Special Issue "Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Javier Carballo
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Food Technology Area, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain
Interests: food quality; functional foods; fermented foods; meat products; meat product innovation; dairy products; cheese ripening
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sausages are one of the oldest processed foods known to man. Several hundreds of varieties of sausages are produced worldwide with outstanding social and economic relevance. Each local variety within each sausage type (raw, cooked, or raw and fermented/ripened) reflects the availability of raw materials, the climate conditions of each geographical environment, the cultural and religious conditionings, and the ancestral manufacture knowledge transmitted through generations. Some sausage varieties are still unknown regarding their microbiological and biochemical features, or their production processes are insufficiently standardized. In other cases, there are safety or quality concerns that must be solved so that these sausages can be enjoyed to the fullest of their potential. The improvement of the sensory quality and/or the adaptation of their sensory and nutritional properties to changes in consumer preferences and requirements, all without sacrificing the personality and differential attributes of each sausage variety is in all cases a permanent challenge. For all these reasons further studies and research are essential instruments to improve and continue enjoying these privileged foods. This volume aims to gather the latest advances and to be a useful tool for the researchers and professionals in this scientific area.

Prof. Javier Carballo
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • Additives
  • adjunct cultures
  • chemical features
  • cooked sausages
  • fermented sausages
  • ingredients
  • microbiological features
  • nutritional quality
  • raw sausages
  • ripened sausages
  • safety
  • sausage manufacture
  • spices
  • starter cultures
  • sensorial quality

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement
Foods 2021, 10(4), 890; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040890 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 508
Abstract
Sausages are one of the oldest processed foods known to man [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)

Research

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Article
Biochemical Changes during the Manufacture of Galician Chorizo Sausage as Affected by the Addition of Autochthonous Starter Cultures
Foods 2020, 9(12), 1813; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9121813 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 586
Abstract
In this work, the effect of the use of two autochthonous starter cultures (Lactobacillus sakei LS131 + Staphylococcus equorum SA25 (EQU), or L. sakei LS131 + Staphylococcus saprophyticus SB12 (SAP)) on the physicochemical, microbiological, proteolytic and lipolytic changes taking place during the [...] Read more.
In this work, the effect of the use of two autochthonous starter cultures (Lactobacillus sakei LS131 + Staphylococcus equorum SA25 (EQU), or L. sakei LS131 + Staphylococcus saprophyticus SB12 (SAP)) on the physicochemical, microbiological, proteolytic and lipolytic changes taking place during the manufacture of Galician chorizo, a traditional Spanish sausage, was studied. Three different batches (control (CNT), EQU and SAP) were manufactured in triplicate and analysed during the manufacturing process (samples were taken and analysed at 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21 and 30 days of ripening) for proximate composition, pH, aw, colour parameters, nitrogen fractions, free amino acids, biogenic amines, fat parameters and free fatty acids. The use of either of these two starter cultures slightly but significantly reduced the pH values during the fermentation and increased the percentage of transformation to nitrosyl-heme pigments as well as the a* and b* values in the final products. The two starters significantly decreased the Enterobacteriaceae counts in the final product, but without this microbial group completely disappearing. Both starter cultures significantly increased the α-amino acidic nitrogen and the total basic volatile nitrogen fractions during manufacturing, also increasing the free amino acid content and reducing the total biogenic amine content by approximately 20%. The SAP starter enhanced the lipolytic processes, increasing the free fatty acid content. Due to their performances, these two starter cultures seem to be suitable for increasing the quality and safety of the Galician chorizo sausage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Inclusion of Healthy Oils for Improving the Nutritional Characteristics of Dry-Fermented Deer Sausage
Foods 2020, 9(10), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9101487 - 18 Oct 2020
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 1480
Abstract
The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the [...] Read more.
The influence of partial replacement of animal fat by healthy oils on composition, physicochemical, volatile, and sensory properties of dry-fermented deer sausage was evaluated. Four different batches were manufactured: the control was formulated with animal fat (18.2%), while in the reformulated batches the 50% of animal fat was substituted by olive, canola, and soy oil emulsions immobilized in Prosella gel. The reformulation resulted in a decrease of moisture and fat contents and an increase of protein and ash amount. Moreover, reformulated sausages were harder, darker, and had higher pH values. This fact is related to the lower moisture content in these samples. As expected, the fatty acid composition was changed by the reformulation. The use of soy and canola oils increased polyunsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 content and decreased n-6/n-3 ratio and saturated fatty acids. Thus, the use of these two oils presented the best nutritional benefits. The changes observed in the fatty acids reflected the fatty acid composition of the oils employed in the emulsions. Regarding volatile compounds (VOC), the replacement of animal fat by healthy emulsion gels increased the content of both total VOC and most of individual VOC. However, the lipid-derived VOC did not show this trend. Generally speaking, the control samples presented similar or higher VOC derived from lipid oxidation processes, which could be related to the natural antioxidant compounds present in the vegetable oils. Finally, all reformulated sausages presented higher consumer acceptability than control samples. In fact, the sausage reformulated with soy oil emulsion gel was the most preferred. Thus, as a general conclusion, the reformulation of deer sausages with soy emulsion gel improves both composition and sensory quality of the final product, which could be an excellent strategy to the elaboration of healthy fermented sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Application of a High-Throughput Amplicon Sequencing Method to Chart the Bacterial Communities that Are Associated with European Fermented Meats from Different Origins
Foods 2020, 9(9), 1247; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9091247 - 07 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 895
Abstract
Insight into the microbial species diversity of fermented meats is not only paramount to gain control over quality development, but also to better understand the link with processing technology and geographical origin. To study the composition of the microbial communities, the use of [...] Read more.
Insight into the microbial species diversity of fermented meats is not only paramount to gain control over quality development, but also to better understand the link with processing technology and geographical origin. To study the composition of the microbial communities, the use of culture-independent methods is increasingly popular but often still suffers from drawbacks, such as a limited taxonomic resolution. This study aimed to apply a previously developed high-throughput amplicon sequencing (HTS) method targeting the 16S rRNA and tuf genes to characterize the bacterial communities in European fermented meats in greater detail. The data obtained broadened the view on the microbial communities that were associated with the various products examined, revealing the presence of previously underreported subdominant species. Moreover, the composition of these communities could be linked to the specificities of individual products, in particular pH, salt content, and geographical origin. In contrast, no clear links were found between the volatile organic compound profiles of the different products and the country of origin, distinct processing conditions, or microbial communities. Future application of the HTS method offers the potential to further unravel complex microbial communities in fermented meats, as well as to assess the impact of different processing conditions on microbial consortia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Metabolism of Lactobacillus sakei Chr82 in the Presence of Different Amounts of Fermentable Sugars
Foods 2020, 9(6), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060720 - 02 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Lactobacillus sakei is widely used as a starter culture in fermented sausages since it is well adapted to meat environments and able to maintain high viability thanks to secondary pathways activated when hexoses are depleted (i.e., metabolism of pentoses and amino acids). In [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus sakei is widely used as a starter culture in fermented sausages since it is well adapted to meat environments and able to maintain high viability thanks to secondary pathways activated when hexoses are depleted (i.e., metabolism of pentoses and amino acids). In this study, a commercial strain of L. sakei was inoculated in a defined medium with ribose or glucose as the carbon source, at optimal or reduced concentrations, to evaluate its different physiological and metabolic responses in relation to different growth conditions. The results obtained with different approaches (HPLC, 1H-NMR, flow cytometry) evidenced different growth performances, amino acid consumptions and physiological states of cells in relation to the carbon source as an active response to harsh conditions. As expected, higher concentrations of sugars induced higher growth performances and the accumulation of organic acids. The low sugars amount induced the presence of dead cells, while injured cells increased with ribose. Arginine was the main amino acid depleted, especially in the presence of higher ribose, and resulted in the production of ornithine. Moreover, the 1H-NMR analysis evidenced a higher consumption of serine at the optimal sugars concentration (pyruvate production). This information can be helpful to optimize the use of these species in the industrial production of fermented sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Technological Characterisation of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Cultures for Dry Fermented Sausages
Foods 2020, 9(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050596 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate probiotic microorganisms for use as starter cultures in dry fermented sausages production. A total of eight strains were studied evaluating technological and safety characteristics including the ability to grow, lactic acid production, gas formation, catalase [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate probiotic microorganisms for use as starter cultures in dry fermented sausages production. A total of eight strains were studied evaluating technological and safety characteristics including the ability to grow, lactic acid production, gas formation, catalase activity, nitrate reductase activity, proteolytic activity, lipolytic activity, hydrogen peroxide production, salt tolerance, performance at low temperatures, decarboxylation of amino acids and antimicrobial activity against pathogens associated with the product. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011, L. rhamnosus Lr-32, Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 were good candidates for use as fermented sausages starters cultures because they showed the best technological and safety properties since they did not demonstrate amino acid decarboxylation but showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Dublin and Staphylococcus aureus. L. rhamnosus Lr-32 was the strain best tolerating the levels of salt, nitrate and low pH during the simulated stages of fermentation and ripening of sausage. The strain was thus the most promising of the tested probiotics as sausage starter culture. The findings warrant studies in a meat matrix, such as that of raw-cured sausage, to evaluate the effects of L. rhamnosus Lr-32 under actual conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
Article
Fat Inclusion Level, NaCl Content and LAB Starter Cultures in the Manufacturing of Italian-Type Ostrich Salami: Weight Loss and Nutritional Traits
Foods 2020, 9(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040476 - 10 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The experiment studied the effect of two different fat inclusion levels (30% and 40%), NaCl contents (2.4 and 2.6%) and starter cultures (lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 6: L. curvatus/S. xylosus; LAB 8: L. sakei/S. xylosus) on the [...] Read more.
The experiment studied the effect of two different fat inclusion levels (30% and 40%), NaCl contents (2.4 and 2.6%) and starter cultures (lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 6: L. curvatus/S. xylosus; LAB 8: L. sakei/S. xylosus) on the weight loss and nutritional composition of Italian-type ostrich salami. With this purpose, 8 batches of 9 salami each (n = 72) were prepared. Salami were ripened for 20 weeks: weight loss was monitored throughout the experiment, while salami nutritional composition was evaluated at 10 and 20 weeks of ripening. The lowest fat and highest salt inclusion levels provided the highest cumulative weight loss throughout the trial. At 10 weeks of ripening, salami with 40% fat were the richest in moisture and fat, whereas the leanest ones had the highest protein, ash and cholesterol contents. LAB 6 provided salami with the highest moisture and protein, while LAB 8 increased fat and cholesterol contents. At 20 weeks of ripening the proximate composition of ostrich salami was solely affected by fat inclusion level, with similar findings to those observed at 10 weeks. Overall, fat inclusion level had a great impact on the weight loss and nutritional composition of Italian-style ostrich salami. Reducing the NaCl inclusion from 2.6% to 2.4%, the weight loss of ostrich salami was retarded by approximately 1 week, without affecting the nutritional composition of the final product. Results of the study suggested that it is feasible to produce salami with lower fat and salt contents, while ensuring satisfactory product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Mango Peel Pectin by Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Its Use as Fat Replacement in Dried Chinese Sausage
Foods 2020, 9(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040450 - 07 Apr 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP; 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w)) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved [...] Read more.
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP; 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w)) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with a structure of greater porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) indicated that the extracted MPP gave similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were assessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the intensity of redness and yellowness in sausage increased. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n = 12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively incorporated in the formula at low level to replace fat in Chinese sausage, allowing colour improvement and production of a healthier option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Lactic Acid Bacteria: Variability Due to Different Pork Breeds, Breeding Systems and Fermented Sausage Production Technology
Foods 2020, 9(3), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030338 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Changes in the ecology of the various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which are involved in traditional fermented sausages, were investigated in the light of the use of different breeds of pork, each of which was raised in two different environments and processed [...] Read more.
Changes in the ecology of the various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which are involved in traditional fermented sausages, were investigated in the light of the use of different breeds of pork, each of which was raised in two different environments and processed using two different technologies. The semi-quantitative molecular method was applied in order to understand how the different species alternate over time, as well as their concentration ratios. A significant increase in LAB over the first days of fermentation characterized the trials where the starter culture wasn’t added (T), reaching values of 107–108 cfu g−1. On the other hand, in the trials in which sausages were produced with starter addition, LAB counts had a less significant incremental jump from about 106 cfu g−1 (concentration of the inoculum) to 108 cfu g−1. Lactobacillus sakei and Lb. curvatus were detected as the prevalent population in all the observed fermentations. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lb. casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garviae, and Lb. graminis also appeared, but their concentration ratios varied depending on the diverse experimental settings. The results of cluster analysis showed that a plant- and breed-specific LAB ecology exists. In addition, it was also observed that the breeding system can influence the presence of certain LAB species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Dry-Cured Meat Products According to the Smoking Regime: Process Optimization to Control Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Foods 2020, 9(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010091 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
The manufacturing of dry-cured meat products usually includes a smoking step. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic chemical compounds that may result from smoking. The aim of the present study was to optimize the smoking regime of traditional dry-cured meat products in [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of dry-cured meat products usually includes a smoking step. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic chemical compounds that may result from smoking. The aim of the present study was to optimize the smoking regime of traditional dry-cured meat products in order to minimize the presence of PAHs. Dry-cured sausages were submitted to different smoking regimes: (A) no smoking; (B) 20 h effective smoking; (C) 60 h effective smoking; (D) effective smoking until reaching 38%–40% weight losses. Three independent batches were produced per smoking regime, and three samples per batch were analyzed. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory analyses were performed. The total PAHs content was generally low and did not differ significantly in meat products submitted to the four different smoking regimes. The PAH4 and benzo(α)pyrene levels were below the established legal limits in all analyzed dry-cured sausages. Nevertheless, non-smoked sausages always showed lower PAHs values for all PAHs groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Article
Punica granatum and Citrus spp. Extract Mix Affects Spoilage Microorganisms Growth Rate in Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages Made from Pork Meat, Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.)
Foods 2019, 8(12), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120664 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Sausage made from pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was integrated with a mix of Punica granatum and Citrus spp. extracts to evaluate the possible effects on the growth and [...] Read more.
Sausage made from pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was integrated with a mix of Punica granatum and Citrus spp. extracts to evaluate the possible effects on the growth and oxidation of spoilage microorganisms. Two concentrations of the mix were added, respectively, during sausage-making, and the final products were compared with a control group, without the extract mix, during storage. The use of the mix, especially at 10 g/1000 g of the whole ingredients, delayed the pH drop and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) value during storage. Total viable count, lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic microbial counts were also affected, as the extract mix lowered the maximum growth rate of the microbial population considered. The sensory analyses revealed an improvement in the shelf-life of 6 and 16 days, respectively, when 5‰ and 10‰ of the mix were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Review

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Review
Safety, Quality and Analytical Authentication of ḥalāl Meat Products, with Particular Emphasis on Salami: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081111 - 13 Aug 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1361
Abstract
Only some animal species could be transformed into ḥalāl salami and the raw meat must be obtained from ritually slaughtered animals. Several scientific studies have been conducted on ritual slaughtering practices and manufacturing of meat products for Jewish and Muslim religious communities; furthermore, [...] Read more.
Only some animal species could be transformed into ḥalāl salami and the raw meat must be obtained from ritually slaughtered animals. Several scientific studies have been conducted on ritual slaughtering practices and manufacturing of meat products for Jewish and Muslim religious communities; furthermore, many projects have been funded by the European Community on this topic. The authenticity and traceability of meat is one of the priorities of ḥalāl food certification systems. The pig matrix (meat and/or lard) may be fraudulently present in ḥalāl processed meat, as well as salami, for both economic and technological purposes; in fact, the use of these raw materials reflects the easier availability and their lower cost; furthermore, it allows manufacturers to obtain final products with better quality (sensory properties) and stability (especially with respect to oxidative reactions). The aim of this review is to discuss the qualitative and technological aspects of ḥalāl raw meat for dry fermented sausages (salami); moreover, this study focuses on the most recent studies carried out on the certification system and on the analytical methods performed in order to solve problems such as fraud and adulteration of ḥalāl salami and other halal meat foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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