Special Issue "Functional Analysis of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria and Their Effects on Human Health"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Microbiology".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2022) | Viewed by 27944

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Paloma López
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
CSIC - Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas Margarita Salas (CIB-Margarita Salas), Ramiro de Maeztu, 9, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; exopolysaccharides; vitamins; functional food; probiotics; postbiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Dr. Maria Teresa Dueñas
E-Mail Website
Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Chemical Sciences, University of the Basque Country (UPV / EHU), Paseo Manuel de Lardizabal, 3, 2018 Donostia-San Sebastián, Spain
Interests: lactic acid bacteria; exopolysaccharides; cider; probiotics; postbiotics
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Many lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria play an important role as beneficial components of human, animal, food, and beverage microbiota. Moreover, due to their probiotic properties, and the functionality of the metabolic compounds that they produce during fermentation, they are extensively used as functional components, starters, and adjunct cultures in dairy products and beverages, and their use is extending to other sectors of the food industry, e.g., bakery and plant-based fermentations.

Therefore, this Special Issue is calling for original papers, reviews, and mini reviews that characterize the functional properties of these bacteria and their beneficial effects for health. Among others, we would welcome reports of investigations of their antibacterial and antimicrobial, antiviral, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, as well as analyses of their capability to produce oligosaccharides, exopolysaccharides, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), conjugated fatty acids (CFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), vitamins, and their ability to metabolize toxic and antinutritional compounds, such as biogenic amines and cholesterol. Moreover, we are interested in studies of lactic acid bacteria as starters of fermentations or components of food and beverage microbiota, as well as their influence on human and animal microbioma.

Dr. Paloma López
Dr. Maria Teresa Dueñas
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Lactic acid bacteria
  • Bifidobacteria
  • Functional foods
  • Probiotics
  • Postbiotics
  • Fermented foods
  • Microbiota
  • Starters
  • Microbioma

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Functional Analysis of Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bifidobacteria and Their Effects on Human Health
Foods 2022, 11(15), 2293; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11152293 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Bifidobacteria are beneficial components of human, animal, foods, and beverage microbiota [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Probiotic Properties, Prebiotic Fermentability, and GABA-Producing Capacity of Microorganisms Isolated from Mexican Milk Kefir Grains: A Clustering Evaluation for Functional Dairy Food Applications
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2275; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102275 - 26 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
Isolation and functional characterization of microorganisms are relevant steps for generating starter cultures with functional properties, and more recently, those related to improving mental health. Milk kefir grains have been recently investigated as a source of health-related strains. This study focused on the [...] Read more.
Isolation and functional characterization of microorganisms are relevant steps for generating starter cultures with functional properties, and more recently, those related to improving mental health. Milk kefir grains have been recently investigated as a source of health-related strains. This study focused on the evaluation of microorganisms from artisanal Mexican milk kefir grains regarding probiotic properties, in vitro fermentability with commercial prebiotics (lactulose, inulin, and citrus pectin), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing capacity. Microorganisms were identified belonging to genera Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, and Kluyveromyces. The probiotic properties were assessed by aggregation abilities, antimicrobial activity, antibiotic susceptibility, and resistance to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, showing a good performance compared with commercial probiotics. Most of isolates maintained a concentration above 6 log colony forming units/mL after the intestinal phase. Specific isolates of Kluyveromyces (BIOTEC009 and BIOTEC010), Leuconostoc (BIOTEC011 and BIOTEC012), and Lactobacillus (BIOTEC014 and BIOTEC15) showed a high fermentability in media supplemented with commercial prebiotics. The capacity to produce GABA was classified as medium for L. lactis BIOTEC006, BIOTEC007, and BIOTEC008; K. lactis BIOTEC009; L. pseudomesenteroides BIOTEC012; and L. kefiri BIOTEC014, and comparable to that obtained for commercial probiotics. Finally, a multivariate approach was performed, allowing the grouping of 2–5 clusters of microorganisms that could be further considered new promising cultures for functional dairy food applications. Full article
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Article
Administration of Ligilactobacillus salivarius MP101 in an Elderly Nursing Home during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Immunological and Nutritional Impact
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2149; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092149 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
The elderly population living in nursing homes is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 although individual susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection may be related to the host microbiota. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of Ligilactobacillus salivarius MP101 on the functional (Barthel [...] Read more.
The elderly population living in nursing homes is particularly vulnerable to COVID-19 although individual susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection may be related to the host microbiota. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of Ligilactobacillus salivarius MP101 on the functional (Barthel index), cognitive (GDS/FAST), and nutritional (MNA) status as well as on the nasal and fecal inflammatory profiles of elderly residents living in a nursing home that is highly affected by COVID-19. A total of 25 residents participated in the trial, which involved the daily ingestion of a dairy product (L. salivarius MP101: 9.3 log10 CFU per unit) for 4 months. Nasal and fecal samples were analyzed for 37 immune factors at recruitment and at the end of the study. After the trial, no change in the GDS/FAST scores were found but, in contrast, the values for the Barthel index and the MNA score improved significantly. The concentrations of some immune factors changed significantly after the trial, including a decrease in the concentrations of BAFF/TNFSF13B, APRIL/TNFSF13, IL8, IL31, osteopontin, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2, and an increase in chitinase 3-like 1, IL19, IL35, and pentraxin 3 was also observed. In conclusion, L. salivarius MP101 seems to be a promising strain for improving or maintaining health in this highly vulnerable population. Full article
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Article
Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Fermented Doughs in Spain Produce Dextrans and Riboflavin
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092004 - 26 Aug 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1988
Abstract
Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce metabolites with applications in the food industry, such as dextran-type exopolysaccharides (EPS) and riboflavin (vitamin B2). Here, 72 bacteria were isolated from sourdoughs made by Spanish bread-makers. In the presence of sucrose, colonies of 22 [...] Read more.
Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce metabolites with applications in the food industry, such as dextran-type exopolysaccharides (EPS) and riboflavin (vitamin B2). Here, 72 bacteria were isolated from sourdoughs made by Spanish bread-makers. In the presence of sucrose, colonies of 22 isolates showed a ropy phenotype, and NMR analysis of their EPS supported that 21 of them were dextran producers. These isolates were identified by their random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) patterns and their rrs and pheS gene sequences as LAB belonging to four species (Weissella cibaria, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc falkenbergense and Leuconostoc mesenteroides). Six selected strains from the Leuconostoc (3) and Weissella (3) genera grew in the absence of riboflavin and synthesized vitamin B2. The EPS produced by these strains were characterized as dextrans by physicochemical analysis, and the L. citreum polymer showed an unusually high degree of branching. Quantification of the riboflavin and the EPS productions showed that the W. cibaria strains produce the highest levels (585–685 μg/and 6.5–7.4 g/L, respectively). Therefore, these new LAB strains would be good candidates for the development of fermented foods bio-fortified with both dextrans and riboflavin. Moreover, this is the first report of riboflavin and dextran production by L. falkenbergense. Full article
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Article
Lactic Acid Bacteria Diversity and Characterization of Probiotic Candidates in Fermented Meats
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1519; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071519 - 01 Jul 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2694
Abstract
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been classified as probiotics and fermented foods are an excellent source of such LAB. In this study, novel [...] Read more.
Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which confer health benefits to the host when administered in adequate amounts. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains have been classified as probiotics and fermented foods are an excellent source of such LAB. In this study, novel probiotic candidates from two fermented meats (pancetta and prosciutto) were isolated and characterized. LAB populations present in pancetta and prosciutto were evaluated and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was found to be the dominant species. The antagonistic ability of selected isolates against LAB and non-LAB strains was investigated, in particular, the ability to produce anti-microbial compounds including organic acids and bacteriocins. Probiotic characteristics including antibiotic susceptibility, hydrophobicity and autoaggregation capacity; and ability to withstand simulated gastric juice, bile salt, phenol and NaCl were assessed. Among the characterized strains, L. plantarum 41G isolated from prosciutto was identified as the most robust probiotic candidate compared. Results from this study demonstrate that artisanal fermented meat is a rich source of novel strains with probiotic potential. Full article
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Article
The Potential Role of Probiotics in Protection against Influenza a Virus Infection in Mice
Foods 2021, 10(4), 902; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040902 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2218
Abstract
Influenza A virus induces severe respiratory tract infection and results in a serious global health problem. Influenza infection disturbs the cross-talk connection between lung and gut. Probiotic treatment can inhibit influenza virus infection; however, the mechanism remains to be explored. The mice received [...] Read more.
Influenza A virus induces severe respiratory tract infection and results in a serious global health problem. Influenza infection disturbs the cross-talk connection between lung and gut. Probiotic treatment can inhibit influenza virus infection; however, the mechanism remains to be explored. The mice received Lactobacillus mucosae 1025, Bifidobacterium breve CCFM1026, and their mixture MIX for 19 days. Effects of probiotics on clinical symptoms, immune responses, and gut microbial alteration were evaluated. L. mucosae 1025 and MIX significantly reduced the loss of body weight, pathological symptoms, and viral loading. B. breve CCFM1026 significantly reduced the proportion of neutrophils and increased lymphocytes, the expressions of TLR7, MyD88, TRAF6, and TNF-α to restore the immune disorders. MIX increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, the relative abundances of Lactobacillus, Mucispirillum, Adlercreutzia, Bifidobacterium, and further regulated SCFA metabolism resulting in an enhancement of butyrate. The correlation analysis revealed that the butyrate was positively related to MxA expression (p < 0.001) but was negatively related to viral loading (p < 0.05). The results implied the possible antiviral mechanisms that MIX decreased viral loading and increased the antiviral protein MxA expression, which was closely associated with the increased butyrate production resulting from gut microbial alteration. Full article
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Article
Impact of Nisin and Nisin-Producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis on Clostridium tyrobutyricum and Bacterial Ecosystem of Cheese Matrices
Foods 2021, 10(4), 898; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040898 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores survive milk pasteurization and cause late blowing of cheeses and significant economic loss. The effectiveness of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 32 as a protective strain for control the C. tyrobutyricum growth in Cheddar cheese slurry was compared to that [...] Read more.
Clostridium tyrobutyricum spores survive milk pasteurization and cause late blowing of cheeses and significant economic loss. The effectiveness of nisin-producing Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis 32 as a protective strain for control the C. tyrobutyricum growth in Cheddar cheese slurry was compared to that of encapsulated nisin-A. The encapsulated nisin was more effective, with 1.0 log10 reductions of viable spores after one week at 30 °C and 4 °C. Spores were not detected for three weeks at 4 °C in cheese slurry made with 1.3% salt, or during week 2 with 2% salt. Gas production was observed after one week at 30 °C only in the control slurry made with 1.3% salt. In slurry made with the protective strain, the reduction in C. tyrobutyricum count was 0.6 log10 in the second week at 4 °C with both salt concentration. At 4 °C, nisin production started in week 2 and reached 97 µg/g after four weeks. Metabarcoding analysis targeting the sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed that the genus Lactococcus dominated for four weeks at 4 °C. In cheese slurry made with 2% salt, the relative abundance of the genus Clostridium decreased significantly in the presence of nisin or the protective strain. The results indicated that both strategies are able to control the growth of Clostridium development in Cheddar cheese slurries. Full article
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Article
Lactobacillus fermentum SMFM2017-NK4 Isolated from Kimchi Can Prevent Obesity by Inhibiting Fat Accumulation
Foods 2021, 10(4), 772; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040772 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1959
Abstract
This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of lactic acid bacteria. Thirty-one lactic acid bacteria were examined in vitro for their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Four selected lactic acid bacteria were administered to obese C57BL/6J mice models [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the anti-obesity effects of lactic acid bacteria. Thirty-one lactic acid bacteria were examined in vitro for their ability to inhibit α-glucosidase activity, lipase activity, and 3T3-L1 cell differentiation. Four selected lactic acid bacteria were administered to obese C57BL/6J mice models for 8 weeks. The degree of improvement in obesity was determined by weight gain and serum biochemical analysis. The expression levels of genes (Fas and Cpt-2) related to obesity in the liver were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription (qRT)-PCR. In addition, antioxidant protein levels (SOD-2, CAT, and GPx-1) in the liver were evaluated. The lactic acid bacteria-treated groups (PPGK1, LFNK3, LPNK2, and LFNK4) showed lower weight increase rate than the control group. The total cholesterol (T-chol), triglyceride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels in the blood serum of the LFNK4 group were the lowest among other groups, compared to the control group. The expression levels of lipid metabolism-related genes (Fas and Cpt-2) in the liver of the LFNK4 group were lower in Fas and higher in Cpt-2 than in the control group. The antioxidant protein expression levels (SOD-2, CAT, and GPx-1) in the liver tissue were also higher in the LFNK4 group. These results indicate that L. fermentum SMFM2017-NK4 has anti-obesity effects. Full article
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Article
GABA-Producing Lactococcus lactis Strains Isolated from Camel’s Milk as Starters for the Production of GABA-Enriched Cheese
Foods 2021, 10(3), 633; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030633 - 17 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2035
Abstract
The multiple health benefits attributed to the bioactive compound γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have prompted the food industry to investigate the development of functional GABA-rich foods via the use of GABA-producing microorganisms. This study reports the isolation of six GABA-producing Lactococcus lactis strains from [...] Read more.
The multiple health benefits attributed to the bioactive compound γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) have prompted the food industry to investigate the development of functional GABA-rich foods via the use of GABA-producing microorganisms. This study reports the isolation of six GABA-producing Lactococcus lactis strains from camel’s milk; this is the first time that such microorganisms have been isolated from milk. The sequencing and in silico analysis of their genomes, and the characterisation of their technological and safety properties, confirmed their potential as starters. Experimental cheeses made with all six strains (individually) accumulated GABA at concentrations of up to 457 mg/kg. These GABA-producing L. lactis strains could be used as starter cultures for the manufacture of functional GABA-enriched cheeses that provide health benefits to consumers. Full article
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Review

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Review
Biological Functions of Exopolysaccharides from Lactic Acid Bacteria and Their Potential Benefits for Humans and Farmed Animals
Foods 2022, 11(9), 1284; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods11091284 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1393
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS), which are structurally diverse biopolymers with a broad range of technological properties and bioactivities. There is scientific evidence that these polymers have health-promoting properties. Most commercialized probiotic microorganisms for consumption by humans and farmed animals are [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS), which are structurally diverse biopolymers with a broad range of technological properties and bioactivities. There is scientific evidence that these polymers have health-promoting properties. Most commercialized probiotic microorganisms for consumption by humans and farmed animals are LAB and some of them are EPS-producers indicating that some of their beneficial properties could be due to these polymers. Probiotic LAB are currently used to improve human health and for the prevention and treatment of specific pathologic conditions. They are also used in food-producing animal husbandry, mainly due to their abilities to promote growth and inhibit pathogens via different mechanisms, among which the production of EPS could be involved. Thus, the aim of this review is to discuss the current knowledge of the characteristics, usage and biological role of EPS from LAB, as well as their postbiotic action in humans and animals, and to predict the future contribution that they could have on the diet of food animals to improve productivity, animal health status and impact on public health. Full article
Review
Health-Promoting Properties of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei: A Focus on Kefir Isolates and Exopolysaccharide-Producing Strains
Foods 2021, 10(10), 2239; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10102239 - 22 Sep 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2994
Abstract
Among artisanal fermented beverages, kefir (fermented milk drink) and water kefir (fermented nondairy beverage) are of special interest because their grains can be considered natural reservoirs of safe and potentially probiotic strains. In the last years, several reports on Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (formerly Lactobacillus [...] Read more.
Among artisanal fermented beverages, kefir (fermented milk drink) and water kefir (fermented nondairy beverage) are of special interest because their grains can be considered natural reservoirs of safe and potentially probiotic strains. In the last years, several reports on Lacticaseibacillus paracasei (formerly Lactobacillus paracasei) isolated from both artisanal fermented beverages were published focusing on their health-promoting properties. Although this is not the predominant species in kefir or water kefir, it may contribute to the health benefits associated to the consumption of the fermented beverage. Since the classification of L. paracasei has been a difficult task, the selection of an adequate method for identification, which is essential to avoid mislabeling in products, publications, and some publicly available DNA sequences, is discussed in the present work. The last findings in health promoting properties of L. paracasei and the bioactive compounds are described and compared to strains isolated from kefir, providing a special focus on exopolysaccharides as effector molecules. The knowledge of the state of the art of Lacticaseibacillus paracasei from kefir and water kefir can help to understand the contribution of these microorganisms to the health benefits of artisanal beverages as well as to discover new probiotic strains for applications in food industry. Full article
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Review
Exopolysaccharides Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria in Wine and Other Fermented Beverages: For Better or for Worse?
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2204; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092204 - 17 Sep 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1860
Abstract
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented beverages such as wine, cider and beer produce a wide range of exopolysaccharides (EPS) through multiple biosynthetic pathways. These extracellular polysaccharides constitute key elements for bacterial species adaptation to such anthropic processes. In the food industry, LAB [...] Read more.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from fermented beverages such as wine, cider and beer produce a wide range of exopolysaccharides (EPS) through multiple biosynthetic pathways. These extracellular polysaccharides constitute key elements for bacterial species adaptation to such anthropic processes. In the food industry, LAB polysaccharides have been widely studied for their rheological, functional and nutritional properties; however, these have been poorly studied in wine, beer and cider until recently. In this review, we have gathered the information available on these specific polysaccharide structure and, biosynthetic pathways, as well as the physiology of their production. The genes associated with EPS synthesis are also presented and compared. Finally, the possible role of EPS for bacterial survival and spread, as well as the risks or possible benefits for the winemaker and the wine lover, are discussed. Full article
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Review
Role of Postbiotics in Diabetes Mellitus: Current Knowledge and Future Perspectives
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1590; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071590 - 08 Jul 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3174
Abstract
In the last decade, the gastrointestinal microbiota has been recognised as being essential for health. Indeed, several publications have documented the suitability of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics in the management of different diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Advances in laboratory techniques have [...] Read more.
In the last decade, the gastrointestinal microbiota has been recognised as being essential for health. Indeed, several publications have documented the suitability of probiotics, prebiotics, and symbiotics in the management of different diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM). Advances in laboratory techniques have allowed the identification and characterisation of new biologically active molecules, referred to as “postbiotics”. Postbiotics are defined as functional bioactive compounds obtained from food-grade microorganisms that confer health benefits when administered in adequate amounts. They include cell structures, secreted molecules or metabolic by-products, and inanimate microorganisms. This heterogeneous group of molecules presents a broad range of mechanisms and may exhibit some advantages over traditional “biotics” such as probiotics and prebiotics. Owing to the growing incidence of DM worldwide and the implications of the microbiota in the disease progression, postbiotics appear to be good candidates as novel therapeutic targets. In the present review, we summarise the current knowledge about postbiotic compounds and their potential application in diabetes management. Additionally, we envision future perspectives on this topic. In summary, the results indicate that postbiotics hold promise as a potential novel therapeutic strategy for DM. Full article
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