Special Issue "Progress on Nutrient Composition, Meat Standardization and Grading, Processing and Safety in Different Types of Meat Sources"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (5 May 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Huerta-Leidenz Nelson
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Animal and Food Sciences. Texas Tech University. Lubbock, Texas, USA.
Interests: beef; pork; meat quality; nutrient composition; beef carcass grading; food safety; functional meat products; food safety

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues, 

Product consistency is a must for succeeding in meat marketing and trade. Carcass standarization-grading schemes can assist to describe meats for its eating quality and fabrication yield but more innovative, objective technologies are strongly needed to effectively seggregate the heterogeneous supply of meat products into homegeneous groups in quality and (or) yield. Furthermore, harmonized or equivalent quality standards among trading partners are still pending to facilitate the international meat trade. Beef is packaged with an array of healthy nutrients and it is the highest valued livestock product.  However, staples (e.g., pork, poultry) and other lesser known red meats (e.g., bison and water buffalo) can also be nutrient dense and/or provide a unique sensory experience with advantageous technological quality. Yet the alleged responsibility of meats and processed meat products for some of our population’s major health and sustainability issues has created the opportunity for the promotion of plant-based processed foods. This new competition forces the need for novel technologies and formulations of healthier, nutraceutical meat products.  While there have been significant and/or dramatic improvements in reducing foodborne illnesses, the morbidity and mortality attributed to Salmonella and other pathogens remains a food safety issue. Also, the emergence of COVID-19, a non-food borne pathogen have posed an unexpected challenge to the reputation of the meat supply/industry

Dr. Huerta-Leidenz Nelson
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Beef
  • Pork
  • Poultry
  • Food Safety
  • Processed Meats
  • Meat Grading
  • Genetics
  • Meat Quality
  • Meat Composition

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Progress on Nutrient Composition, Meat Standardization, Grading, Processing, and Safety for Different Types of Meat Sources
Foods 2021, 10(9), 2128; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10092128 - 09 Sep 2021
Viewed by 322
Abstract
Beef contains a plethora of healthy nutrients and it is the highest valued livestock-based food product [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Effect of Dietary Brown Seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) Additive on Meat Quality and Nutrient Composition of Fattening Pigs
Foods 2021, 10(8), 1720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10081720 - 26 Jul 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 576
Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary brown seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) additive (SWA) on meat quality and nutrient composition of commercial fattening pigs. The treatments were: Regular diet with 0% inclusion of SWA (CON); Regular diet [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary brown seaweed (Macrocystis pyrifera) additive (SWA) on meat quality and nutrient composition of commercial fattening pigs. The treatments were: Regular diet with 0% inclusion of SWA (CON); Regular diet with 2% SWA (2%-SWA); Regular diet with 4% SWA (4%-SWA). After slaughtering, five carcasses from each group were selected, and longissimus lumborum (LL) samples were taken for meat quality and chemical composition analysis. Meat quality traits (except redness intensity) were not affected (p > 0.05) by treatments. Samples from the 4%-SWA treatment showed the lowest a value than those from the 2%-SWA and CON treatments (p = 0.05). Meat samples from the 4%-SWA group contained 3.37 and 3.81 mg/100 g more of muscle cholesterol than CON and 2% SWA groups, respectively (p < 0.05). The SWA treatments affected (p ≤ 0.05) the content of ash, Mn, Fe, and Cu. The LL samples from 4%-SWA had the highest content of ash; however, they showed 0.13, 0.45, and 0.23 less mg/100 g of Mn, Fe, and Zn, respectively, compared to samples from CON (p ≤ 0.05). Fatty acids composition and macro minerals content (Na, Mg, and K) did not show variation due to the SWA treatments. Further studies are needed to understand the biological effects of these components on adipogenesis, cholesterol metabolism, and mineral deposition in muscle. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical and Sensory Assessments in Spain and United States of PGI-Certified Ternera de Navarra vs. Certified Angus Beef
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1474; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071474 - 25 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 347
Abstract
The physicochemical and sensory differences between the PGI-Certified Ternera de Navarra (CTNA) (Spanish origin) and Certified Angus Beef (CAB) (US origin) were assessed in Spain and the USA. To characterize the carcasses, the ribeye areas (REAs), and marbling levels [...] Read more.
The physicochemical and sensory differences between the PGI-Certified Ternera de Navarra (CTNA) (Spanish origin) and Certified Angus Beef (CAB) (US origin) were assessed in Spain and the USA. To characterize the carcasses, the ribeye areas (REAs), and marbling levels were assessed in both testing places. Twenty striploins per certified beef program were used as study samples. For sensory analysis, the striploins were vacuum packaged and aged for 7 days at 4 °C and 85% RH in each corresponding laboratory. Thereafter, the samples were half cut and frozen. One of the halves was shipped to the other counterpart-testing place. The fat and moisture percentage content, Warner Bratzler Shear Force (WBSF), and total and soluble collagen were tested for all the samples. The CAB carcasses had smaller REAs (p < 0.0001) and exhibited higher marbling levels (p < 0.0001). The CAB striploins had a higher fat content (p < 0.0001) and required lower WBSF (p < 0.05) than the CTNA samples. Trained panelists rated the CAB samples as juicer (p < 0.001), more tender/less tough (p < 0.0001), and more flavorful (p < 0.0001) than the CTNA counterparts. This study shows that beef from both countries had medium-high tenderness, juiciness, and beef flavor scores and very low off-flavor scores. Relevant differences found between the ratings assigned by the Spanish and the US panelists suggest training differences, or difficulties encountered in using the appropriate terminology for defining each sensory attribute. Furthermore, the lack of product knowledge (i.e., consumption habits) may have been another reason for such differences, despite the blind sensory evaluation. Full article
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Article
UV-C LED Irradiation Reduces Salmonella on Chicken and Food Contact Surfaces
Foods 2021, 10(7), 1459; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10071459 - 24 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 578
Abstract
Ultraviolet (UV-C) light-emitting diode (LED) light at a wavelength of 250–280 nm was used to disinfect skinless chicken breast (CB), stainless steel (SS) and high-density polyethylene (HD) inoculated with Salmonella enterica. Irradiances of 2 mW/cm2 (50%) or 4 mW/cm2 (100%) [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet (UV-C) light-emitting diode (LED) light at a wavelength of 250–280 nm was used to disinfect skinless chicken breast (CB), stainless steel (SS) and high-density polyethylene (HD) inoculated with Salmonella enterica. Irradiances of 2 mW/cm2 (50%) or 4 mW/cm2 (100%) were used to treat samples at different exposure times. Chicken samples had the lowest Salmonella reduction with 1.02 and 1.78 Log CFU/cm2 (p ≤ 0.05) after 60 and 900 s, respectively at 50% irradiance. Higher reductions on CB were obtained with 100% illumination after 900 s (>3.0 Log CFU/cm2). Salmonella on SS was reduced by 1.97 and 3.48 Log CFU/cm2 after 60 s of treatment with 50% and 100% irradiance, respectively. HD showed a lower decrease of Salmonella, but still statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05), with 1.25 and 1.77 Log CFU/cm2 destruction for 50 and 100% irradiance after 60 s, respectively. Longer exposure times of HD to UV-C yielded up to 99.999% (5.0 Log CFU/cm2) reduction of Salmonella with both irradiance levels. While UV-C LED treatment was found effective to control Salmonella on chicken and food contact surfaces, we propose three mechanisms contributing to reduced efficacy of disinfection: bacterial aggregation, harboring in food and work surface pores and light absorption by fluids associated with CB. Full article
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Article
Biomapping of Microbial Indicators on Beef Subprimals Subjected to Spray or Dry Chilling over Prolonged Refrigerated Storage
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1403; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061403 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 567
Abstract
As the global meat market moves to never frozen alternatives, meat processors seek opportunities for increasing the shelf life of fresh meats by combinations of proper cold chain management, barrier technologies, and antimicrobial interventions. The objective of this study was to determine the [...] Read more.
As the global meat market moves to never frozen alternatives, meat processors seek opportunities for increasing the shelf life of fresh meats by combinations of proper cold chain management, barrier technologies, and antimicrobial interventions. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of spray and dry chilling combined with hot water carcass treatments on the levels of microbial indicator organisms during the long-term refrigerated storage of beef cuts. Samples were taken using EZ-Reach™ sponge samplers with 25 mL buffered peptone water over a 100 cm2 area of the striploin. Sample collection was conducted before the hot carcass wash, after wash, and after the 24 h carcass chilling. Chilled striploins were cut into four sections, individually vacuum packaged, and stored to be sampled at 0, 45, 70, and 135 days (n = 200) of refrigerated storage and distribution. Aerobic plate counts, enterobacteria, Escherichia coli, coliforms, and psychrotroph counts were evaluated for each sample. Not enough evidence (p > 0.05) was found indicating the hot water wash intervention reduced bacterial concentration on the carcass surface. E. coli was below detection limits (<0.25 CFU/cm2) in most of the samples taken. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between coliform counts throughout the sampling dates. Feed type did not seem to influence the (p > 0.25) microbial load of the treatments. Even though no immediate effect was seen when comparing spray or dry chilling of the samples at day 0, as the product aged, a significantly lower (p < 0.05) concentration of aerobic and psychrotrophic organisms in dry-chilled samples could be observed when compared to their spray-chilled counterparts. Data collected can be used to select alternative chilling systems to maximize shelf life in vacuum packaged beef kept over prolonged storage periods. Full article
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Article
Multivariate Relationships among Carcass Traits and Proximate Composition, Lipid Profile, and Mineral Content of Longissimus lumborum of Grass-Fed Male Cattle Produced under Tropical Conditions
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1364; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061364 - 12 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 605
Abstract
Hierarchical cluster (HCA) and canonical correlation (CCA) analyses were employed to explore the multivariate relationships among chemical components (proximate, mineral and lipidic components) of lean beef longissimus dorsii lumborum (LDL) and selected carcass traits of cattle fattened on pasture under tropical conditions (bulls, [...] Read more.
Hierarchical cluster (HCA) and canonical correlation (CCA) analyses were employed to explore the multivariate relationships among chemical components (proximate, mineral and lipidic components) of lean beef longissimus dorsii lumborum (LDL) and selected carcass traits of cattle fattened on pasture under tropical conditions (bulls, n = 60; steers, n = 60; from 2.5 to 4.0 years of age, estimated by dentition). The variables backfat thickness (BFT), Ca, Mn, Cu, C14:0, C15:0, and C20:0 showed the highest coefficients of variation. Three clusters were defined by the HCA. Out of all carcass traits, only BFT differed significantly (p < 0.001) among clusters. Clusters significantly (p < 0.001) differed for total lipids (TLIPIDS), moisture, dry matter (DM), fatty acid composition, cholesterol content, and mineral composition (except for Fe). The variables that define the canonical variate “CARCASS” were BFT and degree of marbling (MARBLING). TLIPIDS was the main variable for the “PROXIMATE” canonical variate, while C16:0 and C18:1c had the most relevant contribution to the “LIPIDS” canonical variate. BFT and MARBLING were highly cross-correlated with TLIPIDS which, in turn, was significantly affected by the IM lipid content. Carcass traits were poorly correlated with mineral content. These findings allow for the possibility to develop selection criteria based on BFT and/or marbling to sort carcasses, from grass-fed cattle fattened under tropical conditions, with differing nutritional values. Further analyses are needed to study the effects of sex condition on the associations among carcass traits and lipidic components. Full article
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Article
Effect of UV-C Irradiation and Lactic Acid Application on the Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Lactic Acid Bacteria in Vacuum-Packaged Beef
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1217; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061217 - 28 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 839
Abstract
The objective of this study was to test the effect of the combined application of lactic acid (0–5%) (LA) and UV-C light (0–330 mJ/cm2) to reduce Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on beef without major meat color (L *, [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to test the effect of the combined application of lactic acid (0–5%) (LA) and UV-C light (0–330 mJ/cm2) to reduce Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on beef without major meat color (L *, a *, b *) change and its impact over time. A two-factor central composite design with five central points and response surface methodology (RSM) were used to optimize LA concentration and UV-C dose using 21 meat pieces (10 g) inoculated with L. monocytogenes (LM100A1). The optimal conditions were analyzed over 8 weeks. A quadratic model was obtained that predicted the L. monocytogenes log reduction in vacuum-packed beef treated with LA and UV-C. The maximum log reduction for L. monocytogenes (1.55 ± 0.41 log CFU/g) and LAB (1.55 ± 1.15 log CFU/g) with minimal impact on meat color was achieved with 2.6% LA and 330 mJ/cm2 UV-C. These conditions impaired L. monocytogenes growth and delayed LAB growth by 2 weeks in vacuum-packed meat samples throughout 8 weeks at 4 °C. This strategy might contribute to improving the safety and shelf life of vacuum-packed beef with a low impact on meat color. Full article
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Article
Carcass and Primal Composition Predictions Using Camera Vision Systems (CVS) and Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) Technologies on Mature Cows
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1118; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051118 - 18 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 475
Abstract
This study determined the potential of computer vision systems, namely the whole-side carcass camera (HCC) compared to the rib-eye camera (CCC) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology to predict primal and carcass composition of cull cows. The predictability (R2) of [...] Read more.
This study determined the potential of computer vision systems, namely the whole-side carcass camera (HCC) compared to the rib-eye camera (CCC) and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) technology to predict primal and carcass composition of cull cows. The predictability (R2) of the HCC was similar to the CCC for total fat, but higher for lean (24.0%) and bone (61.6%). Subcutaneous fat (SQ), body cavity fat, and retail cut yield (RCY) estimations showed a difference of 6.2% between both CVS. The total lean meat yield (LMY) estimate was 22.4% better for CCC than for HCC. The combination of HCC and CCC resulted in a similar prediction of total fat, SQ, and intermuscular fat, and improved predictions of total lean and bone compared to HCC/CCC. Furthermore, a 25.3% improvement was observed for LMY and RCY estimations. DXA predictions showed improvements in R2 values of 26.0% and 25.6% compared to the HCC alone or the HCC + CCC combined, respectively. These results suggest the feasibility of using HCC for predicting primal and carcass composition. This is an important finding for slaughter systems, such as those used for mature cattle in North America that do not routinely knife rib carcasses, which prevents the use of CCC. Full article
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Article
In-Plant Validation of Novel On-Site Ozone Generation Technology (Bio-Safe) Compared to Lactic Acid Beef Carcasses and Trim Using Natural Microbiota and Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 Surrogate Enumeration
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1002; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051002 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1073
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of an aqueous ozone (Bio-Safe) treatment and lactic acid solutions on natural microbiota and E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella surrogates on beef carcasses and trim in a commercial beef processing plant. For [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of an aqueous ozone (Bio-Safe) treatment and lactic acid solutions on natural microbiota and E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella surrogates on beef carcasses and trim in a commercial beef processing plant. For every repetition, 40 carcass and 40 trim swabs (500 cm2) were collected. Samples were taken using EZ-ReachTM swabs, and plated into aerobic plate count (APC), coliform, and E. coli PetrifilmTM for enumeration. In addition, a five-strain cocktail (MP-26) of E. coli surrogates was inoculated onto trim. For every trim surrogate repetition, 30 trim pieces were sampled after attachment and after ozone intervention. Samples were diluted and counts were determined using the TEMPO® system for E. coli enumeration. Ozone and lactic acid interventions significantly reduced (p < 0.003) bacterial counts in carcasses and trim samples. Moreover, lactic acid further reduced APC and coliforms in trim samples compared to ozone intervention (p < 0.009). In the surrogate trials, ozone significantly reduced (p < 0.001) surrogate concentration. Historical data from the plant revealed a reduction (p < 0.001) of presumptive E. coli O157:H7 in trim after a full year of ozone intervention implementation. The novel technology for ozone generation and application as an antimicrobial can become an alternative option that may also act synergistically with existing interventions, minimizing the risk of pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. Full article
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Article
Effect of Feeding Barley, Corn, and a Barley/Corn Blend on Beef Composition and End-Product Palatability
Foods 2021, 10(5), 977; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050977 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 572
Abstract
This study evaluated the relationship among palatability attributes, volatile compounds, and fatty acid (FA) profiles in meat from barley, corn, and blended (50:50, barley and corn) grain-fed steers. Multiple correspondence analysis with three dimensions (Dim) explained 62.2% of the total variability among samples. [...] Read more.
This study evaluated the relationship among palatability attributes, volatile compounds, and fatty acid (FA) profiles in meat from barley, corn, and blended (50:50, barley and corn) grain-fed steers. Multiple correspondence analysis with three dimensions (Dim) explained 62.2% of the total variability among samples. The Dim 1 and 2 (53.3%) separated pure from blended grain-fed beef samples. Blended grain beef was linked to a number of volatiles including (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, hexanal, 1-octen-3-ol, and 2,3-octanedione. In addition, blended grain-fed beef was linked to fat-like and rancid flavors, stale-cardboard, metallic, cruciferous, and fat-like aroma descriptors, and negative categories for flavor intensity (FI), off-flavor, and tenderness. A possible combination of linoleic and linolenic acids in the blended diet, lower rumen pH, and incomplete biohydrogenation of blended grain-fed polyunsaturates could have increased (p ≤ 0.05) long-chain n-6 fatty acids (LCFA) in blended grain-fed beef, leading to more accumulation of FA oxidation products in the blended than in barley and corn grain-fed meat samples. The Dim 3 (8.9%) allowed corn separation from barley grain beef. Barley grain-fed beef was mainly linked to alkanes and beef positive FI, whereas corn grain-fed beef was associated with pyrazines, in addition to aldehydes related to n-6 LCFA oxidation. Full article
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Article
Microbial Growth Study on Pork Loins as Influenced by the Application of Different Antimicrobials
Foods 2021, 10(5), 968; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10050968 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 654
Abstract
The use of antimicrobials in the pork industry is critical in order to ensure food safety and, at the same time, extend shelf life. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of antimicrobials on indicator bacteria on pork loins under [...] Read more.
The use of antimicrobials in the pork industry is critical in order to ensure food safety and, at the same time, extend shelf life. The objective of the study was to determine the impact of antimicrobials on indicator bacteria on pork loins under long, dark, refrigerated storage conditions. Fresh boneless pork loins (n = 36) were split in five sections and treated with antimicrobials: Water (WAT), Bovibrom 225 ppm (BB225), Bovibrom 500 ppm (BB500), Fit Fresh 3 ppm (FF3), or Washing Solution 750 ppm (WS750). Sections were stored for 1, 14, 28, and 42 days at 2–4 °C. Mesophilic and psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria (APC-M, APC-P), lactic acid bacteria (LAB-M), coliforms, and Escherichia coli were enumerated before intervention, after intervention, and at each storage time. All bacterial enumeration data were converted into log10 for statistical analysis, and the Kruskal–Wallis test was used to find statistical differences (p < 0.05). Initial counts did not differ between treatments, while, after treatment interventions, treatment WS750 did not effectively reduce counts for APC-M, APC-P, and coliforms (p < 0.01). BB500, FF3, and WS750 performed better at inhibiting the growth of indicator bacteria when compared with water until 14 days of dark storage. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Immersion and Spray Applications of Antimicrobial Treatments for Reduction of Campylobacter jejuni on Chicken Wings
Foods 2021, 10(4), 903; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040903 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 627
Abstract
The decontamination efficacy of antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wings was evaluated. Chicken wings surface-inoculated with C. jejuni (3.9 log colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were left untreated (control) or were treated by immersion (5 s) or in a spray cabinet (4 s) [...] Read more.
The decontamination efficacy of antimicrobial treatments against Campylobacter jejuni on chicken wings was evaluated. Chicken wings surface-inoculated with C. jejuni (3.9 log colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) were left untreated (control) or were treated by immersion (5 s) or in a spray cabinet (4 s) with water, a sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate blend (SSS; pH 1.2), formic acid (1.5%), peroxyacetic acid (PAA; 550 ppm), or PAA (550 ppm) that was pH-adjusted (acidified) with SSS (pH 1.2) or formic acid (1.5%). All evaluated immersion and spray chemical treatments effectively (p < 0.05) lowered C. jejuni populations on chicken wings. Spray application of chemical treatments resulted in immediate pathogen reductions ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 log CFU/mL, whereas their application by immersion lowered initial pathogen levels by 1.7 to 2.2 log CFU/mL. The PAA and acidified PAA treatments were equally (p ≥ 0.05) effective at reducing initial C. jejuni populations, however, following a 24 h refrigerated (4 °C) storage period, wings treated with acidified PAA had lower (p < 0.05) pathogen levels than samples that had been treated with PAA that was not acidified. Findings of this study should be useful to the poultry industry in its efforts to control Campylobacter contamination on chicken parts. Full article
Article
Quality of Chicken Fat by-Products: Lipid Profile and Colour Properties
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1046; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081046 - 03 Aug 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1418
Abstract
The growth in the production and consumption of chicken meat and related products is responsible for the formation a large number of by-products. Among these, abdominal and gizzard fat is usually considered as waste and thus is discarded, creating an environmental problem. This [...] Read more.
The growth in the production and consumption of chicken meat and related products is responsible for the formation a large number of by-products. Among these, abdominal and gizzard fat is usually considered as waste and thus is discarded, creating an environmental problem. This work aims to characterize chicken fat by-products, evaluating their lipid profile and colour properties for their potential use as fat sources in meat products in substitution of traditionally used fats. In addition, the role of farm location, keeping the feeding and other farmer routines fixed, in the lipid profile was also evaluated. “Parrilleros” Colombian chickens from three farms located in various geographical zones of the Antioquia region were selected. After slaughtering, abdominal and gizzard fat was obtained. Lipid profile was evaluated by gas chromatography and the CIELAB colour properties were assessed. The production results and the lipid profile of chicken fat by-products (abdominal and gizzard fat) was similar in the three farms studied, which is important for their potential application as fat source in the formulation of meat products. The predominant fatty acids were oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids, showing a higher amount of unsaturated fatty acids than the fat sources traditionally used for this purpose. Valorization of chicken by-products by the use of abdominal and gizzard fat as fat source in chicken meat products formulation could be a feasible alternative contributing to the poultry sector sustainability. Full article
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Review

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Review
Tropical Beef: Is There an Axiomatic Basis to Define the Concept?
Foods 2021, 10(5), 1025; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10051025 - 09 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 702
Abstract
Cattle production in tropical regions has been estimated to account for just over half of cattle worldwide, yet it has not been demonstrated that sufficient similarities in the cattle exist to describe tropical cattle and, even less so, to characterize the meat from [...] Read more.
Cattle production in tropical regions has been estimated to account for just over half of cattle worldwide, yet it has not been demonstrated that sufficient similarities in the cattle exist to describe tropical cattle and, even less so, to characterize the meat from these animals. The aim of this review is to investigate the quality and nutrient composition of meat from cattle raised in the Tropics to determine if there is an axiomatic basis that would allow the definition of a concept of “tropical beef”. Tropical beef is the meat obtained from cattle raised in tropical environments, the population of which remains largely uncharacterized. Production systems in the Tropics are highly diverse but converge on the use of indigenous and Bos indicus breeds or Bos indicus-influenced crossbreeds under pasture feeding regimes. While some systems allow cattle to be slaughtered at ≤2 years of age, most often animals are ≥3 years. These production systems generally produce lean, low-yielding carcasses and tough (>46 N), lean (≤3.6% intramuscular fat) meat with a macronutrient composition otherwise similar to beef from animals raised elsewhere (72–74% moisture and 20–24% protein). Fatty acid profiles depend on the breed and production systems, while mineral content is influenced by the environment. Although lean and tough, tropical beef is highly acceptable to the consumers it serves, is culturally and traditionally relevant and, in many countries, contributes to food security. Consolidating the findings from animal and meat science studies in the Tropics has allowed the demonstration of an axiomatic basis defining “tropical beef” as a concept. Full article
Review
Enhancing the Nutritional Value of Red Meat through Genetic and Feeding Strategies
Foods 2021, 10(4), 872; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040872 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 798
Abstract
Consumption of red meat contributes to the intake of many essential nutrients in the human diet including protein, essential fatty acids, and several vitamins and trace minerals, with high iron content, particularly in meats with high myoglobin content. Demand for red meat continues [...] Read more.
Consumption of red meat contributes to the intake of many essential nutrients in the human diet including protein, essential fatty acids, and several vitamins and trace minerals, with high iron content, particularly in meats with high myoglobin content. Demand for red meat continues to increase worldwide, particularly in developing countries where food nutrient density is a concern. Dietary and genetic manipulation of livestock can influence the nutritional value of meat products, providing opportunities to enhance the nutritional value of meat. Studies have demonstrated that changes in livestock nutrition and breeding strategies can alter the nutritional value of red meat. Traditional breeding strategies, such as genetic selection, have influenced multiple carcass and meat quality attributes relevant to the nutritional value of meat including muscle and fat deposition. However, limited studies have combined both genetic and nutritional approaches. Future studies aiming to manipulate the composition of fresh meat should aim to balance potential impacts on product quality and consumer perception. Furthermore, the rapidly emerging fields of phenomics, nutrigenomics, and integrative approaches, such as livestock precision farming and systems biology, may help better understand the opportunities to improve the nutritional value of meat under both experimental and commercial conditions. Full article
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