety standards are a necessity to protect consumers’ health in today’s growing global food trade. A number of studies have suggested safety standards can interrupt trade, bringing financial and technical burdens on small as well as large agri-food producers in developing countries.
[...] Read more.
Food safety standards are a necessity to protect consumers’ health in today’s growing global food trade. A number of studies have suggested safety standards can interrupt trade, bringing financial and technical burdens on small as well as large agri-food producers in developing countries. Other examples have shown that economical extension, key intermediaries, and funded initiatives have substantially enhanced the capacities of growers in some countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region to meet the food safety and quality requirements, and improve their access to international markets. These endeavors often compensate for the weak regulatory framework, but do not offer a sustainable solution. There is a big gap in the food safety level and control systems between countries in the MENA region and those in the developed nations. This certainly has implications for the safety of fresh produce and agricultural practices, which hinders any progress in their international food trade. To overcome the barriers of legal and private standards, food safety should be a national priority for sustainable agricultural development in the MENA countries. Local governments have a primary role in adopting the vision for developing and facilitating the implementation of their national Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) standards that are consistent with the international requirements and adapted to local policies and environment. Together, the public and private sector’s support are instrumental to deliver the skills and infrastructure needed for leveraging the safety and quality level of the agri-food chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fresh Produce Safety)
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Open AccessCommunication Increased Effectiveness of Microbiological Verification by Concentration-Dependent Neutralization of Sanitizers Used in Poultry Slaughter and Fabrication Allowing Salmonella enterica Survival
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 21 February 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 3 March 2018
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Abstract
Sanitizer neutralizers can assist foodborne pathogen detection during routine testing by counteracting sanitizer residues carried over into fluids collected and tested from food samples. This study tested sanitizer-matched neutralizers applied at increasing concentrations to facilitate Salmonella enterica survival following exposure to cetylpyridinium chloride
[...] Read more.
Sanitizer neutralizers can assist foodborne pathogen detection during routine testing by counteracting sanitizer residues carried over into fluids collected and tested from food samples. This study tested sanitizer-matched neutralizers applied at increasing concentrations to facilitate Salmonella enterica survival following exposure to cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) or peracetic acid (PAA), identifying minimum required concentrations of neutralizers to facilitate pathogen survival. Salmonella isolates were individually inoculated into a non-selective medium followed immediately by CPC (0.1 to 0.8% v/v) or PAA (0.0125 to 0.2% v/v) application, followed by neutralizers application. CPC was neutralized by lecithin and polysorbate 80, each supplemented into buffered peptone water (BPW) at 0.125 to 2.0X its respective content in Dey-Engley (D/E) neutralizing buffer. PAA was neutralized in BPW supplemented with disodium phosphate, potassium monophosphate, and sodium thiosulfate, each at 0.25 to 3.0X its respective concentration in BPW (phosphates) or D/E buffer (thiosulfate). Addition of neutralizers at 1X their respective concentrations in D/E buffer was required to allow Salmonella growth at the maximum CPC concentration (0.8%), while 2X neutralizer addition was required for Salmonella growth at the maximum PAA level (0.2%). Sanitizer neutralizers can assist pathogen survival and detection during routine food product testing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Microbiology)
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Open AccessArticle Production of Barbari Bread (Traditional Iranian Bread) Using Different Levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) and Sodium Stearoyl Lactate (SSL)
Received: 22 November 2017 / Revised: 30 January 2018 / Accepted: 27 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Bread is one of the oldest foods known throughout history and even though it is one of the principal types of staple around the world, it usually lacks enough nutrients, including protein and fiber. As such, fortification is one of the best solutions
[...] Read more.
Bread is one of the oldest foods known throughout history and even though it is one of the principal types of staple around the world, it usually lacks enough nutrients, including protein and fiber. As such, fortification is one of the best solutions to overcome this problem. Thus, the objective this study was to examine the effect of three levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) (0%, 10% and 20%) in conjunction with three levels of SSL (sodium stearoyl lactate) (0%, 2% and 5%) on physical and chemical properties of Barbari bread (traditional Iranian bread). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate DDGS and Sodium Stearoyl-2-Lactilate (SSL), as sources of fortification in Barbari bread. The results showed that incorporation of 20% of DDGS and 0% SSL caused a significant increase in the amount of fiber and protein. As for the physical attributes, using higher amount of DDGS caused a darker color, and as for the texture parameters, the highest firmness was measured when 10% DDGS and 5% of SSL were used. Different Mixolab and Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) parameters also were measured with varying results. The findings of this study show that DDGS can be a valuable source of fiber and protein, which can be used as a cost effective source to fortify cereal-based products. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Chemical and Nutritional Characterization of Seed Oil from Cucurbita maxima L. (var. Berrettina) Pumpkin
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 19 February 2018 / Accepted: 21 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the
[...] Read more.
Pumpkin (Cucurbita spp.) has received considerable attention in recent years because of the nutritional and health-protective value of seed oil. The nutritional composition of pumpkin native to central Italy, locally known as “Berrettina” (Cucurbita maxima L.), was evaluated. In particular, the lipid fraction of seed oil was characterized, and the triacylglycerol (TAG) was thoroughly studied by using a stereospecific procedure to obtain the intrapositional fatty acid composition of the three sn-positions of the glycerol backbone of TAG. Moreover, alkaline hydrolysis was carried out to study the main components of the unsaponifiable fraction, i.e., sterols and alcohols. It was observed that monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant (41.7% and 37.2%, respectively) in Berrettina pumpkin seed oil, with high content of oleic and linoleic acid (41.4% and 37.0%, respectively). The main sterols of Berrettina pumpkin seed oil were Δ7,22,25-stigmastatrienol, Δ7,25-stigmastadienol, and spinasterol; with regard to the alcoholic fraction, triterpenic compounds were more abundant than aliphatic compounds (63.2% vs. 36.8%). The obtained data are useful to evaluate pumpkin seed oil from a nutritional point of view. The oil obtained from the seed could be used as a preservative and as a functional ingredient in different areas, e.g., cosmetics, foods, and nutraceuticals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutraceuticals: The New Frontier)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Dairy Fats and Cardiovascular Disease: Do We Really Need to Be Concerned?
Received: 30 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 24 February 2018 / Published: 1 March 2018
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Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due
[...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain a major cause of death and morbidity globally and diet plays a crucial role in the disease prevention and pathology. The negative perception of dairy fats stems from the effort to reduce dietary saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake due to their association with increased cholesterol levels upon consumption and the increased risk of CVD development. Institutions that set dietary guidelines have approached dairy products with negative bias and used poor scientific data in the past. As a result, the consumption of dairy products was considered detrimental to our cardiovascular health. In western societies, dietary trends indicate that generally there is a reduction of full-fat dairy product consumption and increased low-fat dairy consumption. However, recent research and meta-analyses have demonstrated the benefits of full-fat dairy consumption, based on higher bioavailability of high-value nutrients and anti-inflammatory properties. In this review, the relationship between dairy consumption, cardiometabolic risk factors and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases are discussed. Functional dairy foods and the health implications of dairy alternatives are also considered. In general, evidence suggests that milk has a neutral effect on cardiovascular outcomes but fermented dairy products, such as yoghurt, kefir and cheese may have a positive or neutral effect. Particular focus is placed on the effects of the lipid content on cardiovascular health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quality and Consumer Acceptability of Dairy Foods)
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Open AccessArticle Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-Product Flour
Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 25 February 2018
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Abstract
Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are
[...] Read more.
Malnutrition continues to be a key health problem in developing regions. The valorization of food waste appears as an ideal way to prevent malnutrition and improve people’s access to food. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) and caraway (Carum carvi L.) oilseeds are commonly used for cuisine and medicinal purposes. However, remaining cakes after oil extraction are usually underutilized. In order to assess the usefulness of these by-products in food applications, this study investigated the effect of their addition to protein bread formulations. Different levels (2, 4 and 6%) of whole seeds and cakes flour were used in the study. Fortified protein bread samples were compared to control protein bread and evaluated for their sensory, color, moisture, hardness properties, nutritional values as well as their biological activity. Results indicated that bread fortification shows a significant effect on bread properties depending on fortification level. A higher acceptability was observed specially for bread fortified with by-products flour. Increased tendencies of color darkness, moisture content, bread hardness, nutritional values as well as total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity compared to control bread were observed as the percentage of fortification increased in both cases. The overall results showed that the addition of cumin and caraway seeds and by-product flour can improve the antioxidant potential and overall quality of protein bread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Analysis)
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