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Foods, Volume 10, Issue 4 (April 2021) – 218 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The world production of wheat and rye in the last five decades has increased by 190.5%. While 85% or 635.7 Mt is utilized for flour production, 10–15% or 74.8–112.1 Mt is converted into by-products, i.e., wheat and rye bran. Due to structural complexity and the presence of cellulose and hemicellulose, bran is discarded or utilized rather inefficiently. For valorization purposes of the bran in the present study, an effective, sustainable, and eco-friendly approach to ferulic acid production was demonstrated through the biorefining process accomplished by the hemicellulose-degrading enzyme. Up to 11.3 and 8.6 g kg-1 of FA was released from rye and wheat bran, respectively, upon 24 h enzymatic hydrolysis with the multi-enzyme complex, Viscozyme L. View this paper
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Review
Ancient and Modern Cereals as Ingredients of the Gluten-Free Diet: Are They Safe Enough for Celiac Consumers?
Foods 2021, 10(4), 906; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040906 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1031
Abstract
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals after consuming prolamins from some cereals. Although the products available for celiac subjects have increased significantly in quality and quantity over the last few decades, research still focuses on identifying new [...] Read more.
Celiac disease is an autoimmune disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals after consuming prolamins from some cereals. Although the products available for celiac subjects have increased significantly in quality and quantity over the last few decades, research still focuses on identifying new ingredients to improve the nutritional, sensorial and functional qualities of gluten-free products. In terms of toxicity for people with celiac disease, there is a wide variability between ancient and modern grains. The most contradictory results are related to the role of oats in the gluten-free diet. In order to clarify the role of minor cereals (such as oat) and ancient grains in the diets of celiac patients, this review discusses recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed on those cereals for which the toxicity for celiac subjects is still controversial. According to in vivo studies, selected oat varieties could be tolerated by celiac patients. On the other hands, although some wheat-ancient grains (Triticum monococcum, Triticum aestivum ssp. spelta and Kamut®) showed a reduced in vitro toxicity, to date, these grains are still considered toxic for celiac patients. Contradictory results underline the importance of studying the safety of “unusual” cereals in more detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Food, Environment and Health Challenges)
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Article
Rescuing Flavor Identity and Dynamic Perception in Puréed Dishes; A Restructuring Solution for the Purée Diet
Foods 2021, 10(4), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040905 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 657
Abstract
With age, difficulties with masticating and swallowing means food consistency and structure must be modified, such as puréeing food. However, elderly consumers have reported that puréed food’s taste lacks appeal. This study shows how puréeing food changes the recognition and dynamics of flavors [...] Read more.
With age, difficulties with masticating and swallowing means food consistency and structure must be modified, such as puréeing food. However, elderly consumers have reported that puréed food’s taste lacks appeal. This study shows how puréeing food changes the recognition and dynamics of flavors and new strategies to improve them. Further, to measure the identification and dynamics of flavor, a new sensory method was investigated that combined Free Choice and Temporal Order of Sensation (Free-TOS). Three dishes (macaroni, pizza, and potato salad), their purées, and three pasta purées with added flavors (cheese and dry-cured ham; added directly or as an oil in water emulsion or using two types of emulsions (oil in water and water in oil) were assessed by three groups of 60 consumers using Free-TOS. Results showed that in the purée the frequency of mentioned sensations decreased compared with the dish, as it was more difficult to identify flavors. Adding flavors in powder form only allowed a cheese/ham flavor identification, but in the purées with emulsions, it was possible to identify the dry-cured ham flavor. Therefore, this study showed that the Free-TOS method does not need a predetermined attribute list and registers the actual identified flavors and their order of appearance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optimised Food Products for Elderly Populations)
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Article
PACE Labels on Healthy and Unhealthy Snack Products in a Laboratory Shopping Setting: Perception, Visual Attention, and Product Choice
Foods 2021, 10(4), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040904 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 803
Abstract
Informative food labels are one way to increase nutritional awareness in society and can essentially help individuals maintain balanced dietary practices. Nonetheless, making food labels ‘informative’, in the sense of applicability, is not always easy. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) food labeling is [...] Read more.
Informative food labels are one way to increase nutritional awareness in society and can essentially help individuals maintain balanced dietary practices. Nonetheless, making food labels ‘informative’, in the sense of applicability, is not always easy. Physical activity calorie equivalent (PACE) food labeling is one approach to achieve this goal. Yet, it is neither understood how consumers perceive PACE labels, nor how effective they are in regards to healthy food choices. Moreover, it is of interest to assess the perception of real products in close-to-realistic environments. Therefore, this study examined a simulated purchase situation and consumers’ visual attention on PACE labels—on 20 different real snack products with varying health values. In a laboratory-shopping environment, the gaze behaviors of 91 consumers were examined with a head-mounted eye-tracker. In regards to perception, it was elucidated that every participant noticed at least one PACE label. On average 1.39 PACE label fixations on different products were counted with a mean fixation duration of 0.55 s and a mean time to first fixation of 22.46 s. On average, 22.9% of the participants viewed the PACE labels at least once, but the intensity and duration varied greatly between the different products; ’healthier products’ attracted more visual attention than ‘unhealthier products’. In regards to health choice, it became obvious that the choices observed were rather healthy and PACE labels attracted attention. This may have been especially true for participants with little involvement in physical activity and health behavior, which may have been the main target group. Hence, catchy, communicable PACE labels, as well as balanced product offerings may facilitate more healthy food choices. The real-world laboratory setting offered valuable insights, which should be followed-up on. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
Evaluation of Immersion and Spray Applications of Antimicrobial Treatments for Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Wings
Foods 2021, 10(4), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040903 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
The decontamination efficacy of antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wings was evaluated. Chicken wings surface-inoculated with C. jejuni (3.9 log colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were left untreated (control) or were treated by immersion (5 s) or in a spray cabinet (4 s) [...] Read more.
The decontamination efficacy of antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wings was evaluated. Chicken wings surface-inoculated with C. jejuni (3.9 log colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were left untreated (control) or were treated by immersion (5 s) or in a spray cabinet (4 s) with water, a sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate blend (SSS; pH 1.2), formic acid (1.5%), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 550 ppm), or PAA (550 ppm) that was pH-adjusted (acidified) with SSS (pH 1.2) or formic acid (1.5%). All evaluated immersion and spray chemical treatments effectively (p < 0.05) lowered C. jejuni populations on chicken wings. Spray application of chemical treatments resulted in immediate pathogen reductions ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 log CFU/mL, whereas their application by immersion lowered initial pathogen levels by 1.7 to 2.2 log CFU/mL. The PAA and acidified PAA treatments were equally (p ≥ 0.05) effective at reducing initial C. jejuni populations, however, following a 24 h refrigerated (4 °C) storage period, wings treated with acidified PAA had lower (p < 0.05) pathogen levels than samples that had been treated with PAA that was not acidified. Findings of this study should be useful to the poultry industry in its efforts to control Campylobacter contamination on chicken parts. Full article
Article
The Potential Role of Probiotics in Protection against Influenza a Virus Infection in Mice
Foods 2021, 10(4), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040902 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 878
Abstract
Influenza A virus induces severe respiratory tract infection and results in a serious global health problem. Influenza infection disturbs the cross-talk connection between lung and gut. Probiotic treatment can inhibit influenza virus infection; however, the mechanism remains to be explored. The mice received [...] Read more.
Influenza A virus induces severe respiratory tract infection and results in a serious global health problem. Influenza infection disturbs the cross-talk connection between lung and gut. Probiotic treatment can inhibit influenza virus infection; however, the mechanism remains to be explored. The mice received Lactobacillus mucosae 1025, Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1026, and their mixture MIX for 19 days. Effects of probiotics on clinical symptoms, immune responses, and gut microbial alteration were evaluated. L. mucosae 1025 and MIX significantly reduced the loss of body weight, pathological symptoms, and viral loading. B. breve CCFM1026 significantly reduced the proportion of neutrophils and increased lymphocytes, the expressions of TLR7, MyD88, TRAF6, and TNF-α to restore the immune disorders. MIX increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, the relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Mucispirillum, Adlercreutzia, Bifidobacterium, and further regulated SCFA metabolism resulting in an enhancement of butyrate. The correlation analysis revealed that the butyrate was positively related to MxA expression (p < 0.001) but was negatively related to viral loading (p < 0.05). The results implied the possible antiviral mechanisms that MIX decreased viral loading and increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, which was closely associated with the increased butyrate production resulting from gut microbial alteration. Full article
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Editorial
Phytochemicals in Food and Health
Foods 2021, 10(4), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040901 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 633
Abstract
Consumption of plant-based diets, rich in phytochemicals, has been associated with reduced risk of degenerative diseases, improved overall health and well-being [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phytochemicals in Food and Health)
Article
Organic Black Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, Present More Phenolic Compounds and Better Nutritional Profile Than Nonorganic
Foods 2021, 10(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040900 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 964
Abstract
Brazil is the world’s third largest common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) producer, and 60% of its population consumes this legume. Although organic farming is a sustainable alternative to nonorganic agriculture, its effect on chemical composition is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
Brazil is the world’s third largest common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) producer, and 60% of its population consumes this legume. Although organic farming is a sustainable alternative to nonorganic agriculture, its effect on chemical composition is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the nutritional and phenolic compounds profiles between organically and nonorganically produced Brazilian black beans. Samples were obtained from the same harvest periods and from near geographical locations at metropolitan and coastal regions of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. No residues of 294 evaluated pesticides were detected in the samples. In both regions, organic beans had 17% fewer lipids, 10% less phytate and 20% more proteins when compared to nonorganic ones. Sixteen different phenolic compounds were identified as soluble and insoluble forms in black beans, with anthocyanins being the most abundant (on average, 66%). In both regions, soluble and total phenolic compounds contents in organic beans were consistently higher (on average, 25% and 28%, respectively) than in nonorganic ones. Our results show that organic farming improves the nutritional profile and increases the phenolic compounds content of black beans. Full article
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Article
Accelerating Aging of White and Red Wines by the Application of Hydrostatic High Pressure and Maceration with Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) Chips. Influence on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics
Foods 2021, 10(4), 899; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040899 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 689
Abstract
Background: The use of holm oak (Quercus ilex) chips as a potential alternative wood and the application of hydrostatic high pressure (HHP) as an alternative technique to accelerate the release to the wine of wood-related compounds within a short processing time [...] Read more.
Background: The use of holm oak (Quercus ilex) chips as a potential alternative wood and the application of hydrostatic high pressure (HHP) as an alternative technique to accelerate the release to the wine of wood-related compounds within a short processing time were evaluated. Methods: Five treatments were investigated: (i) bottling without any treatment (B); (ii) and (iii) bottling after maceration (5 g/L) of holm oak chips with HHP treatments (400 MPa, 5 and 30 min) (HHP5, HHP30); (iv) bottling after maceration during 45 days with chips (M), and; (v) maceration in tanks without chips (T). The effects of treatments on general parameters, polyphenols, color, and sensorial characteristics of red and white wines were investigated over 180 days. Results: HHP5, HHP30, and M increased the polyphenols content, thus modified the chromatic characteristics regarding B and M treatments of white wines, also the tasters differentiated HHP5, HHP30, and M from B and T. However, these effects were not observed in red wines. Thus, the effect of the wood depends on the type of wine in which it is used. Conclusions: This research contributes to better knowledge about these chips as a new alternative wood species and the use of HHP as a useful technology to accelerate the aging of wines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Impact of Nisin and Nisin-Producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis on Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Bacterial Ecosystem of Cheese Matrices
Foods 2021, 10(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040898 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 791
Abstract
Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores survive milk pasteurization and cause late blowing of cheeses and significant economic loss. The effectiveness of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 32 as a protective strain for control the C. tyrobutyricum growth in Cheddar cheese slurry was compared to that [...] Read more.
Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores survive milk pasteurization and cause late blowing of cheeses and significant economic loss. The effectiveness of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 32 as a protective strain for control the C. tyrobutyricum growth in Cheddar cheese slurry was compared to that of encapsulated nisin-A. The encapsulated nisin was more effective, with 1.0 log10 reductions of viable spores after one week at 30 °C and 4 °C. Spores were not detected for three weeks at 4 °C in cheese slurry made with 1.3% salt, or during week 2 with 2% salt. Gas production was observed after one week at 30 °C only in the control slurry made with 1.3% salt. In slurry made with the protective strain, the reduction in C. tyrobutyricum count was 0.6 log10 in the second week at 4 °C with both salt concentration. At 4 °C, nisin production started in week 2 and reached 97 µg/g after four weeks. Metabarcoding analysis targeting the sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the genus Lactococcus dominated for four weeks at 4 °C. In cheese slurry made with 2% salt, the relative abundance of the genus Clostridium decreased significantly in the presence of nisin or the protective strain. The results indicated that both strategies are able to control the growth of Clostridium development in Cheddar cheese slurries. Full article
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Article
Dual-Purpose Poultry in Organic Egg Production and Effects on Egg Quality Parameters
Foods 2021, 10(4), 897; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040897 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 949 | Correction
Abstract
Egg laying genotypes have been selected for generations due to their high yield and egg quality, resulting in efficient feed utilization and low body weight; hence, they are not suitable for meat production. This imposes an issue for the male layer chicks, which [...] Read more.
Egg laying genotypes have been selected for generations due to their high yield and egg quality, resulting in efficient feed utilization and low body weight; hence, they are not suitable for meat production. This imposes an issue for the male layer chicks, which are killed at one day old. Because of ethical and food waste concerns, the search for suitable dual-purpose genotypes in order to avoid euthanasia of male day-old chicks has intensified. The aim of the present study is to evaluate potential dual-purpose genotypes for their egg quality compared to a representative egg laying genotype. Two dual-purpose genotypes with divergent characteristics were evaluated: genotype A represented an experimental crossbreed based on a broiler type male and an egg layer female, and genotype C was a crossbreed of a layer type. These were compared to a rustic genotype B and a control genotype D, which was an egg layer. Eggs were collected six times during the period of 21–54 weeks of hen age, i.e., a total of 990 shell eggs were analyzed. Examined parameters were weights of egg, shell, yolk, and albumen, by calculating their relative proportions. Shell quality was assessed by shell strength, shell stiffness, and shell thickness. Yolk quality was determined as yolk color and inclusions of blood and meat spots, and albumen quality was evaluated in terms of pH and dry matter (DM) content. The egg layer genotype produced the smallest eggs with least blood and meat spot inclusions compared to that produced by the three dual-purpose genotypes. Shell quality was superior for the layer genotype. However, the experimental genotype A laid eggs of comparable shell quality, albumen DM, and yolk weight, but also with the darkest and most red-yellow colored yolk. The two other dual-purpose genotypes produced eggs of low-medium quality. In conclusion, the genotype A could serve as dual-purpose genotype from an egg quality perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Eggs and Eggproducts: Unravelling the Secrets)
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Article
Characterization and Action Mechanism Analysis of VvmiR156b/c/d-VvSPL9 Module Responding to Multiple-Hormone Signals in the Modulation of Grape Berry Color Formation
Foods 2021, 10(4), 896; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040896 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 721
Abstract
In recent years, more and more reports have shown that the miR156-SPL module can participate in the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in plants. However, little is known about how this module responds to hormonal signals manipulating this process in grapes. In this [...] Read more.
In recent years, more and more reports have shown that the miR156-SPL module can participate in the regulation of anthocyanin synthesis in plants. However, little is known about how this module responds to hormonal signals manipulating this process in grapes. In this study, exogenous GA, ABA, MeJA, and NAA were used to treat the ‘Wink’ grape berries before color conversion, anthocyanin and other related quality physiological indexes (such as sugar, aroma) were determined, and spatio-temporal expression patterns of related genes were analyzed. The results showed that the expression levels of VvmiR156b/c/d showed a gradually rising trend with the ripening and color formation of grape berries, and the highest expression levels were detected at day 28 after treatment, while the expression level of VvSPL9 exhibited an opposite trend as a whole, which further verifies that VvmiR156b/c/d can negatively regulate VvSPL9. Besides, VvmiR156b/c/d was positively correlated with anthocyanin content and related genes levels, while the expression pattern of VvSPL9 showed a negative correlation. Analysis of promoter cis-elements and GUS staining showed that VvmiR156b/c/d contained a large number of hormone response cis-elements (ABA, GA, SA, MeJA, and NAA) and were involved in hormone regulation. Exogenous ABA and MeJA treatments significantly upregulated the expression levels of VvmiR156b/c/d and anthocyanin structural genes in the early stage of color conversion and made grape berries quickly colored. Interestingly, GA treatment downregulated the expression levels of VvmiR156b/c/d and anthocyanin structural genes in the early color-change period, but significantly upregulated in the middle color-change and ripening stages, therefore GA mainly modulated grape berry coloring in the middle- and late-ripening stages. Furthermore, NAA treatment downregulated the expression levels of VvmiR156b/c/d and anthocyanin structural genes and delayed the peak expression of genes. Meanwhile, to further recognize the potential functions of VvmiR156b/c/d, the mature tomato transient trangenetic system was utilized in this work. Results showed that transient overexpression of VvmiR156b/c/d in tomato promoted fruit coloring and overexpression of VvSPL9 inhibited fruit coloration. Finally, a regulatory network of the VvmiR156b/c/d-VvSPL9 module responsive to hormones modulating anthocyanin synthesis was developed. In conclusion, VvmiR156b/c/d-mediated VvSPL9 participated in the formation of grape color in response to multi-hormone signals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Development of Functional Acid Curd Cheese (Tvarog) with Antioxidant Activity Containing Astaxanthin from Shrimp Shells Preliminary Experiment
Foods 2021, 10(4), 895; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040895 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 786
Abstract
The food industry is looking for natural additives to improve acid curd cheese (tvarog), while shrimp by-products are being wasted. The concentrated astaxanthin lipid preparation (ALP) was recovered from shrimp shells and added (0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%) to tvarogs stored up to [...] Read more.
The food industry is looking for natural additives to improve acid curd cheese (tvarog), while shrimp by-products are being wasted. The concentrated astaxanthin lipid preparation (ALP) was recovered from shrimp shells and added (0%, 0.25%, 0.5% and 1%) to tvarogs stored up to 4 weeks at 5 ± 1 °C. The addition of ALP increased the lipid content and decreased the moisture in cheese. Water activity, acidity and hardness of tvarogs differed significantly between cheese variants. The cheeses with ALP had more stable and lower pH after 4 weeks of storage, and higher titratable acidity immediately after ALP addition. The 0–0.5% ALP samples had the same level and changes in lipid oxidation, while the 1% ALP cheese had more stable thiobarbituric acid values during storage. This may be due to several times greater antioxidant activity (DPPH assay) in the cheese with the highest ALP addition. The addition of astaxanthin had create popular salmon colour and improved objective colour parameters of the cheeses. The best sensory features had 0.5% ALP sample. A higher addition of astaxanthin preparation caused a foreign aftertaste. The use of astaxanthin from shrimp shells to acid curd cheeses enables the creation of new functional properties that are increasingly popular with consumers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant in Food Safety and Sustainability)
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Article
FODMAP Fingerprinting of Bakery Products and Sourdoughs: Quantitative Assessment and Content Reduction through Fermentation
Foods 2021, 10(4), 894; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040894 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are associated with digestive disorders and with diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome. In this study, we determined the FODMAP contents of bread, bakery products, and flour and assessed the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation for [...] Read more.
Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are associated with digestive disorders and with diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome. In this study, we determined the FODMAP contents of bread, bakery products, and flour and assessed the effectiveness of sourdough fermentation for FODMAP reduction. The fermentation products were analyzed to determine the DP 2–7 and DP >7 fructooligosaccharide (FOS) content of rye and wheat sourdoughs. FOSs were reduced by Acetobacter cerevisiae, Acetobacter okinawensis, Fructilactobacillus sanfranciscensis, and Leuconostoc citreum to levels below those in rye (−81%; −97%) and wheat (−90%; −76%) flours. The fermentation temperature influenced the sourdough acetic acid to lactic acid ratios (4:1 at 4 °C; 1:1 at 10 °C). The rye sourdough contained high levels of beneficial arabinose (28.92 g/kg) and mannitol (20.82 g/kg). Our study contributes in-depth knowledge of low-temperature sourdough fermentation in terms of effective FODMAP reduction and concurrent production of desirable fermentation byproducts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Grain)
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Article
Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Antiobesity Properties, TC7-Cell Cytotoxicity and Uptake of Achyrocline satureioides (Marcela) Conventional and High Pressure-Assisted Extracts
Foods 2021, 10(4), 893; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040893 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases makes the search for natural sources of bioactive compounds a priority for such disease prevention/control. Achyrocline satureioides (‘marcela’), a plant rich in polyphenols and native to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina, could be used for this purpose. [...] Read more.
The growing incidence of non-communicable diseases makes the search for natural sources of bioactive compounds a priority for such disease prevention/control. Achyrocline satureioides (‘marcela’), a plant rich in polyphenols and native to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Argentina, could be used for this purpose. Data on its antidiabetic/antiobesity properties and cellular uptake of bioactive compounds are lacking. The potentiality of non-thermal technologies such as high-hydrostatic pressure (HP) to enhance polyphenol extraction retains attention. Thus, in the present study aqueous and ethanolic marcela extracts with/without assisted-HP processing were chemically characterized and assessed for their in vitro antioxidant capacity, antidiabetic and antiobesity activities, as well as cellular cytotoxicity and uptake on intestinal cell monolayers (TC7-cells, a clone of Caco-2 cells). Aqueous and ethanolic conventional extracts presented different polyphenolic profiles characterized mainly by phenolic acids or flavonoids, respectively, as stated by reverse phase-high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses. In general, ethanolic extracts presented the strongest bioactive properties and HP had none or a negative effect on in vitro bioactivities comparing to conventional extracts. TC7-cell viability and cellular uptake demonstrated in conventional and HP-assisted extracts, highlighted the biological effects of marcela bioactive compounds on TC7-cell monolayers. TC7-cell studies showed no HP-induced cytotoxicity. In sum, marcela extracts have great potential as functional ingredients for the prevention/treatment of chronic diseases such as diabetes. Full article
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Article
A Detailed Characterisation of Appetite, Sensory Perceptional, and Eating-Behavioural Effects of COVID-19: Self-Reports from the Acute and Post-Acute Phase of Disease
Foods 2021, 10(4), 892; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040892 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1016
Abstract
Sensory perception alterations are common in relation to COVID-19 disease, but less is known about the characteristic of the sensory alterations, and how they associate with alterations in appetite and eating behaviour. The current study aims to investigate the acute and long-term effects [...] Read more.
Sensory perception alterations are common in relation to COVID-19 disease, but less is known about the characteristic of the sensory alterations, and how they associate with alterations in appetite and eating behaviour. The current study aims to investigate the acute and long-term effects of COVID-19 disease on (1) the desire for food, hunger, and satiety sensations; (2) smell, taste, and flavour perception; (3) meals and intake of food types; and (4) the frequency of commonly applied strategies to tackle potential changes in appetite and sensory perception. An online survey was conducted among Danish adults (n = 102) who had experienced changes in appetite, sensory perception, and/or food-related pleasure due to COVID-19 disease. Key results include appetite-altering effects at all times during the day when suffering from COVID-19 and often associated with impaired sensory function. Severe sensory perception alterations were found, namely, for the perception of taste, ageusia > hypogeusia > hypergeusia, and for the perception of smell, anosmia > parosmia > hyposmia > hyperosmia. Eating behavioural changes included alteration in quantitative and qualitative aspects of intake. The effects were, in general, more pronounced during the acute phase of disease than during the post-acute phase. The findings illustrate the complexity by which COVID-19 affects human appetite, sensory perception, and eating behaviour, but also point to strategies to cope with these changes. Full article
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Communication
Pseudomonas spp.: Are Food Grade Organic Acids Efficient against These Spoilage Microorganisms in Fresh Cheeses?
Foods 2021, 10(4), 891; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040891 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 712
Abstract
Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas spp. are among the most common spoilage agents in fresh, soft and semi-soft cheeses; therefore, hurdles inhibiting their growth are in strong demand by producers. This study aimed to establish Minimal Inhibiting Concentrations (MICs) of lactic and acetic acid towards P. [...] Read more.
Psychrotolerant Pseudomonas spp. are among the most common spoilage agents in fresh, soft and semi-soft cheeses; therefore, hurdles inhibiting their growth are in strong demand by producers. This study aimed to establish Minimal Inhibiting Concentrations (MICs) of lactic and acetic acid towards P. fluorescens and to evaluate the efficacy of a cheese surface treatment with these two organic acids. MICs were determined in Brain Heart Infusion broth at 30 °C: the inhibition was achieved at a concentration of 49.96 mM and 44.40 mM of acetic and lactic acid, respectively. Two series of inhibition tests were performed on fresh “Primo sale” cheese, inoculated with P. brenneri MGM3, then dipped into different acid solutions (acetic acid: 49.96, 99.92 and 149.88 mM; lactic acid: 44.40, 88.80 and 133.20 mM) and stored at 6 °C. P. brenneri MGM3 were enumerated, including a control series. A significantly lower growth was revealed at the highest concentrations tested, both for acetic (p < 0.01) and lactic acid (p < 0.05) if compared to control samples. A conditioning of “Primo sale” surface with organic acid solutions could be a useful hurdle for Pseudomonas inhibition and shelf-life extension; it should be applied in combination with other mild interventions to fight spoilage and maintain the original product characteristics. Full article
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Editorial
Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement
Foods 2021, 10(4), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040890 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 685
Abstract
Sausages are one of the oldest processed foods known to man [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
Article
Fabrication of Nano/Micro-Structured Electrospun Detection Card for the Detection of Pesticide Residues
Foods 2021, 10(4), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040889 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 741
Abstract
A novel nano/micro-structured pesticide detection card was developed by combining electrospinning and hydrophilic modification, and its feasibility for detecting different pesticides was investigated. Here, the plain and hydrophilic-modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber mats were used for the absorption of indolyl acetate and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), [...] Read more.
A novel nano/micro-structured pesticide detection card was developed by combining electrospinning and hydrophilic modification, and its feasibility for detecting different pesticides was investigated. Here, the plain and hydrophilic-modified poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) fiber mats were used for the absorption of indolyl acetate and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), respectively. By pre-treating the fiber mat with ethanol, its surface wettability was improved, thus, promoting the hydrolysis of the PCL fiber mat. Furthermore, the absorption efficiency of AChE was improved by almost two times due to the increased hydrophilicity of the modified fiber mat. Noteworthily, this self-made detection card showed a 5-fold, 2-fold, and 1.5-fold reduction of the minimum detectable concentration for carbofuran, malathion, and trichlorfon, respectively, compared to the national standard values. Additionally, it also exhibited good stability when stored at 4 °C and room temperature. The food detection test showed that this nano/micro-based detection card had better detectability than the commercial detection card. Therefore, this study offers new insights into the design of pesticide detection cards, which also broadens the application of electrospinning technique. Full article
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Article
Transmission of Major and Minor Serum Proteins during Microfiltration of Skim Milk: Effects of Pore Diameters, Concentration Factors and Processing Stages
Foods 2021, 10(4), 888; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040888 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 594
Abstract
Effects of pore diameters (100, 50, and 20 nm), concentration factors (1–8) and processing stages (1–5) on the transmission of major serum proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin) and minor serum proteins (immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, IgM, lactoferrin (LF), lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO)) during [...] Read more.
Effects of pore diameters (100, 50, and 20 nm), concentration factors (1–8) and processing stages (1–5) on the transmission of major serum proteins (β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin) and minor serum proteins (immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, IgM, lactoferrin (LF), lactoperoxidase (LPO), xanthine oxidase (XO)) during ceramic microfiltration (MF) of skim milk were studied. Holstein skim milk was microfiltered at a temperature of 50 °C, a transmembrane pressure of 110 kPa and a crossflow velocity of 6.7 m/s, using a tubular single stainless steel module that consisted of three ceramic tubes, each with 19 channels (3.5 mm inner diameter) and a length of 0.5 m. For MF with 100 nm and 50 nm pore diameters, the recovery yield of major serum proteins in permeate was 44.3% and 44.1%, while the recovery yield of minor serum proteins was slightly less by 0%–8% than 50 nm MF. MF with 20 nm pore diameters showed a markedly lower (by 12%–45%) recovery yield for both major and minor serum proteins, corresponding with its lower membrane flux. Flux sharply decreased with an increasing concentration factor (CF) up to four, and thereafter remained almost unchanged. Compared to the decrease (88%) of flux, the transmission of major and minor serum proteins was decreased by 4%–15% from CF = one to CF = eight. With increasing processing stages, the flux gradually increased, and the recovery yield of both major and minor proteins in the permeate gradually decreased and reached a considerably low value at stage five. After four stages of MF with 100 nm pore diameter and a CF of four for each stage, the cumulative recovery yield of major serum proteins, IgG, IgA, IgM, LF, LPO, and XO reached 95.7%, 90.8%, 68.5%, 34.1%, 15.3%, 39.1% and 81.2% respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dairy)
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Article
Protein Profile and Simulated Digestive Behavior of Breast Milk from Overweight and Normal Weight Mothers
Foods 2021, 10(4), 887; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040887 - 18 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Human milk proteins have shown to vary in concentration and distribution through lactation. However, while some regulatory components, such as hormones, have shown associations with regard to the mothers’ body mass index, there is limited information on the possible influence of this condition [...] Read more.
Human milk proteins have shown to vary in concentration and distribution through lactation. However, while some regulatory components, such as hormones, have shown associations with regard to the mothers’ body mass index, there is limited information on the possible influence of this condition on the whole protein distribution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein profile of human milk from normal weight and overweight or obese mothers to identify differences in protein expression in colostrum, transitional and mature milk. The mass spectrometry analysis showed the ability to class with a high degree of confidence the lactation state and the milk profile according to the mother’s condition. Individual milk samples were subjected to a digestion in vitro model that takes into account the specificities of the gastrointestinal conditions of full-term newborn infants. The digestion products were compared with available data from the digestive contents in newborns. The behavior of the most abundant proteins and the overall peptide generation and survival, showed good correspondence with in vivo data. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Challenges and Opportunities of Food Digestion)
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Article
Histamine Control in Raw and Processed Tuna: A Rapid Tool Based on NIR Spectroscopy
Foods 2021, 10(4), 885; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040885 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 914
Abstract
The present study was designed to investigate whether near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with minimal sample processing could be a suitable technique to rapidly measure histamine levels in raw and processed tuna fish. Calibration models based on orthogonal partial least square regression (OPLSR) were [...] Read more.
The present study was designed to investigate whether near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with minimal sample processing could be a suitable technique to rapidly measure histamine levels in raw and processed tuna fish. Calibration models based on orthogonal partial least square regression (OPLSR) were built to predict histamine in the range 10–1000 mg kg−1 using the 1000–2500 nm NIR spectra of artificially-contaminated fish. The two models were then validated using a new set of naturally contaminated samples in which histamine content was determined by conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. As for calibration results, coefficient of determination (r2) > 0.98, root mean square of estimation (RMSEE) ≤ 5 mg kg−1 and root mean square of cross-validation (RMSECV) ≤ 6 mg kg−1 were achieved. Both models were optimal also in the validation stage, showing r2 values > 0.97, root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) ≤ 10 mg kg−1 and relative range error (RER) ≥ 25, with better results showed by the model for processed fish. The promising results achieved suggest NIR spectroscopy as an implemental analytical solution in fish industries and markets to effectively determine histamine amounts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Effect of Serving Plate Types and Color Cues on Liking and Purchase Intent of Cheese-Flavored Tortilla Chips
Foods 2021, 10(4), 886; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040886 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 710
Abstract
Foods’ overall liking (OL) and purchase intent (PI) are influenced by visual inputs, such as color cues and serving plate types. Cheese-flavored tortilla chips (CFTC) from two formulations (A and B) with a noticeable color difference (∆E = 4.81) were placed on different [...] Read more.
Foods’ overall liking (OL) and purchase intent (PI) are influenced by visual inputs, such as color cues and serving plate types. Cheese-flavored tortilla chips (CFTC) from two formulations (A and B) with a noticeable color difference (∆E = 4.81) were placed on different serving plates (plastic, foam, and paper) and presented monadically to N = 83 consumers using a randomized/balanced block design in two sessions. Consumers evaluated likings of overall visual quality, color, crunchiness, saltiness, overall flavor (OF), and OL using a 9-point-hedonic scale, attribute appropriateness on a 3-point-just-about-right (JAR) scale, and PI using a binomial (Yes/No) scale. Color differences between A and B influenced crunchiness and saltiness liking and perception, which together with OF liking and formulation, mainly determined OL of CFTC. Although having similar fracturability (N) and sodium content, formulation A had higher crunchiness and saltiness likings. PI was influenced by crunchiness, saltiness, and OF liking with 37, 49, and 60% increases in PI odds per liking-unit increase, respectively. Plate type had minimal effect on the sensory liking of CFTC. The brighter and less-yellow color of CFTC could positively influence liking of crunchiness and saltiness, which significantly contributed to OL and PI. These findings are useful to understand consumers’ acceptability and perception of foods when varying visual inputs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sensory and Consumer Sciences)
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Article
Development of a New Deodorization Method of Herring Milt Hydrolysate: Impacts of pH, Stirring with Nitrogen and Deaerator Treatment on the Odorous Content
Foods 2021, 10(4), 884; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040884 - 17 Apr 2021
Viewed by 713
Abstract
Herring milt hydrolysate (HMH) presents the disadvantage of being associated with an unpleasant smell limiting its use. Thus, to develop a new effective and easy-to-use deodorization method, this research aimed to deepen the knowledge regarding the impacts of pH (pH 7 vs. pH [...] Read more.
Herring milt hydrolysate (HMH) presents the disadvantage of being associated with an unpleasant smell limiting its use. Thus, to develop a new effective and easy-to-use deodorization method, this research aimed to deepen the knowledge regarding the impacts of pH (pH 7 vs. pH 10), overnight stirring with nitrogen (+N vs. −N) and deaerator treatment (+D vs. −D) on the odorous content of HMH. This latter included dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) and the most potent odor-active compounds of HMH. Results showed that pH had a huge impact on the targeted compounds resulting in higher detected concentrations of DMA, TMA and TMAO at pH 10 than at pH 7 (p < 0.05) while the opposite trend was observed for the most potent odor-active compounds of HMH (p < 0.05). Moreover, independently of the pH condition, the overnight stirring with or without nitrogen had no impact (p > 0.05). Finally, the deaerator treatment was more effective to remove TMA and DMA at pH 10 than at pH 7 (p < 0.05) while the opposite trend was observed for the most potent odor-active compounds (p < 0.05). Sensory analysis confirmed that the application of pH 10 −N +D and pH 7 −N +D + alkalization pH 10 conditions led to the least odorous products (p < 0.05). Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Quality and Safety)
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Article
Study on the Sleep-Improvement Effects of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni in Drosophila melanogaster and Targeted Screening to Identify Its Active Components and Mechanism
Foods 2021, 10(4), 883; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040883 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
Hemerocallis citrina Baroni (HC) is an edible plant in Asia, and it has been traditionally used for sleep-improvement. However, the bioactive components and mechanism of HC in sleep-improvement are still unclear. In this study, the sleep-improvement effect of HC hydroalcoholic extract was investigated [...] Read more.
Hemerocallis citrina Baroni (HC) is an edible plant in Asia, and it has been traditionally used for sleep-improvement. However, the bioactive components and mechanism of HC in sleep-improvement are still unclear. In this study, the sleep-improvement effect of HC hydroalcoholic extract was investigated based on a caffeine-induced insomnia model in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster), and the ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-Orbitrap-MS) and network pharmacology strategy were further combined to screen systematically the active constituents and mechanism of HC in sleep-improvement. The results suggested HC effectively regulated the number of nighttime activities and total sleep time of D. melanogaster in a dose-dependent manner and positively regulated the sleep bouts and sleep duration of D. melanogaster. The target screening suggested that quercetin, luteolin, kaempferol, caffeic acid, and nicotinic acid were the main bioactive components of HC in sleep-improvements. Moreover, the core targets (Akt1, Cat, Ple, and Sod) affected by HC were verified by the expression of the mRNA of D. melanogaster. In summary, this study showed that HC could effectively regulate the sleep of D. melanogaster and further clarifies the multi-component and multi-target features of HC in sleep-improvement, which provides a new insight for the research and utilization of HC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods)
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Article
Phosphate Elimination in Emulsified Meat Products: Impact of Protein-Based Ingredients on Quality Characteristics
Foods 2021, 10(4), 882; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040882 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 799
Abstract
The addition of phosphates to meat products improves the emulsifying and gelling properties of meat proteins, in turn enhancing overall product quality. The current market trend towards additive-free products and the health issues related to phosphate challenge the industry to develop phosphate-free meat [...] Read more.
The addition of phosphates to meat products improves the emulsifying and gelling properties of meat proteins, in turn enhancing overall product quality. The current market trend towards additive-free products and the health issues related to phosphate challenge the industry to develop phosphate-free meat products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of seven protein-based ingredients (pea, blood plasma, gelatin, soy, whey, egg, and potato) to remediate quality losses of emulsified meat products (cooked sausages) upon phosphate elimination. First, the intrinsic gelling and emulsifying characteristics of the proteins were assessed. Next, the proteins were added to phosphate-free sausages, of which quality characteristics during production (viscoelastic behavior and emulsion stability) and of the final products (texture, cooking loss, and pH) were screened. Blood plasma and soy were superior in phosphate-free cooked sausages, as no significant differences in hardness, cooking yield, or stability were found compared to phosphate-containing sausages. Egg and pea also improved the previously mentioned quality characteristics of phosphate-free sausages, although to a lesser extent. These insights could not entirely be explained based on the intrinsic gelling and emulsifying capacity of the respective proteins. This indicated the importance of a well-defined standardized meat matrix to determine the potential of alternative proteins in meat products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Strategies for Innovative and Enhanced Meat and Meat Products)
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Article
Optimization Model of Phenolics Encapsulation Conditions for Biofortification in Fatty Acids of Animal Food Products
Foods 2021, 10(4), 881; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040881 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 714
Abstract
The nutritional quality of animal products is strongly related to their fatty acid content and composition. Nowadays, attention is paid to the possibility of producing healthier foods of animal origin by intervening in animal feed. In this field, the use of condensed tannins [...] Read more.
The nutritional quality of animal products is strongly related to their fatty acid content and composition. Nowadays, attention is paid to the possibility of producing healthier foods of animal origin by intervening in animal feed. In this field, the use of condensed tannins as dietary supplements in animal nutrition is becoming popular due to their wide range of biological effects related, among others, to their ability to modulate the rumen biohydrogenation and biofortify, through the improvement of the fatty acids profile, the derivate food products. Unfortunately, tannins are characterized by strong astringency and low bioavailability. These disadvantages could be overcome through the microencapsulation in protective matrices. With this in mind, the optimal conditions for microencapsulation of a polyphenolic extract rich in condensed tannins by spray drying using a blend of maltodextrin (MD) and gum Arabic (GA) as shell material were investigated. For this purpose, after the extract characterization, through spectrophotometer assays and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight (UHPLC-QTOF) mass spectrometry, a central composite design (CCD) was employed to investigate the combined effects of core:shell and MD:GA ratio on the microencapsulation process. The results obtained were used to develop second-order polynomial regression models on different responses, namely encapsulation yield, encapsulation efficiency, loading capacity, and tannin content. The formulation characterized by a core:shell ratio of 1.5:5 and MD:GA ratio of 4:6 was selected as the optimized one with a loading capacity of 17.67%, encapsulation efficiency of 76.58%, encapsulation yield of 35.69%, and tannin concentration of 14.46 g/100 g. Moreover, in vitro release under varying pH of the optimized formulation was carried out with results that could improve the use of microencapsulated condensed tannins in animal nutrition for the biofortification of derivates. Full article
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Article
The Contribution of Thai Fisheries to Sustainable Seafood Consumption: National Trends and Future Projections
Foods 2021, 10(4), 880; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040880 - 17 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 890
Abstract
Sustainably feeding a growing human population is one of the greatest food system challenges of the 21st century. Seafood plays a vital role in supporting human wellbeing, by providing bioavailable and nutrient-dense animal-source food. In Thailand, seafood demand is increasing, and wild capture [...] Read more.
Sustainably feeding a growing human population is one of the greatest food system challenges of the 21st century. Seafood plays a vital role in supporting human wellbeing, by providing bioavailable and nutrient-dense animal-source food. In Thailand, seafood demand is increasing, and wild capture fishery yields have plateaued, due to oceanic ecosystem degradation and fishery stock exploitation. In this study, we investigated the supply trend of fishery products and subsequent seafood-derived nutrient availability over the last decade. In addition, we explored the possibility of predicting seafood availability and consumption levels, including adherence to Thailand’s national food guide and global dietary recommendations for sustainable seafood consumption. Our findings indicate that, at national-level, fishery products supplied between 19% and 35% of the Thai populations recommended dietary protein intake, 4–6% of calcium, 6–11% of iron, and 2–4% of zinc from 1995 to 2015. Nevertheless, our research also reports that if Thailand’s wild-caught seafood production were to decrease by 13%, as is highly likely, by 2030, the country might face a per capita supply deficit of fish and shellfish to meet healthy and sustainable dietary recommendations (28–30 g/day), let alone the current Thai average intake (32 g/day). Although a 1% per year increase in aquaculture production might bridge this supply gap, policymakers and relevant fishery stakeholders must consider the long-term environmental impacts of such an approach in Thailand. Full article
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Article
Convolutional Neural Networks Using Enhanced Radiographs for Real-Time Detection of Sitophilus zeamais in Maize Grain
Foods 2021, 10(4), 879; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040879 - 16 Apr 2021
Viewed by 1279
Abstract
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) such as deep learning in the quality control of grains has the potential to assist analysts in decision making and improving procedures. Advanced technologies based on X-ray imaging provide markedly easier ways to control insect infestation of [...] Read more.
The application of artificial intelligence (AI) such as deep learning in the quality control of grains has the potential to assist analysts in decision making and improving procedures. Advanced technologies based on X-ray imaging provide markedly easier ways to control insect infestation of stored products, regardless of whether the quality features are visible on the surface of the grains. Here, we applied contrast enhancement algorithms based on peripheral equalization and calcification emphasis on X-ray images to improve the detection of Sitophilus zeamais in maize grains. In addition, we proposed an approach based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to identity non-infested and infested classes using three different architectures; (i) Inception-ResNet-v2, (ii) Xception and (iii) MobileNetV2. In general, the prediction models developed based on the MobileNetV2 and Xception architectures achieved higher accuracy (≥0.88) in identifying non-infested grains and grains infested by maize weevil, with a correct classification from 0.78 to 1.00 for validation and test sets. Hence, the proposed approach using enhanced radiographs has the potential to provide precise control of Sitophilus zeamais for safe human consumption of maize grains. The proposed method can automatically recognize food contaminated with hidden storage pests without manual features, which makes it more reliable for grain inspection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advance of Rapid Analysis Technology for Detecting Food Contaminants)
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Review
Induced Changes in Aroma Compounds of Foods Treated with High Hydrostatic Pressure: A Review
Foods 2021, 10(4), 878; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040878 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 713
Abstract
Since conventional thermal processing can have detrimental consequences on aroma compounds, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) have been explored. HHP may alter the weak chemical bonds of enzymes. These changes can modify the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of key [...] Read more.
Since conventional thermal processing can have detrimental consequences on aroma compounds, non-thermal technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) have been explored. HHP may alter the weak chemical bonds of enzymes. These changes can modify the secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of key enzymes in the production of aroma compounds. This can result in either an increase or decrease in their content, along with reactions or physical processes associated with a reduction of molecular volume. This article provides a comprehensive review of HHP treatment’s effects on the content of lipid-derived aroma compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, esters, lactones, terpenes, and phenols, on various food matrices of vegetable and animal origin. The content of aldehydes and ketones in food samples increased when subjected to HHP, while the content of alcohols and phenols decreased, probably due to oxidative processes. Both ester and lactone concentrations appeared to decline due to hydrolysis reactions. There is no clear tendency regarding terpenes concentration when subjected to HHP treatments. Because of the various effects of HHP on aroma compounds, an area of opportunity arises to carry out future studies that allow optimizing and controlling the effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Food Engineering and Technology)
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Article
Post-Harvest Treatment with Methyl Jasmonate Impacts Lipid Metabolism in Tomato Pericarp (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Grape) at Different Ripening Stages
Foods 2021, 10(4), 877; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040877 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 825
Abstract
The application of exogenous jasmonate can stimulate the production of ethylene, carotenoids, and aroma compounds and accelerate fruit ripening. These alterations improve fruit quality and make fruit desirable for human consumption. However, fruit over-ripening results in large losses of fruit crops. This problem [...] Read more.
The application of exogenous jasmonate can stimulate the production of ethylene, carotenoids, and aroma compounds and accelerate fruit ripening. These alterations improve fruit quality and make fruit desirable for human consumption. However, fruit over-ripening results in large losses of fruit crops. This problem is overcome by applying 1-methylcyclopropene to the fruits, due to its capacity to block the ethylene receptors, suppressing fruit ripening. In this study, treatments with only 1-methylcyclopropene and both 1-methylcyclopropene and methyl jasmonate were administered to observe whether exogenous methyl jasmonate can improve the metabolite levels in fruits with blocked ethylene receptors. Fruit pericarps were analyzed at 4, 10, and 21 days after harvest (DAH) and compared with untreated fruits. The post-harvest treatments affected primary metabolites (sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and fatty acids) and secondary metabolites (carotenoids, tocopherols, and phytosterols). However, the lipid metabolism of the tomatoes was most impacted by the exogenous jasmonate. Fatty acids, carotenoids, tocopherols, and phytosterols showed a delay in their production at 4 and 10 DAH. Conversely, at 21 DAH, these non-polar metabolites exhibited an important improvement in their accumulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Management of Fruits and Vegetables)
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