Special Issue "Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Meat".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Javier Carballo
Website
Guest Editor
Food Technology Area, Faculty of Science, University of Vigo, Ourense, Spain
Interests: food quality; functional foods; fermented foods; meat products; meat product innovation; dairy products; cheese ripening
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sausages are one of the oldest processed foods known to man. Several hundreds of varieties of sausages are produced worldwide with outstanding social and economic relevance. Each local variety within each sausage type (raw, cooked, or raw and fermented/ripened) reflects the availability of raw materials, the climate conditions of each geographical environment, the cultural and religious conditionings, and the ancestral manufacture knowledge transmitted through generations. Some sausage varieties are still unknown regarding their microbiological and biochemical features, or their production processes are insufficiently standardized. In other cases, there are safety or quality concerns that must be solved so that these sausages can be enjoyed to the fullest of their potential. The improvement of the sensory quality and/or the adaptation of their sensory and nutritional properties to changes in consumer preferences and requirements, all without sacrificing the personality and differential attributes of each sausage variety is in all cases a permanent challenge. For all these reasons further studies and research are essential instruments to improve and continue enjoying these privileged foods. This volume aims to gather the latest advances and to be a useful tool for the researchers and professionals in this scientific area.

Prof. Javier Carballo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Additives
  • adjunct cultures
  • chemical features
  • cooked sausages
  • fermented sausages
  • ingredients
  • microbiological features
  • nutritional quality
  • raw sausages
  • ripened sausages
  • safety
  • sausage manufacture
  • spices
  • starter cultures
  • sensorial quality

Published Papers (8 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Metabolism of Lactobacillus sakei Chr82 in the Presence of Different Amounts of Fermentable Sugars
Foods 2020, 9(6), 720; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060720 - 02 Jun 2020
Abstract
Lactobacillus sakei is widely used as a starter culture in fermented sausages since it is well adapted to meat environments and able to maintain high viability thanks to secondary pathways activated when hexoses are depleted (i.e., metabolism of pentoses and amino acids). In [...] Read more.
Lactobacillus sakei is widely used as a starter culture in fermented sausages since it is well adapted to meat environments and able to maintain high viability thanks to secondary pathways activated when hexoses are depleted (i.e., metabolism of pentoses and amino acids). In this study, a commercial strain of L. sakei was inoculated in a defined medium with ribose or glucose as the carbon source, at optimal or reduced concentrations, to evaluate its different physiological and metabolic responses in relation to different growth conditions. The results obtained with different approaches (HPLC, 1H-NMR, flow cytometry) evidenced different growth performances, amino acid consumptions and physiological states of cells in relation to the carbon source as an active response to harsh conditions. As expected, higher concentrations of sugars induced higher growth performances and the accumulation of organic acids. The low sugars amount induced the presence of dead cells, while injured cells increased with ribose. Arginine was the main amino acid depleted, especially in the presence of higher ribose, and resulted in the production of ornithine. Moreover, the 1H-NMR analysis evidenced a higher consumption of serine at the optimal sugars concentration (pyruvate production). This information can be helpful to optimize the use of these species in the industrial production of fermented sausages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Technological Characterisation of Probiotic Lactic Acid Bacteria as Starter Cultures for Dry Fermented Sausages
Foods 2020, 9(5), 596; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9050596 - 07 May 2020
Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate probiotic microorganisms for use as starter cultures in dry fermented sausages production. A total of eight strains were studied evaluating technological and safety characteristics including the ability to grow, lactic acid production, gas formation, catalase [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to investigate probiotic microorganisms for use as starter cultures in dry fermented sausages production. A total of eight strains were studied evaluating technological and safety characteristics including the ability to grow, lactic acid production, gas formation, catalase activity, nitrate reductase activity, proteolytic activity, lipolytic activity, hydrogen peroxide production, salt tolerance, performance at low temperatures, decarboxylation of amino acids and antimicrobial activity against pathogens associated with the product. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011, L. rhamnosus Lr-32, Lactobacillus paracasei Lpc-37, Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 were good candidates for use as fermented sausages starters cultures because they showed the best technological and safety properties since they did not demonstrate amino acid decarboxylation but showed antimicrobial activity against Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Dublin and Staphylococcus aureus. L. rhamnosus Lr-32 was the strain best tolerating the levels of salt, nitrate and low pH during the simulated stages of fermentation and ripening of sausage. The strain was thus the most promising of the tested probiotics as sausage starter culture. The findings warrant studies in a meat matrix, such as that of raw-cured sausage, to evaluate the effects of L. rhamnosus Lr-32 under actual conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
Open AccessArticle
Fat Inclusion Level, NaCl Content and LAB Starter Cultures in the Manufacturing of Italian-Type Ostrich Salami: Weight Loss and Nutritional Traits
Foods 2020, 9(4), 476; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040476 - 10 Apr 2020
Abstract
The experiment studied the effect of two different fat inclusion levels (30% and 40%), NaCl contents (2.4 and 2.6%) and starter cultures (lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 6: L. curvatus/S. xylosus; LAB 8: L. sakei/S. xylosus) on the [...] Read more.
The experiment studied the effect of two different fat inclusion levels (30% and 40%), NaCl contents (2.4 and 2.6%) and starter cultures (lactic acid bacteria (LAB) 6: L. curvatus/S. xylosus; LAB 8: L. sakei/S. xylosus) on the weight loss and nutritional composition of Italian-type ostrich salami. With this purpose, 8 batches of 9 salami each (n = 72) were prepared. Salami were ripened for 20 weeks: weight loss was monitored throughout the experiment, while salami nutritional composition was evaluated at 10 and 20 weeks of ripening. The lowest fat and highest salt inclusion levels provided the highest cumulative weight loss throughout the trial. At 10 weeks of ripening, salami with 40% fat were the richest in moisture and fat, whereas the leanest ones had the highest protein, ash and cholesterol contents. LAB 6 provided salami with the highest moisture and protein, while LAB 8 increased fat and cholesterol contents. At 20 weeks of ripening the proximate composition of ostrich salami was solely affected by fat inclusion level, with similar findings to those observed at 10 weeks. Overall, fat inclusion level had a great impact on the weight loss and nutritional composition of Italian-style ostrich salami. Reducing the NaCl inclusion from 2.6% to 2.4%, the weight loss of ostrich salami was retarded by approximately 1 week, without affecting the nutritional composition of the final product. Results of the study suggested that it is feasible to produce salami with lower fat and salt contents, while ensuring satisfactory product quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Mango Peel Pectin by Microwave-Assisted Extraction and Its Use as Fat Replacement in Dried Chinese Sausage
Foods 2020, 9(4), 450; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9040450 - 07 Apr 2020
Abstract
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP; 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w)) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved [...] Read more.
In this research, low-fat dried Chinese sausage was formulated with mango peel pectin (MPP; 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% (w/w)) extracted by microwave assisted extraction (MAE). The extractable yield of pectin attained from peel of Nam Dok Mai variety was achieved at 13.85% using 700-watt power. The extracted MPP were of high equivalent weight (1485.78 mg/mol), degree esterification (77.19%) and methoxyl content (19.33%) with a structure of greater porosity as compared to that of the conventional method. Spectrum scans by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FT-IR) indicated that the extracted MPP gave similar wave number profiles as the commercial pectin. Quality attributes of the Chinese sausages were assessed and compared with the control formula (CTRL). At higher concentrations of MPP, the intensity of redness and yellowness in sausage increased. The texture profile of the sausage illustrated that only the hardness value was comparable with the CTRL, while springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were statistically lower (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the sensory evaluation by experienced panellists (n = 12) indicated that 5% MPP similarly represented overall acceptability with the CTRL. Consequently, MPP can be effectively incorporated in the formula at low level to replace fat in Chinese sausage, allowing colour improvement and production of a healthier option. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Lactic Acid Bacteria: Variability Due to Different Pork Breeds, Breeding Systems and Fermented Sausage Production Technology
Foods 2020, 9(3), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9030338 - 13 Mar 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Changes in the ecology of the various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which are involved in traditional fermented sausages, were investigated in the light of the use of different breeds of pork, each of which was raised in two different environments and processed [...] Read more.
Changes in the ecology of the various lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species, which are involved in traditional fermented sausages, were investigated in the light of the use of different breeds of pork, each of which was raised in two different environments and processed using two different technologies. The semi-quantitative molecular method was applied in order to understand how the different species alternate over time, as well as their concentration ratios. A significant increase in LAB over the first days of fermentation characterized the trials where the starter culture wasn’t added (T), reaching values of 107–108 cfu g−1. On the other hand, in the trials in which sausages were produced with starter addition, LAB counts had a less significant incremental jump from about 106 cfu g−1 (concentration of the inoculum) to 108 cfu g−1. Lactobacillus sakei and Lb. curvatus were detected as the prevalent population in all the observed fermentations. Pediococcus pentosaceus, Lb. casei, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus garviae, and Lb. graminis also appeared, but their concentration ratios varied depending on the diverse experimental settings. The results of cluster analysis showed that a plant- and breed-specific LAB ecology exists. In addition, it was also observed that the breeding system can influence the presence of certain LAB species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Dry-Cured Meat Products According to the Smoking Regime: Process Optimization to Control Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Foods 2020, 9(1), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9010091 - 15 Jan 2020
Cited by 3
Abstract
The manufacturing of dry-cured meat products usually includes a smoking step. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic chemical compounds that may result from smoking. The aim of the present study was to optimize the smoking regime of traditional dry-cured meat products in [...] Read more.
The manufacturing of dry-cured meat products usually includes a smoking step. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are potentially carcinogenic chemical compounds that may result from smoking. The aim of the present study was to optimize the smoking regime of traditional dry-cured meat products in order to minimize the presence of PAHs. Dry-cured sausages were submitted to different smoking regimes: (A) no smoking; (B) 20 h effective smoking; (C) 60 h effective smoking; (D) effective smoking until reaching 38%–40% weight losses. Three independent batches were produced per smoking regime, and three samples per batch were analyzed. Microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory analyses were performed. The total PAHs content was generally low and did not differ significantly in meat products submitted to the four different smoking regimes. The PAH4 and benzo(α)pyrene levels were below the established legal limits in all analyzed dry-cured sausages. Nevertheless, non-smoked sausages always showed lower PAHs values for all PAHs groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Open AccessArticle
Punica granatum and Citrus spp. Extract Mix Affects Spoilage Microorganisms Growth Rate in Vacuum-Packaged Cooked Sausages Made from Pork Meat, Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.) and Hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.)
Foods 2019, 8(12), 664; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods8120664 - 10 Dec 2019
Cited by 5
Abstract
Sausage made from pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was integrated with a mix of Punica granatum and Citrus spp. extracts to evaluate the possible effects on the growth and [...] Read more.
Sausage made from pork meat, emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schübler), almond (Prunus dulcis Mill.), and hazelnut (Corylus avellana L.) was integrated with a mix of Punica granatum and Citrus spp. extracts to evaluate the possible effects on the growth and oxidation of spoilage microorganisms. Two concentrations of the mix were added, respectively, during sausage-making, and the final products were compared with a control group, without the extract mix, during storage. The use of the mix, especially at 10 g/1000 g of the whole ingredients, delayed the pH drop and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs) value during storage. Total viable count, lactic acid bacteria and psychrotrophic microbial counts were also affected, as the extract mix lowered the maximum growth rate of the microbial population considered. The sensory analyses revealed an improvement in the shelf-life of 6 and 16 days, respectively, when 5‰ and 10‰ of the mix were used. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Safety, Quality and Analytical Authentication of ḥalāl Meat Products, with Particular Emphasis on Salami: A Review
Foods 2020, 9(8), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9081111 - 13 Aug 2020
Abstract
Only some animal species could be transformed into ḥalāl salami and the raw meat must be obtained from ritually slaughtered animals. Several scientific studies have been conducted on ritual slaughtering practices and manufacturing of meat products for Jewish and Muslim religious communities; furthermore, [...] Read more.
Only some animal species could be transformed into ḥalāl salami and the raw meat must be obtained from ritually slaughtered animals. Several scientific studies have been conducted on ritual slaughtering practices and manufacturing of meat products for Jewish and Muslim religious communities; furthermore, many projects have been funded by the European Community on this topic. The authenticity and traceability of meat is one of the priorities of ḥalāl food certification systems. The pig matrix (meat and/or lard) may be fraudulently present in ḥalāl processed meat, as well as salami, for both economic and technological purposes; in fact, the use of these raw materials reflects the easier availability and their lower cost; furthermore, it allows manufacturers to obtain final products with better quality (sensory properties) and stability (especially with respect to oxidative reactions). The aim of this review is to discuss the qualitative and technological aspects of ḥalāl raw meat for dry fermented sausages (salami); moreover, this study focuses on the most recent studies carried out on the certification system and on the analytical methods performed in order to solve problems such as fraud and adulteration of ḥalāl salami and other halal meat foods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sausages: Nutrition, Safety, Processing and Quality Improvement)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Title: Impact of geographically linked processing of European fermented meats on bacterial diversity through high-throughput amplicon sequencing and assessment of concomitant volatile profiles
Authors: Emiel Van Reckem; Stefan Weckx; Luc De Vuyst; Frédéric Leroy
Affiliation: Research Group of Industrial Microbiology and Food Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences and Bio-engineering Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium

Title: Lactic acid bacteria: variability due to different pork breeds, breeding systems and sausage production technology.
Authors: Giuseppe Comi1; Alessia Muzzin1; Daria Boscolo2; Lucilla Iacumin1*
Affiliation: 1Department of Agriculture, Food, Environmental and Animal Science , University of Udine, via Sondrio 2/A, 33100 Udine, Italy. 2Dipartimento di Prevenzione AAS n°2, “Bassa Friulana Isontina”, via Molin 21, 33057 Palmanova, Udine, Italy.

Title: Inclusion of healthier oils for improving the nutritional characteristics of deer sausage
Authors: Marcio Vargas-Ramella; Mirian Pateiro; Mohammed Gagaoua; Daniel Franco; Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol; Paulo E. S. Munekata; Andrea C.Silva Barretto; Rubén Domínguez; José M Lorenzo
Affiliation: Centro de Educação Superior da Região Sul - CERES da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Chapecó, Santa Catarina, 89.800-000, Brazil; Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, Rúa Galicia Nº 4, Parque Tecnológico de Galicia, San Cibrao das Viñas, 32900 Ourense, Spain; Food Quality and Sensory Science Department, Teagasc Ashtown Food Research Centre, Ashtown, Dublin 15, Ireland Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97105-900, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil; Department of Food Technology and Engineering, UNESP – São Paulo State University, Street Cristóvão Colombo, 2265, Zip Code 15054-000, São José do Rio Preto, SP, Brazil.

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