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Foods, Volume 13, Issue 7 (April-1 2024) – 165 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Alternative proteins have gained popularity as consumers look for foods that are healthy, nutritious, and sustainable. This comprehensive review addresses the major alternative protein categories and reviews their definitions, current market statuses, production methods, and regulations in different countries, safety assessments, nutrition statuses, functionalities and applications, and, finally, sensory properties and consumer perception. Knowledge relative to traditional dairy proteins is also addressed, in addition to the opportunities and challenges associated with these proteins. Future research directions are proposed to better understand these technologies and to develop consumer-acceptable final products. View this paper
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17 pages, 2176 KiB  
Article
Golden Barrel Cactus: Unveiling Its Potential as a Functional Food and Nutraceutical Source
by Nipha Chaicharoenaudomrung, Kakanang Posridee, Anant Oonsivilai and Ratchadaporn Oonsivilai
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1137; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071137 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 554
Abstract
A comprehensive analysis of phytochemicals, digestive stability, and bioaccessibility was conducted on a golden barrel cactus extract from 3- and 6-year-old plants. Both ages contained lutein and four chlorophyll derivatives (chlorophyll a, b, pheophytin a, and b), but younger [...] Read more.
A comprehensive analysis of phytochemicals, digestive stability, and bioaccessibility was conducted on a golden barrel cactus extract from 3- and 6-year-old plants. Both ages contained lutein and four chlorophyll derivatives (chlorophyll a, b, pheophytin a, and b), but younger cacti revealed a significantly higher abundance. Total phenolics reached 3545.35 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g dry weight in the 3-year-old extracts compared to 2557.96 mg/100 g in the older ones. Antioxidant activity, assessed by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays, was consistently higher in the younger group. While digestion impacted all compounds, lutein exhibited relative stability at 69.03% and 58.33% retention for 3- and 6-year-old extracts, respectively. Chlorophylls displayed lower stability (37.64% and 33.34% remaining for younger and older cacti) despite showing higher bioaccessibility (73.385% and 64.65%). Phenolics also demonstrated promising bioaccessibility (76.39% and 69.88%) despite moderate digestive degradation (60.52% and 56.89% retained). Conclusively, all investigated attributes—phytochemical content, digestive stability, and bioaccessibility—favored the younger golden barrel cactus extracts. This highlights the crucial role of plant age in maximizing the potential health benefits of these extracts. Full article
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15 pages, 561 KiB  
Article
Chemical Profile Characterization of Fruit and Vegetable Juices after Fermentation with Probiotic Strains
by Ioanna Mantzourani, Anastasios Nikolaou, Yiannis Kourkoutas, Athanasios Alexopoulos, Marilena Dasenaki, Artemis Mastrotheodoraki, Charalampos Proestos, Nikolaos Thomaidis and Stavros Plessas
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1136; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071136 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 815
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely applied for fermentation purposes in dairy and non-dairy food matrices with beneficial technological and health-promoting properties. This study describes the effect of two lactic acid bacteria, namely, Lactiplantibacillus paracasei SP5 and Pediococcus pentosaceus SP2, on the phenolic [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely applied for fermentation purposes in dairy and non-dairy food matrices with beneficial technological and health-promoting properties. This study describes the effect of two lactic acid bacteria, namely, Lactiplantibacillus paracasei SP5 and Pediococcus pentosaceus SP2, on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant activities, total phenolic content (TPC), carotenoid content, and sensorial profile of two different mixed fruit juices. After 48 h of fermentation, both LABs retained viability over 9 Log CFU/mL in both juices. The TPC, zeaxanthin + lutein, β-carotene content, and antioxidant activity (AA) were elevated for both LABs and mixed juices after 48 h of fermentation compared to control samples. Regarding the phenolic profile, both juices exhibited a significant decrease in chlorogenic acid levels, while quinic acid and tyrosol concentrations showed notable increases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Biotechnology)
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16 pages, 3693 KiB  
Article
Chemical Composition and Geographic Variation of Cold Pressed Balanites aegyptiaca Kernel Oil
by Said El Harkaoui, Asma El Kaourat, Hanae El Monfalouti, Badr Eddine Kartah, Abdalbasit Adam Mariod, Zoubida Charrouf, Sascha Rohn, Stephan Drusch and Bertrand Matthäus
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1135; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071135 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 739
Abstract
With the increasing impacts of climate change, establishing more sustainable and robust plants such as desert dates (Balanites aegyptiaca) seems to be necessary. Known for its resilience in arid conditions, this tree has the potential to become a more important food [...] Read more.
With the increasing impacts of climate change, establishing more sustainable and robust plants such as desert dates (Balanites aegyptiaca) seems to be necessary. Known for its resilience in arid conditions, this tree has the potential to become a more important food source, particularly for its potential to yield edible oil. This study characterized Balanites kernel oil (BKO) as a promising oil source in arid regions, studying the influence of geographical origin and environmental factors. Moroccan and Sudanese BKO samples were analyzed and compared with Mauritanian BKO. In the fatty acid profile, unsaturated fatty acids constituted over 70% of the BKO profile, with a predominance of linoleic acid (Li), oleic acid (Ol), palmitic acid (Pa), and stearic acid (St). Consequently, the predominant triacylglycerols were PaLiLi, PaLiOl, LiLiOl, OlLiOl, and StLiOl. α-Tocopherol dominated the tocochromanol composition (324 to 607 mg/kg), followed by γ-tocopherol (120 to 226 mg/kg), constituting 90% of the total tocochromanols. The total phytosterol content in BKO ranged from 871 to 2218 mg/kg oil, with β-sitosterol dominating (58% to 74%). Principal Component Analysis revealed that the geographical origin significantly influences BKO composition, emphasizing environmental factors, particularly water deficit and/or temperatures. Notably, Moroccan BKO collected from an area characterized by high aridity and relatively low winter temperatures, showcased a unique profile in fatty acid, phytosterols, and tocochromanols. The valorization of BKO presents an opportunity for local agricultural development in arid regions and a role model for plant development and agricultural practices in other parts of the world. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipids in Plant Food: Extraction, Characteristic and Health Benefits)
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17 pages, 1224 KiB  
Review
Functionality and Health-Promoting Properties of Polysaccharide and Plant-Derived Substances from Mesona chinensis
by Romson Seah, Sunisa Siripongvutikorn, Santad Wichienchot and Worapong Usawakesmanee
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1134; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071134 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 763
Abstract
Mesona chinensis, in Thai called Chao Kuay and in Chinese Hsian-tsao, belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This herbal plant grows widely in Southern China, Taiwan (China), Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand. The Mesona plant is used to make functional products [...] Read more.
Mesona chinensis, in Thai called Chao Kuay and in Chinese Hsian-tsao, belongs to the Lamiaceae family. This herbal plant grows widely in Southern China, Taiwan (China), Malaysia, the Philippines, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand. The Mesona plant is used to make functional products such as drinks and soft textured sweet treats, and also traditional medicine, to treat heat stroke, high blood pressure, heart attack, high blood sugar, hepatic diseases, colon diseases, inflammatory conditions, and to alleviate myalgia. The proximate composition of M. chinensis is a mixture of protein, fat, fiber, ash, and minerals. The main biological compounds in M. chinensis extracts are polysaccharides, terpenoids, flavonoids, and polyphenols, with wide-ranging pharmacological properties including antioxidant, antidiabetic, antilipidemic, carcinoma-inhibitory, renal-protective, antihypertensive, DNA damage-protective, and anti-inflammatory effects. This review investigated the proximate composition, polysaccharide type, and pharmacological properties of M. chinensis extracts. Phytochemical properties enhance the actions of the gut microbiota and improve health benefits. This review assessed the functional and medicinal activities of M. chinensis extracts. Future studies should further elucidate the in vitro/in vivo mechanisms of this plant extract and its impact on gut health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Nutrition)
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14 pages, 7558 KiB  
Article
Weissella cibaria Relieves Gut Inflammation Caused by Escherichia coli through Inflammation Modulation and Gut Microbiota Regulation
by Xiaoyu Liu, Nan Jiang, Xinyue Wang, Haowen Yan, Lili Guan, Lingcong Kong, Jingrui Chen, Haipeng Zhang and Hongxia Ma
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1133; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071133 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 671
Abstract
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens has considerably challenged the development of new drugs. Probiotics that inhibit MDR pathogens offer advantages over chemical antibiotics and drugs due to their increased safety and fewer side effects. This study reported that Weissella cibaria P-8 isolated [...] Read more.
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) pathogens has considerably challenged the development of new drugs. Probiotics that inhibit MDR pathogens offer advantages over chemical antibiotics and drugs due to their increased safety and fewer side effects. This study reported that Weissella cibaria P-8 isolated from pickles showed excellent antibacterial activity against intestinal pathogens, particularly the antibacterial activity against MDR Escherichia coli B2 was the highest. This study showed that the survival rates of W. cibaria P-8 at pH 2.0 and 0.3% bile salt concentration were 72% and 71.56%, respectively, and it still had antibacterial activity under pepsin, trypsin, protease K, and catalase hydrolysis. Moreover, W. cibaria P-8 inhibits the expression of inflammatory factors interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6, upregulates the interleukin-10 level, and increases total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase enzyme activity in serum. W. cibaria P-8 also efficiently repairs intestinal damage caused by E. coli infection. The gut microbiota analysis demonstrated that W. cibaria P-8 colonizes the intestine and increases the abundance of some beneficial intestinal microorganisms, particularly Prevotella. In conclusion, W. cibaria P-8 alleviated MDR E. coli-induced intestinal inflammation by regulating inflammatory cytokine and enzyme activity and rebalancing the gut microbiota, which could provide the foundation for subsequent clinical analyses and probiotic product development. Full article
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18 pages, 1645 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Effect of Cold Plasma on the Softening of Postharvest Blueberries through Reactive Oxygen Species Metabolism Using Transcriptomic Analysis
by Can Zhang and Jun-Hu Cheng
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071132 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 624
Abstract
The postharvest softening and corresponding quality deterioration of blueberry fruits are crucial factors that hinder long-distance sales and long-term storage. Cold plasma (CP) is an effective technology to solve this, but the specific mechanism of delaying fruit softening remains to be revealed. Here, [...] Read more.
The postharvest softening and corresponding quality deterioration of blueberry fruits are crucial factors that hinder long-distance sales and long-term storage. Cold plasma (CP) is an effective technology to solve this, but the specific mechanism of delaying fruit softening remains to be revealed. Here, this study found that CP significantly improved blueberry hardness. Physiological analysis showed that CP regulated the dynamic balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain hardness by increasing antioxidant content and antioxidant enzyme activity, resulting in a 12.1% decrease in the H2O2 content. Transcriptome analysis revealed that CP inhibited the expression of cell wall degradation-related genes such as the pectin hydrolase gene and cellulase gene, but up-regulated the genes of the ROS-scavenging system. In addition, the resistance genes in the MAPK signaling pathway were also activated by CP in response to fruit ripening and softening and exhibited positive response characteristics. These results indicate that CP can effectively regulate the physiological characteristics of blueberries at a genetic level and delay the softening process, which is of great significance to the storage of blueberries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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0 pages, 6317 KiB  
Article
Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Citrullus mucosospermus, Citroides, and Moringa oleifera Seeds’ Hydrocolloids
by Olakunbi Olubi, Anthony Obilana, Nsenda Tshilumbu, Veruscha Fester and Victoria Jideani
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071131 - 8 Apr 2024
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 737
Abstract
Hydrocolloids form gel-like structures when dispersed in water and have garnered significant attention for their diverse applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and other industries. The extraction of hydrocolloids from natural sources, such as seeds, presents an intriguing avenue due to the potential diversity in [...] Read more.
Hydrocolloids form gel-like structures when dispersed in water and have garnered significant attention for their diverse applications in food, pharmaceuticals, and other industries. The extraction of hydrocolloids from natural sources, such as seeds, presents an intriguing avenue due to the potential diversity in composition and functionality. Utilising seeds from Citrullus lanatus mucosospermus, lanatus citroides, and Moringa aligns with the growing demand for natural and sustainable ingredients in various industries. This research investigated hydrocolloids extracted from Citrullus mucosospermus (CMS), lanatus citroides, and Moringa oleifera seeds, highlighting their versatile physicochemical and functional attributes. Hydrocolloids were extracted from the seeds and subjected to analysis of their proximate composition, particle size distribution, and interfacial tension using the hot water extraction method. Protein content variation was observed among the raw oilseed (CMS, Citroides, and Moringa oleifera) flours. The protein content of the hydrocolloids surpassed that of raw oilseeds, significantly enhancing the amino acid profile. Furthermore, the hydrocolloid ash contents ranged from 4.09% to 6.52% w/w dry weight, coupled with low fat levels. The particle size distribution revealed predominantly fine particles with a narrow size distribution. All three hydrocolloids demonstrated remarkable oil- and water-holding capacities, highlighting their suitability for efficient stabilisation and emulsification in food formulations. These findings suggest the potential utilisation of these hydrocolloids as valuable ingredients across a spectrum of applications, encompassing food, pharmaceuticals, and industry, thus contributing to the development of sustainable and functional products. The unique attributes presented herein mark a noteworthy advancement in the understanding and application of novel hydrocolloids from CMS, Citroides, and Moringa oleifera. Full article
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19 pages, 1936 KiB  
Article
Application of Pomace Powder of Black Carrot as a Natural Food Ingredient in Yoghurt
by Florina Stoica, Roxana Nicoleta Rațu, Iuliana Motrescu, Irina Gabriela Cara, Manuela Filip, Denis Țopa and Gerard Jităreanu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1130; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071130 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 740
Abstract
Researchers and food manufacturers are investigating the use of fruit and vegetable by-products as nutrient-dense food ingredients in response to increasing consumer requests for healthier and more natural foods. Black carrot (Daucus carota L.), a root vegetable variety of deep purple carrot, [...] Read more.
Researchers and food manufacturers are investigating the use of fruit and vegetable by-products as nutrient-dense food ingredients in response to increasing consumer requests for healthier and more natural foods. Black carrot (Daucus carota L.), a root vegetable variety of deep purple carrot, is a valuable source of nutrients with excellent health benefits and nutraceutical effects. Black carrot pomace (BCP), a by-product of industrial juice extraction, is abundant in bioactive compounds, dietary fiber, antioxidants, and pigments such as anthocyanins. Value addition and sustainability are perspectives provided by using this underutilized agricultural by-product in food applications. With an emphasis on BCP powder’s effects on phytochemical and physicochemical qualities, mineral and color characteristics, and sensory aspects, this study aims to assess the effects of adding BCP powder to yogurt formulations. The findings show that the addition of BCP powder improved the nutritional, and the color of the yogurts, providing a visually appealing product. Moreover, adding the BCP powder raised the amount of phytochemicals and the antioxidant activity in the final product’s formulation. The manufacturing of such products can not only aid in promoting sustainable food production but also offer consumers a wider range of innovative food options with improved properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Food Processing)
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21 pages, 3098 KiB  
Article
Study of the Microbiome of the Cretan Sour Cream Staka Using Amplicon Sequencing and Shotgun Metagenomics and Isolation of Novel Strains with an Important Antimicrobial Potential
by Konstantinos Papadimitriou, Marina Georgalaki, Rania Anastasiou, Athanasia-Maria Alexandropoulou, Eugenia Manolopoulou, Georgia Zoumpopoulou and Effie Tsakalidou
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1129; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071129 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 832
Abstract
Staka is a traditional Greek sour cream made mostly from spontaneously fermented sheep milk or a mixture of sheep and goat milk. At the industrial scale, cream separators and starter cultures may also be used. Staka is sometimes cooked with flour to absorb [...] Read more.
Staka is a traditional Greek sour cream made mostly from spontaneously fermented sheep milk or a mixture of sheep and goat milk. At the industrial scale, cream separators and starter cultures may also be used. Staka is sometimes cooked with flour to absorb most of the fat. In this study, we employed culture-based techniques, amplicon sequencing, and shotgun metagenomics to analyze the Staka microbiome for the first time. The samples were dominated by Lactococcus or Leuconostoc spp. Most other bacteria were lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from the Streptococcus and Enterococcus genera or Gram-negative bacteria from the Buttiauxella, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, Escherichia-Shigella, and Hafnia genera. Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces, or Alternaria were the most prevalent genera in the samples, followed by other yeasts and molds like Saccharomyces, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Stemphylium, Coniospotium, or Cladosporium spp. Shotgun metagenomics allowed the species-level identification of Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus raffinolactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, Streptococcus gallolyticus, Escherichia coli, Hafnia alvei, Streptococcus parauberis, and Enterococcus durans. Binning of assembled shotgun reads followed by recruitment plot analysis of single reads could determine near-complete metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs). Culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses were in overall agreement with some distinct differences. For example, lactococci could not be isolated, presumably because they had entered a viable but not culturable (VBNC) state or because they were dead. Finally, several LAB, Hafnia paralvei, and Pseudomonas spp. isolates exhibited antimicrobial activities against oral or other pathogenic streptococci, and certain spoilage and pathogenic bacteria establishing their potential role in food bio-protection or new biomedical applications. Our study may pave the way for additional studies concerning artisanal sour creams to better understand the factors affecting their production and the quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insights into Milk and Dairy Products: Quality and Sustainability)
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15 pages, 1390 KiB  
Article
Discrimination between the Triglyceride Form and the Ethyl Ester Form of Fish Oil Using Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry
by Mingxuan Liu, Yuchong Liu and Xiupin Wang
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071128 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Although the triglyceride form is the natural form of fish oil found in fish, the ethyl ester form of fish oil, which is used during processing to save costs, is also present on the market. In this study, fatty acids and lipids were [...] Read more.
Although the triglyceride form is the natural form of fish oil found in fish, the ethyl ester form of fish oil, which is used during processing to save costs, is also present on the market. In this study, fatty acids and lipids were determined using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) and liquid chromatography–linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC–LIT/MS), respectively, according to developed methods. The identification of fatty acids was based on the mass spectral characteristics and equivalent chain lengths. However, the fatty acid contents of both forms of fish oils are quite similar. The application of the LC–LIT/MS method for the structural characterization of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and the mechanism of LIT/MS fragmentation are also discussed. Neutral losses of CH2=CH2 (m/z 28) and CH3CH2OH (m/z 46), which are LIT/MS characteristics of ethyl ester from fish oil, were found for the first time. The triglyceride form of fish oils was easily and accurately identified using fingerprint chromatography. In conclusion, lipid analysis combined with LC–LIT/MS showed an improved capability to distinguish between types of fish oil. Full article
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12 pages, 745 KiB  
Article
The Neural Correlates of Food Preference among Music Kinds
by Yuanluo Jing, Ziyuan Xu, Yazhi Pang, Xiaolin Liu, Jia Zhao and Yong Liu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071127 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
The calorie and taste choices of food have been shown to be related to the external environment, including music. Previous studies have mostly focused on manipulating basic auditory parameters, with few scholars exploring the impact of complex musical parameters on food selection. This [...] Read more.
The calorie and taste choices of food have been shown to be related to the external environment, including music. Previous studies have mostly focused on manipulating basic auditory parameters, with few scholars exploring the impact of complex musical parameters on food selection. This study explored the effects of different kinds of music (classical, rock, jazz, and hip-hop) on food liking based on the calories (high and low) and taste (sweet and salty) using event-related potentials (ERPs). Twenty-four participants (8 males, 16 females) were recruited from Southwest University, China to participate in the food liking task using a Likert seven-point rating and simultaneously recording EEG signals (N2, P2, N3, and LPC). This study used repeated-measures analyses of covariances and found that the score of the high-calorie foods was greater than that of the low-calorie foods. Additionally, results revealed that the score in classical music was greatest for sweet foods, while there was no difference among music kinds in the salty foods. The ERP results showed that P2 amplitudes were greater for sweet foods than those for the salty foods. N2 amplitudes for the salty foods were greater than those for the sweet foods during rock music; in addition, N2 amplitudes during hip-hop music were greatest for sweet foods. However, N2 amplitudes during rock music were the greatest for salty foods. The results also revealed that N2 amplitudes during hip-hop music were greater than those during jazz music. This study provides unique operational insights for businesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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3 pages, 183 KiB  
Editorial
Grain Products: Traditional and Innovative Technologies
by Manuel Gómez and Eliana Pereira
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1126; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071126 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 515
Abstract
The current knowledge regarding various cereals, their composition, and their processing methods is extensive [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Grain Products: Traditional and Innovative Technologies)
11 pages, 1292 KiB  
Article
Physico-Chemical and Rheological Trait-Based Identification of Indian Wheat Varieties Suitable for Different End-Uses
by Sumit Kumar Singh, Shaily Singhal, Praful Jaiswal, Umer Basu, Anant Narayan Sahi and Anju Mahendru Singh
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1125; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071125 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 562
Abstract
India has increased its wheat production phenomenally in the last two decades and it now has a buffer stock of 9.7 million tonnes. However, despite the release of several wheat cultivars, the end-use quality traits of Indian wheat varieties have not been explored [...] Read more.
India has increased its wheat production phenomenally in the last two decades and it now has a buffer stock of 9.7 million tonnes. However, despite the release of several wheat cultivars, the end-use quality traits of Indian wheat varieties have not been explored in-depth to determine the increasing demand of the domestic processing industry as well as export. In this study, 55 wheat genotypes including 47 released varieties, and 8 genetic stocks were grown along with 10 Australian varieties grown during cropping seasons: 2019–2020 and 2020–2021 and diversity in different physiochemical and rheological traits was evaluated. They showed considerable diversity in all the quality traits studied. However, very few genotypes could be found suitable for any one end-use. Five genotypes were found to possess four to five traits for superior bread-making quality. Two varieties and three advanced breeding lines had up to four good chapati quality traits. None of the released varieties investigated had suitable traits for biscuit making; however, two breeding lines possessed requisite quality traits suitable for biscuit making. It is, therefore, concluded that systematic breeding efforts are required to develop genotypes that bring together the most important quality traits in a single genotype to be suitable for domestic industry as well as for export. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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23 pages, 4220 KiB  
Article
The Probiotic Kluyveromyces lactis JSA 18 Alleviates Obesity and Hyperlipidemia in High-Fat Diet C57BL/6J Mice
by Yingxiang Hong, Guodong Song, Xiaoqian Feng, Jialei Niu, Lu Wang, Caini Yang, Xuegang Luo, Sa Zhou and Wenjian Ma
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1124; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071124 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 806
Abstract
Obesity poses a significant threat to various health conditions such as heart diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart attack, with the gut microbiota playing a crucial role in maintaining the body’s energy balance. We identified a novel probiotic fungal strain, Kluyveromyces lactis [...] Read more.
Obesity poses a significant threat to various health conditions such as heart diseases, diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart attack, with the gut microbiota playing a crucial role in maintaining the body’s energy balance. We identified a novel probiotic fungal strain, Kluyveromyces lactis JSA 18 (K. lactis), which was isolated from yak milk and was found to possess anti-obesity properties. Additionally, Lactobacillus plantarum CGMCC 8198 (LP8198) from our previous study was also included to evaluate its anti-obesity properties. The findings indicated that K. lactis caused a notable reduction in weight gain, liver and fat indexes, and hyperlipidemia in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Administering K. lactis and LP8198 to mice on a high-fat diet resulted in a reduction of serum triglyceride levels. Furthermore, the supplements reduced ALT and AST activity, and inhibited the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β. In addition, lipid metabolism was enhanced by the downregulation of ACC1, PPAR-γ, SREBP-1, and Fasn. Moreover, this study found that K. lactis and LP8198 have little effect on gut bacteria. Additionally, K. lactis partially influenced intestinal fungi, while LP8198 had a minor influence on gut mycobiota. The main goal of this research was to show how effective K. lactis can be as a probiotic in combating obesity. Full article
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16 pages, 1246 KiB  
Article
Residue Degradation and Risk Assessment of Difenoconazole and Its Metabolite during Tea Growing, Processing and Brewing by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography–Tandem Mass Spectrometry Determination
by Min Wang, Yating Ning, Yue Hu, Xinyi Cui, Fengjian Luo, Li Zhou, Miao Yu and Xinzhong Zhang
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1123; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071123 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 673
Abstract
Residue dissipation and risk assessment of difenoconazole and its metabolite difenoconazole-alcohol during tea growing, processing, and brewing was first investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). The limits of quantification for both difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol were 0.001 mg/kg in fresh tea leaves [...] Read more.
Residue dissipation and risk assessment of difenoconazole and its metabolite difenoconazole-alcohol during tea growing, processing, and brewing was first investigated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC–MS/MS). The limits of quantification for both difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol were 0.001 mg/kg in fresh tea leaves and tea, and 0.0002 mg/L in tea infusion. In field trials, the dissipation half-lives of difenoconazole in fresh tea leaves was 1.77 days. After spraying, the residues of difenoconazole-alcohol increased and then gradually dissipated like difenoconazole. After 14 days, the dissipation rates of difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol reached 99%. When fresh tea leaves were harvested on different days, the total processing factors (PFs) of difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol for green tea were 0.86–1.05 and 0.78–0.85, respectively, while the total PFs for black tea were 0.83–1.13 and 0.82–1.66, respectively. Metabolism of difenoconazole was accelerated during tea processing. When brewing black tea, the leaching rates (LRs) of difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol were 8.4–17.9% and 31.8–38.9%, respectively, while when brewing green tea, the LRs were 15.4–23.5% and 30.4–50.6%, respectively. The LRs of difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol in black tea were higher than those in green tea. The potential threat to human health for dietary intake of difenoconazole and difenoconazole-alcohol residues from tea consumption is negligible. However, the dietary risk of difenoconazole in fruits and vegetables that are essential for daily diets is concerning, with a risk probability of 158%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food Contaminants: Detection, Toxicity and Safety Risk Assessment)
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14 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Detection of Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase-Producing Escherichia coli with Biofilm Formation from Chicken Meat in Istanbul
by Ali Aydin, Ali Anil Suleymanoglu, Abzal Abdramanov, Peter Paulsen and Emek Dumen
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071122 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1259
Abstract
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major public health problems worldwide. This study aimed to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL-)producing Escherichia (E.) coli in chicken meat in Istanbul, Türkiye. Raw chicken meat samples (n = 208) were collected from [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial resistance is one of the major public health problems worldwide. This study aimed to detect the presence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-(ESBL-)producing Escherichia (E.) coli in chicken meat in Istanbul, Türkiye. Raw chicken meat samples (n = 208) were collected from different sale points and analyzed for ESBL-producing E. coli. In total, 101 (48.5%) isolates were confirmed as E. coli by PCR, of which 80/101 (79.2%) demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance. Resistance against amoxicillin-clavulanic acid was most frequent (87.1%). Eighteen isolates (17.8%) demonstrated phenotypical ESBL resistance, as assessed by the double disc synergy test (DDST). Isolates were tested for the presence of β-lactamase genes and mobilized colistin-resistant genes. The blaTEM group was most frequently detected (97.02%), followed by blaCTX m (45.5%), blaSHV (9.9%), and blaOXA-2 (0.9%). However, mcr genes and blaNDM, blaKPC, blaVIM, and blaOXA-48 genes were not found in any isolate. E. coli strains were tested for biofilm formation in six different media [Nutrient broth, LB broth, Tryptone Soya broth (TSB), TSB containing 1% sucrose, TSB containing 0.6% yeast extract, and BHI]. Biofilm formation by E. coli isolates (44/101, 43.5%) was highest in TSB with 1% sucrose. It is worth noting that all biofilm-producing isolates were found to harbor the blaTEM-1 gene, which can indicate a high level of antibiotic resistance. This is the first report about ESBL-producing E. coli in poultry meat, the exposure of consumers in Istanbul metropolitan areas, and the ability of E. coli from this region to produce biofilms. Full article
13 pages, 2939 KiB  
Article
The Protective Effects of L-Theanine against Epigallocatechin Gallate-Induced Acute Liver Injury in Mice
by Kun Zhu, Hongzhe Zeng, Lin Yue, Jianan Huang, Jie Ouyang and Zhonghua Liu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1121; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071121 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 749
Abstract
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a main bioactive constituent in green tea. Being a redox-active polyphenol, high-dose EGCG exhibits pro-oxidative activity and could cause liver injury. L-theanine is a unique non-protein amino acid in green tea and could provide liver-protective effects. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) is a main bioactive constituent in green tea. Being a redox-active polyphenol, high-dose EGCG exhibits pro-oxidative activity and could cause liver injury. L-theanine is a unique non-protein amino acid in green tea and could provide liver-protective effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of L-theanine on EGCG-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 300 mg/kg L-theanine was administrated to ICR mice for 7 days. Then, the acute liver injury model was established through intragastric administration of 1000 mg/kg EGCG. Pretreatment with L-theanine significantly alleviated the oxidative stress and inflammatory response caused by high-dose EGCG through modulation of Nrf2 signaling and glutathione homeostasis. Furthermore, metabolomic results revealed that L-theanine protects mice from EGCG-induced liver injury mainly through the regulation of amino acid metabolism, especially tryptophan metabolism. These findings could provide valuable insights into the potential therapeutic applications of L-theanine and highlight the importance of the interactions between dietary components. Full article
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15 pages, 1498 KiB  
Article
Autochthonous Wheat Grown in Organic and Conventional Systems: Nutritional Quality of Flour and Bread
by Nerea Fernández-Canto, María Belén García-Gómez, María Lourdes Vázquez-Odériz, Matilde Lombardero-Fernández, Santiago Pereira-Lorenzo, Ángel Cobos, Olga Díaz and María Ángeles Romero-Rodríguez
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1120; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071120 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 863
Abstract
A growing interest in the recovery and enhancement of crops, particularly local varieties such as ‘Caaveiro’ wheat, has been observed. This study aims to investigate the impact of cultivation systems (organic versus conventional) on the nutritional quality of ‘Caaveiro’ flour and breads protected [...] Read more.
A growing interest in the recovery and enhancement of crops, particularly local varieties such as ‘Caaveiro’ wheat, has been observed. This study aims to investigate the impact of cultivation systems (organic versus conventional) on the nutritional quality of ‘Caaveiro’ flour and breads protected by the PGI “Pan Galego,” employing two fermentation methods (sourdough versus sourdough and biological yeast). Organic flour exhibited significantly higher levels of moisture, fat, sucrose, phosphorus (P), sodium (Na), and copper (Cu) while also exhibiting a lower total starch and zinc (Zn) content. Organic bread, produced using both fermentation methods, demonstrated significantly higher protein, carbohydrate, total, resistant, and rapidly digestible starch, ash, Na, P, iron (Fe), and Cu content. Additionally, they contained less moisture compared to conventional bread. Despite variations in nutritional characteristics based on the cultivation system, the organic approach proved effective at producing high-quality products with a positive environmental impact, which is highly appreciated by consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Cereal Food: Properties, Functionality and Applications)
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18 pages, 3267 KiB  
Review
Climate Change Impacts on Potato Storage
by Shu Zhang, Xiuquan Wang, Pelin Kinay and Quan Dau
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1119; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071119 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 743
Abstract
In this study, we present a comprehensive literature review of the potential impacts of climate change on potato storage. Potato preservation can help reduce food loss and waste while increasing long-term food security, as potatoes are one of the most important crops worldwide. [...] Read more.
In this study, we present a comprehensive literature review of the potential impacts of climate change on potato storage. Potato preservation can help reduce food loss and waste while increasing long-term food security, as potatoes are one of the most important crops worldwide. The review’s results suggest climate change can negatively affect potato storage, especially tuber sprouting and diseases in storage chambers. Lower Sielianinov coefficient values (indicating dry and hot conditions) during the vegetative season of potato growing can lead to earlier sprouting. For instance, a decrease of 0.05 in the Sielianinov coefficient during the growing season results in tubers stored at 3 °C sprouting 25 days earlier and tubers stored at 5 °C experiencing a 15-day reduction in dormancy. This is due to the fact that the dry and hot climate conditions during the vegetation period of potato planting tend to shorten potato tubers’ natural dormancy, which further leads to earlier sprouting during storage. Furthermore, high Sielianinov coefficient values may lead to worse disease situations. The results also suggest that research about the impacts of climate change on potato storage is very limited at the current stage, and further studies are needed to address the key knowledge gaps identified in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Security and Sustainability)
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17 pages, 1158 KiB  
Review
Clovamide and Its Derivatives—Bioactive Components of Theobroma cacao and Other Plants in the Context of Human Health
by Joanna Kolodziejczyk-Czepas
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071118 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 933
Abstract
Clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, N-caffeoyldopamine, N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA) is a derivative of caffeic acid, belonging to phenolamides (hydroxycinnamic acid amides). Despite a growing interest in the biological activity of natural polyphenolic substances, studies on the properties of clovamide and related compounds, their significance [...] Read more.
Clovamide (N-caffeoyl-L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine, N-caffeoyldopamine, N-caffeoyl-L-DOPA) is a derivative of caffeic acid, belonging to phenolamides (hydroxycinnamic acid amides). Despite a growing interest in the biological activity of natural polyphenolic substances, studies on the properties of clovamide and related compounds, their significance as bioactive components of the diet, as well as their effects on human health are a relatively new research trend. On the other hand, in vitro and in vivo evidence indicates the considerable potential of these substances in the context of maintaining human health or using them as pharmacophores. The name “clovamide” directly derives from red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), being the first identified source of this compound. In the human diet, clovamides are mainly present in chocolate and other cocoa-containing products. Furthermore, their occurrence in some medicinal plants has also been confirmed. The literature reports deal with the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antiplatelet/antithrombotic and anticancer properties of clovamide-type compounds. This narrative review summarizes the available data on the biological activity of clovamides and their potential health-supporting properties, including prospects for the use of these compounds for therapeutic purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nutrient-Rich Foods for a Healthy Diet, Volume II)
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12 pages, 268 KiB  
Article
Preliminary Investigation towards the Use of Infrared Technology for Raw Milk Treatment
by Luigi Danesi, Maria Nobile, Mauro Fontana, Erica Tirloni, Luca Maria Chiesa, Federica Savini, Roberto Edoardo Villa and Sara Panseri
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1117; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071117 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Infrared (IR) technology offers a promising solution for reducing microbiological loads in various food types while preserving their quality traits, such as flavour. However, research on IR’s application in complex matrices is limited. Therefore, our preliminary study aimed to evaluate its effectiveness in [...] Read more.
Infrared (IR) technology offers a promising solution for reducing microbiological loads in various food types while preserving their quality traits, such as flavour. However, research on IR’s application in complex matrices is limited. Therefore, our preliminary study aimed to evaluate its effectiveness in sanitizing bovine raw milk. We assessed the bacterial count before and after IR treatment by comparing volatile organic compound profiles via headspace extraction and GC/MS analysis. Our findings showed that higher energy levels led to a greater bacterial reduction. IR85 was the most effective in reducing Coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae in non-homogenised samples, with a reduction ranging from −1.01 to >−2.99 and from −1.66 to −3.09 Log CFU/mL, respectively. IR60 and 70 showed no efficacy, while IR80 had intermediate but still satisfactory effect. IR85 notably affected volatile compounds, particularly increasing hexanal (from 0.08 to 4.21 ng g−1) and dimethyl sulphone (from 10.76 to 26.40 ng g−1), while IR80 better preserved the aroma profile. As a result, only IR80 was tested with homogenised raw milk, demonstrating significant bacterial reduction (from >2.39 to 3.06 Log CFU/mL for Coliforms and from 1.90 to >2.45 Log CFU/mL for Enterobacteriaceae) and maintaining the aroma profile quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Microbial Safety of Milk, Cheese and Dairy Products)
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27 pages, 1558 KiB  
Review
Intelligent Rapid Detection Techniques for Low-Content Components in Fruits and Vegetables: A Comprehensive Review
by Sai Xu, Yinghua Guo, Xin Liang and Huazhong Lu
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071116 - 6 Apr 2024
Viewed by 754
Abstract
Fruits and vegetables are an important part of our daily diet and contain low-content components that are crucial for our health. Detecting these components accurately is of paramount significance. However, traditional detection methods face challenges such as complex sample processing, slow detection speed, [...] Read more.
Fruits and vegetables are an important part of our daily diet and contain low-content components that are crucial for our health. Detecting these components accurately is of paramount significance. However, traditional detection methods face challenges such as complex sample processing, slow detection speed, and the need for highly skilled operators. These limitations fail to meet the growing demand for intelligent and rapid detection of low-content components in fruits and vegetables. In recent years, significant progress has been made in intelligent rapid detection technology, particularly in detecting high-content components in fruits and vegetables. However, the accurate detection of low-content components remains a challenge and has gained considerable attention in current research. This review paper aims to explore and analyze several intelligent rapid detection techniques that have been extensively studied for this purpose. These techniques include near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, and terahertz spectroscopy, among others. This paper provides detailed reports and analyses of the application of these methods in detecting low-content components. Furthermore, it offers a prospective exploration of their future development in this field. The goal is to contribute to the enhancement and widespread adoption of technology for detecting low-content components in fruits and vegetables. It is expected that this review will serve as a valuable reference for researchers and practitioners in this area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Analytical Techniques for Food Quality and Safety)
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19 pages, 1038 KiB  
Article
Technological and Enzymatic Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Viili Natural Starters
by Giorgia Rampanti, Andrea Cantarini, Federica Cardinali, Vesna Milanović, Cristiana Garofalo, Lucia Aquilanti and Andrea Osimani
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071115 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 752
Abstract
Viili, a Finnish ropy fermented milk, is traditionally manufactured through spontaneous fermentation, by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeast-like fungi, or back-slopping. This study evaluated four natural viili starters as sources of lactic acid bacteria for dairy production. Back-slopping activation of the [...] Read more.
Viili, a Finnish ropy fermented milk, is traditionally manufactured through spontaneous fermentation, by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria and yeast-like fungi, or back-slopping. This study evaluated four natural viili starters as sources of lactic acid bacteria for dairy production. Back-slopping activation of the studied viili samples was monitored through pH and titratable acidity measurements and enumeration of mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Sixty lactic acid bacteria isolates were collected, molecularly identified, and assayed for acidification performance, enzymatic activities, production of exopolysaccharides (EPSs), presence of the histidine decarboxylase (hdcA) gene of Gram-positive bacteria, and production of bacteriocins. A neat predominance of Lactococcus lactis emerged among the isolates, followed by Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus lactis, and Lactococcus cremoris. Most isolates exhibited proteolytic activity, whereas only a few enterococci showed lipase activity. Five isolates identified as L. cremoris, L. lactis, and E. faecalis showed a good acidification performance. Most of the isolates tested positive for leucine arylamidase, whereas only one E. durans and two L. lactis isolates were positive for valine arylamidase. A few isolates also showed a positive reaction for beta-galactosidase and alpha- and beta-glucosidase. None of the isolates produced EPSs or bacteriocins. The hdcA gene was detected in five isolates identified as L. lactis and E. faecium. A few L. cremoris and L. lactis isolates for potential use as starter or adjunct cultures for dairy processing were finally identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Cheese and Fermented Milk Production)
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28 pages, 5876 KiB  
Article
The Impact of the Drying Process on the Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Potential of Dried Ripe Coffee Cherry Pulp Soluble Powder
by Marta B. López-Parra, Irene Gómez-Domínguez, Maite Iriondo-DeHond, Esther Villamediana Merino, Vanesa Sánchez-Martín, Jose A. Mendiola, Amaia Iriondo-DeHond and Maria Dolores del Castillo
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1114; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071114 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 952
Abstract
Coffee fruit cascara, which is the skin and pulp of the coffee cherry, has been authorized as a novel food for commercialization in the European Union. The present research assessed the feasibility of using spray drying to produce a soluble powder called instant [...] Read more.
Coffee fruit cascara, which is the skin and pulp of the coffee cherry, has been authorized as a novel food for commercialization in the European Union. The present research assessed the feasibility of using spray drying to produce a soluble powder called instant cascara (IC), employing sun-dried ripe coffee cherry pulp as a raw material. Although there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the overall antioxidant capacity between the freeze-dried and spray-dried samples, after an in vitro simulation of the digestion process, the spray-dried sample was significantly (p < 0.05) more antioxidant. Both samples reduced physiological intracellular ROS and significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the secretion of the pro-inflammatory factor NO. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were detected in intestinal digests. In conclusion, spray drying is a good technique for producing IC as its use does not affect its properties and causes less environmental impact than freeze drying, as calculated by life cycle assessment. Sensory analysis did not show significant differences between the commercial beverage and the IC beverage in the adult population. IC at 10 mg/mL was significantly less accepted in adolescents than the commercial beverage. Future work will include the reformulation of the IC beverage at 10 mg/mL, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential, to increase its hedonic acceptance in all consumer segments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anti-inflammatory and Antioxidant Effects of Plant Foods)
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4 pages, 160 KiB  
Editorial
Food Polysaccharides and Proteins: Processing, Characterization, and Health Benefits
by Liyuan Rong, Mingyue Shen, Yanjun Zhang, Hansong Yu and Jianhua Xie
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071113 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 676
Abstract
Natural macromolecular substances are prevalent in the organs of plants and animals, such as polysaccharides, resins, proteins, etc [...] Full article
15 pages, 1800 KiB  
Review
Mitigation of Mycotoxins in Food—Is It Possible?
by Eliana Badiale Furlong, Jaqueline Garda Buffon, Maristela Barnes Cerqueira and Larine Kupski
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071112 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 970
Abstract
Among microorganisms found in food, fungi stand out because they are adaptable and competitive in a large range of water activities, temperatures, pHs, humidities and substrate types. Besides sporulating, some species are toxigenic and produce toxic metabolites, mycotoxins, under adverse biotic and abiotic [...] Read more.
Among microorganisms found in food, fungi stand out because they are adaptable and competitive in a large range of water activities, temperatures, pHs, humidities and substrate types. Besides sporulating, some species are toxigenic and produce toxic metabolites, mycotoxins, under adverse biotic and abiotic variables. Microorganisms are inactivated along the food chain, but mycotoxins have stable structures and remain in ready-to-eat food. The most prevalent mycotoxins in food, which are aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A, patulin, tenuazonic acid, trichothecenes and zearalenone, have maximum tolerable limits (MTLs) defined as ppb and ppt by official organizations. The chronic and acute toxicities of mycotoxins and their stability are different in a chemical family. This critical review aims to discuss promising scientific research that successfully mitigated levels of mycotoxins and focus the results of our research group on this issue. It highlights the application of natural antifungal compounds, combinations of management, processing parameters and emergent technologies, and their role in reducing the levels and bioaccessibility. Despite good crop management and processing practices, total decontamination is almost impossible. Experimental evidence has shown that exposure to mycotoxins may be mitigated. However, multidisciplinary efforts need to be made to improve the applicability of successful techniques in the food supply chain to avoid mycotoxins’ impact on global food insecurity. Full article
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19 pages, 327 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review of Risk Assessment Models for Listeria monocytogenes in Produce
by Ursula Gonzales-Barron, Vasco Cadavez, Juliana De Oliveira Mota, Laurent Guillier and Moez Sanaa
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071111 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1141
Abstract
A review of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) models of Listeria monocytogenes in produce was carried out, with the objective of appraising and contrasting the effectiveness of the control strategies placed along the food chains. Despite nine of the thirteen QRA models recovered being [...] Read more.
A review of quantitative risk assessment (QRA) models of Listeria monocytogenes in produce was carried out, with the objective of appraising and contrasting the effectiveness of the control strategies placed along the food chains. Despite nine of the thirteen QRA models recovered being focused on fresh or RTE leafy greens, none of them represented important factors or sources of contamination in the primary production, such as the type of cultivation, water, fertilisers or irrigation method/practices. Cross-contamination at processing and during consumer’s handling was modelled using transfer rates, which were shown to moderately drive the final risk of listeriosis, therefore highlighting the importance of accurately representing the transfer coefficient parameters. Many QRA models coincided in the fact that temperature fluctuations at retail or temperature abuse at home were key factors contributing to increasing the risk of listeriosis. In addition to a primary module that could help assess current on-farm practices and potential control measures, future QRA models for minimally processed produce should also contain a refined sanitisation module able to estimate the effectiveness of various sanitisers as a function of type, concentration and exposure time. Finally, L. monocytogenes growth in the products down the supply chain should be estimated by using realistic time–temperature trajectories, and validated microbial kinetic parameters, both of them currently available in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Quantitative Risk Assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in Foods)
13 pages, 2181 KiB  
Article
Machine Vision Requires Fewer Repeat Measurements than Colorimeters for Precise Seafood Colour Measurement
by Kieren Watkins, Melindee Hastie, Minh Ha, Graham Hepworth and Robyn Warner
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071110 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 781
Abstract
The colour of seafood flesh is often not homogenous, hence measurement of colour requires repeat measurements to obtain a representative average. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal number of repeat colour measurements required for three different devices [machine vision [...] Read more.
The colour of seafood flesh is often not homogenous, hence measurement of colour requires repeat measurements to obtain a representative average. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal number of repeat colour measurements required for three different devices [machine vision (digital image using camera, and computer processing); Nix Pro; Minolta CR400 colorimeter] when measuring three species of seafood (Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, n = 8; rockling, Genypterus tigerinus, n = 8; banana prawns, Penaeus merguiensis, n = 105) for raw and cooked samples. Two methods of analysis for number of repeat measurements required were compared. Method 1 was based on minimising the standard error of the mean and Method 2 was based on minimising the difference in colour over repeat measurements. Across species, using Method 1, machine vision required an average of four repeat measurements, whereas Nix Pro and Minolta required 13 and 12, respectively. For Method 2, machine vision required an average of one repeat measurement compared to nine for Nix Pro and Minolta. Machine vision required fewer repeat measurements due to its lower residual variance: 0.51 compared to 3.2 and 2.5 for Nix Pro and Minolta, respectively. In conclusion, machine vision requires fewer repeat measurements than colorimeters to precisely measure the colour of salmon, prawns, and rockling. Full article
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20 pages, 10189 KiB  
Article
Glycated Walnut Meal Peptide–Calcium Chelates: Preparation, Characterization, and Stability
by Zilin Wang, Ye Zhao, Min Yang, Yuanli Wang, Yue Wang, Chongying Shi, Tianyi Dai, Yifan Wang, Liang Tao and Yang Tian
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1109; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071109 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1130
Abstract
Finding stable and bioavailable calcium supplements is crucial for addressing calcium deficiency. In this study, glycated peptide–calcium chelates (WMPHs–COS–Ca) were prepared from walnut meal protein hydrolysates (WMPHs) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) through the Maillard reaction, and the structural properties and stability of the [...] Read more.
Finding stable and bioavailable calcium supplements is crucial for addressing calcium deficiency. In this study, glycated peptide–calcium chelates (WMPHs–COS–Ca) were prepared from walnut meal protein hydrolysates (WMPHs) and chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) through the Maillard reaction, and the structural properties and stability of the WMPHs–COS–Ca were characterized. The results showed that WMPHs and COSs exhibited high binding affinities, with a glycation degree of 64.82%. After glycation, Asp, Lys, and Arg decreased by 2.07%, 0.46%, and 1.06%, respectively, which indicated that these three amino acids are involved in the Maillard reaction. In addition, compared with the WMPHs, the emulsifying ability and emulsion stability of the WMPHs–COS increased by 10.16 mg2/g and 52.73 min, respectively, suggesting that WMPHs–COS have better processing characteristics. After chelation with calcium ions, the calcium chelation rate of peptides with molecular weights less than 1 kDa was the highest (64.88%), and the optimized preparation conditions were 5:1 w/w for WMPH–COS/CaCl2s, with a temperature of 50 °C, a chelation time of 50 min, and a pH of 7.0. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the “bridging role” of WMPHs-COS changed to a loose structure. UV–vis spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry results indicated that the amino nitrogen atoms, carboxyl oxygen atoms, and carbon oxygen atoms in WMPHs-COS chelated with calcium ions, forming WMPHs-COS-Ca. Moreover, WMPHs-COS-Ca was relatively stable at high temperatures and under acidic and alkaline environmental and digestion conditions in the gastrointestinal tract, indicating that WMPHs–COS–Ca have a greater degree of bioavailability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry)
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16 pages, 2936 KiB  
Article
Towards Sulphite-Free Winemaking: A New Horizon of Vinification and Maturation
by Nicola Mercanti, Monica Macaluso, Ylenia Pieracci, Guido Flamini, Giulio Scappaticci, Andrea Marianelli and Angela Zinnai
Foods 2024, 13(7), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods13071108 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 696
Abstract
The complex dynamics between oxygen exposure, sulphur dioxide (SO2) utilization, and wine quality are of the utmost importance in wine sector, and this study aims to explore their fine balance in winemaking. As a common additive, SO2 works as an [...] Read more.
The complex dynamics between oxygen exposure, sulphur dioxide (SO2) utilization, and wine quality are of the utmost importance in wine sector, and this study aims to explore their fine balance in winemaking. As a common additive, SO2 works as an antiseptic and antioxidant. However, its excessive use has raised health concerns. Regulatory guidelines, including Council Regulation (EC) N° 1493/1999 and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1622/2000, dictate SO2 concentrations in wines. The increasing demand for natural preservatives is driving the search for alternatives, with natural plant extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, emerging as promising substitutes. In this context, Bioma Company has proposed alternative additives deriving from vineyard waste to replace SO2 during winemaking. Thus, the aim of the present work was to compare the compositional characteristics between the product obtained with the alternative vinification and the traditional one during the winemaking, as well as the aroma compositions of the final wines. After a year of experimentation, the wines produced with Bioma products showed compositional characteristics comparable to their traditional counterparts. Notably, these wines comply with current legislation, with significantly reduced total sulphur content, allowing their designation as “without added sulphites”. Bioma products emerge as potential catalysts for sustainable and health-conscious winemaking practices, reshaping the landscape of the industry. Full article
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