Special Issue "Bioactive Compounds in Foods: Characterization, Properties and Health Benefits"

A special issue of Foods (ISSN 2304-8158). This special issue belongs to the section "Food Physics and (Bio)Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2021).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Kwang-Geun Lee
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Dongguk University, 32 Dongguk-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang, Korea
Interests: analysis of volatiles; toxicant analysis

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioactive compounds, including low molecular weight volatile compounds, phytochemicals (phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids, and terpenes), and probiotics, have numerous health-promoting properties beyond basic nutrition and have been investigated for potential roles in disease control or prevention. For example, natural medicinal plants have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-tumor, and anti-viral effects, and have been widely used as a medication source since ancient times. This field of research has become vital area in both the food and pharmaceutical industries. It is clear that the successful application of bioactive compounds in functional foods, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals is a significant area of research.

Prof. Dr. Kwang-Geun Lee
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • bioactive compounds
  • volatiles
  • phytochemicals
  • phenolics
  • flavonoids
  • terpenes
  • probiotics
  • analysis
  • new assay method
  • structure–function study
  • characterization
  • functional ingredients
  • biological activities

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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Article
Effects of Neohesperidin Dihydrochalcone (NHDC) on Oxidative Phosphorylation, Cytokine Production, and Lipid Deposition
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1408; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061408 - 18 Jun 2021
Viewed by 175
Abstract
The sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a precursor for anthocyanins and has been reported to have various bioactivities, including antioxidant and hepatitis inhibitory effects. However, its inflammatory functions and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In this study, RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were [...] Read more.
The sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) is a precursor for anthocyanins and has been reported to have various bioactivities, including antioxidant and hepatitis inhibitory effects. However, its inflammatory functions and mechanisms of action are poorly understood. In this study, RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were treated with NHDC and its metabolite dihydrocaffeic acid (DHCA), after which cytokine production and mitochondrial respiration were assessed. DHCA significantly down-regulated the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, NHDC had a marginal effect, suggesting that the biological metabolism of NHDC to DHCA is required for its anti-inflammatory function. However, both NHDC and DHCA rescued LPS-induced suppression of oxidative phosphorylation, which is a hallmark of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. 3T3-L1 adipocytes showed lower fat deposition in the presence of DHCA, while sugar-containing NHDC showed a slight increase in fat deposition. In high-fat diet-induced obese mice, treatment with NHDC successfully down-regulated body weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, M2 polarized bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) from NHDC-fed mice secreted an increased amount of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Overall, these results indicate that NHDC and its physiological metabolite DHCA have the potential to suppress the inflammatory response and obese status. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Volatile Compounds in Coffee Prepared by Various Brewing and Roasting Methods
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1347; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061347 - 10 Jun 2021
Viewed by 368
Abstract
Volatile compounds of coffee brewed under various roasting conditions and by different brewing methods were analyzed. Green coffee beans (Coffea arabica) were roasted at 235 °C for 13 min, 240 °C for 15 min, and 245 °C for 17 min. Roasted [...] Read more.
Volatile compounds of coffee brewed under various roasting conditions and by different brewing methods were analyzed. Green coffee beans (Coffea arabica) were roasted at 235 °C for 13 min, 240 °C for 15 min, and 245 °C for 17 min. Roasted coffee beans were ground into particles of three different sizes (710, 500, and 355 μm) and brewed by an espresso coffee machine and the cold brew method. Three types of water (filtered, tap, and bottled) were used for coffee extraction. SPME-GC-MS results indicated that increasing the roasting temperature and time increased the levels of 2,2′-methylene-bis-furan, guaiacol, and 4-ethylguaiacol (p < 0.05) and decreased the levels of furfural (p < 0.05). Grind size was inversely proportional to the measured signal of volatiles by GC-MS (p < 0.05). The measured GC/MS intensities of 2-methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol were significantly higher in coffee brewed with filtered water (p < 0.05) than tap and bottled water. 2-Methylpyrazine, 1-methylpyrrole, and 2-acetylfuran were the most abundant components in the cold brew. Overall, roasting conditions and extraction methods were determined to be significant factors for volatile compounds in coffee. This is the first study showing the analysis of volatile compounds in coffee according to various types of water and extraction methods, such as espresso and cold brew coffee. Full article
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Article
Effects of the Addition of Herbs on the Properties of Doenjang
Foods 2021, 10(6), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10061307 - 07 Jun 2021
Viewed by 285
Abstract
Three types of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, were prepared by adding coriander (CR), Korean mint (KM), and peppermint (PM) and compared to the control group (CN) by studying their metabolite profiles and antioxidant activities followed by different fermentation periods (1, 30, and [...] Read more.
Three types of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste, were prepared by adding coriander (CR), Korean mint (KM), and peppermint (PM) and compared to the control group (CN) by studying their metabolite profiles and antioxidant activities followed by different fermentation periods (1, 30, and 150 days, respectively). The primary metabolome was analyzed by GC-TOF-MS, and 36 of metabolites were identified in four types of doenjang samples (CN, CR, KM, and PM). Samples were clustered based on the herb type and fermentation period in PCA and PLS-DA analysis. For the secondary metabolome analysis, UHPLC-Q-orbitrap-MS was used, and 26 metabolites were identified. The statistical analysis showed that the samples were clustered by herb type rather than fermentation period, and the samples containing KM and PM were located in the same group. The DPPH assay showed that PM-containing doenjang had the highest antioxidant activity. Correlation analysis indicated that organic acids such as lactic acid, malonic acid, succinic acid, uracil, vanillic acid, and quinic acid showed positive correlation with the DPPH activity. Overall, our results demonstrated that incorporating herbs in doenjang during fermentation caused significant shifts (p-value < 0.05) in the doenjang metabolites and antioxidant activity. Hence, herbs could be utilized for enhancing doenjang fermentation. Full article
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Article
Organic Black Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) from Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, Present More Phenolic Compounds and Better Nutritional Profile Than Nonorganic
Foods 2021, 10(4), 900; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040900 - 19 Apr 2021
Viewed by 568
Abstract
Brazil is the world’s third largest common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) producer, and 60% of its population consumes this legume. Although organic farming is a sustainable alternative to nonorganic agriculture, its effect on chemical composition is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of [...] Read more.
Brazil is the world’s third largest common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) producer, and 60% of its population consumes this legume. Although organic farming is a sustainable alternative to nonorganic agriculture, its effect on chemical composition is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate differences in the nutritional and phenolic compounds profiles between organically and nonorganically produced Brazilian black beans. Samples were obtained from the same harvest periods and from near geographical locations at metropolitan and coastal regions of Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. No residues of 294 evaluated pesticides were detected in the samples. In both regions, organic beans had 17% fewer lipids, 10% less phytate and 20% more proteins when compared to nonorganic ones. Sixteen different phenolic compounds were identified as soluble and insoluble forms in black beans, with anthocyanins being the most abundant (on average, 66%). In both regions, soluble and total phenolic compounds contents in organic beans were consistently higher (on average, 25% and 28%, respectively) than in nonorganic ones. Our results show that organic farming improves the nutritional profile and increases the phenolic compounds content of black beans. Full article
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Article
Nutritional, Phytochemical Characteristics and In Vitro Effect on α-Amylase, α-Glucosidase, Lipase, and Cholinesterase Activities of 12 Coloured Carrot Varieties
Foods 2021, 10(4), 808; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040808 - 09 Apr 2021
Viewed by 505
Abstract
Twelve carrot varieties with different colours (purple, orange, yellow, and white) and sizes (normal, mini, and micro) were analysed for prospective health benefits (activities against diabetes-, obesity-, and aging- related enzymes—α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, acetylocholinesterase, and butyrylocholinesterase, respectively) and nutritional contents (polyphenols, carotenoids, and [...] Read more.
Twelve carrot varieties with different colours (purple, orange, yellow, and white) and sizes (normal, mini, and micro) were analysed for prospective health benefits (activities against diabetes-, obesity-, and aging- related enzymes—α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase, acetylocholinesterase, and butyrylocholinesterase, respectively) and nutritional contents (polyphenols, carotenoids, and chlorophylls). The conducted studies showed that the highest content of total polyphenols was observed in different sizes of purple carrots. The normal yellow and mini orange carrots demonstrated the highest content of carotenoids. According to the study results, the mini purple carrot showed the highest activities against diabetes-related enzyme (α-glucosidase); furthermore, the highest activities of cholinesterase inhibitors were observed for micro purple carrot. Nevertheless, normal orange carrot exhibited the highest activity against lipase. The results of the present study showed that purple-coloured carrot samples of different sizes (normal, mini, and micro) exhibited attractive nutritional contents. However, their pro-health effects (anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, anti-aging) should not be seen in the inhibition of amylase, glucosidase, lipase, and cholinesterase. Probably the mechanisms of their action are more complex, and the possible health-promoting effect results from the synergy of many compounds, including fibre, phytochemicals, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, it would be worth continuing research on different varieties of carrots. Full article
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Article
Unique Metabolic Profiles of Korean Rice According to Polishing Degree, Variety, and Geo-Environmental Factors
Foods 2021, 10(4), 711; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10040711 - 26 Mar 2021
Viewed by 465
Abstract
The precise determination of the chemical composition in crops is important to identify their nutritional and functional value. The current study performed a systematic delineation of the rice metabolome, an important staple in Asia, to investigate the following: (1) comparative features between brown [...] Read more.
The precise determination of the chemical composition in crops is important to identify their nutritional and functional value. The current study performed a systematic delineation of the rice metabolome, an important staple in Asia, to investigate the following: (1) comparative features between brown and white rice; (2) variety-specific composition (Ilpum vs. Odae); and (3) cultivation of region-dependent metabolic content. Global metabolic profiling and data-driven statistics identified the exclusive enrichment of compounds in brown rice compared to white rice. Next, the authors investigated a variety-governed metabolic phenotype among various geo-environmental factors. Odae, the early-ripening cultivar, showed higher contents of most chemicals compared to the late-ripening cultivar, Ilpum. The authors identified regional specificity for cultivation among five areas in Korea which were characterized by polishing degree and cultivar type. Finally, the current study proposes a possible linkage of the region-specific metabolic signatures to soil texture and total rainfall. In addition, we found tryptophan metabolites that implied the potential for microbe–host interactions that may influence crop metabolites. Full article
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Article
Antioxidant Capacity and Phenolic and Sugar Profiles of Date Fruits Extracts from Six Different Algerian Cultivars as Influenced by Ripening Stages and Extraction Systems
Foods 2021, 10(3), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10030503 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 293
Abstract
The study investigated the phenols, sugar and the antioxidant capacities of date fruit extracts obtained by organic solvents and by hydrothermal treatment from six different Algerian cultivars at two ripening stages for the first time. The analyzed cultivars exhibited potent antioxidant properties (ferric [...] Read more.
The study investigated the phenols, sugar and the antioxidant capacities of date fruit extracts obtained by organic solvents and by hydrothermal treatment from six different Algerian cultivars at two ripening stages for the first time. The analyzed cultivars exhibited potent antioxidant properties (ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) scavenging capacities) and different phenols regardless of the solvents and the maturity stages. About 18 phenols were identified and quantified, mainly in the hydrothermal extracts. The earlier stages were characterized by high amounts of o-coumaric acid, cinnamic acid and luteolin, with a noticeable absence of quercetin. The tamr stage presented the highest sugar content (78.15–86.85 mg/100 mg dry weight (DW)) with an abundance of glucose. Galactose was present only in some cultivars from the kimri stage (tamjouhert). Uronic acids were mostly detected at the tamr stage (4.02–8.82 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 mg dried weight). The obtained results highlight the potential of using date fruit extracts as natural antioxidants, especially at industrial scales that tend use hydrothermal extraction. Full article
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Article
Perilla frutescens Leaf Extract and Fractions: Polyphenol Composition, Antioxidant, Enzymes (α-Glucosidase, Acetylcholinesterase, and Tyrosinase) Inhibitory, Anticancer, and Antidiabetic Activities
Foods 2021, 10(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10020315 - 03 Feb 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 796
Abstract
This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and [...] Read more.
This study aims to evaluate the bioactive components, in vitro bioactivities, and in vivo hypoglycemic effect of P. frutescens leaf, which is a traditional medicine-food homology plant. P. frutescens methanol crude extract and its fractions (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol fractions, and aqueous phase residue) were prepared by ultrasound-enzyme assisted extraction and liquid–liquid extraction. Among the samples, the ethyl acetate fraction possessed the high total phenolic (440.48 μg GAE/mg DE) and flavonoid content (455.22 μg RE/mg DE), the best antioxidant activity (the DPPH radical, ABTS radical, and superoxide anion scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power were 1.71, 1.14, 2.40, 1.29, and 2.4 times higher than that of control Vc, respectively), the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory ability with the IC50 value of 190.03 μg/mL which was 2.2-folds higher than control acarbose, the strongest proliferative inhibitory ability against MCF-7 and HepG2 cell with the IC50 values of 37.92 and 13.43 μg/mL, which were considerable with control cisplatin, as well as certain inhibition abilities on acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase. HPLC analysis showed that the luteolin, rosmarinic acid, rutin, and catechin were the dominant components of the ethyl acetate fraction. Animal experiments further demonstrated that the ethyl acetate fraction could significantly decrease the serum glucose level, food, and water intake of streptozotocin-induced diabetic SD rats, increase the body weight, modulate their serum levels of TC, TG, HDL-C, and LDL-C, improve the histopathology and glycogen accumulation in liver and intestinal tissue. Taken together, P. frutescens leaf exhibits excellent hypoglycemic activity in vitro and in vivo, and could be exploited as a source of natural antidiabetic agent. Full article
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Article
Physicochemical Properties and Antioxidant Activity of Pumpkin Polysaccharide (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret) Modified by Subcritical Water
Foods 2021, 10(1), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010197 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 875
Abstract
In this paper, subcritical water (SCW) was applied to modify pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret) polysaccharides, and the properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin polysaccharides were investigated. SCW treatments at varying temperature led to changes in the rheological and emulsifying properties [...] Read more.
In this paper, subcritical water (SCW) was applied to modify pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne ex Poiret) polysaccharides, and the properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin polysaccharides were investigated. SCW treatments at varying temperature led to changes in the rheological and emulsifying properties of pumpkin polysaccharides. SCW treatments efficiently degraded pumpkin polysaccharides and changed the molecular weight distribution. Decreases in intrinsic viscosity, viscosity-average molecular weight, and apparent viscosity were also observed, while the activation energy and flow behavior indices increased. The temperature of SCW treatment has a great influence on the linear viscoelastic properties and antioxidant activity of pumpkin polysaccharides. Pumpkin polysaccharides solution treated by SCW at 150 °C exhibited the highest emulsifying activity and antioxidant activity, which was probably due to a broader molecular mass distribution and more reducing ends exposed after treatment. Scanning electron microscopy showed that SCW treatment changed the microstructure of pumpkin polysaccharides, resulting in the exposure of bigger surface area. Our results suggest that SCW treatment is an effective approach to modify pumpkin polysaccharides to achieve improved solution properties and antioxidant activity. Full article
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Article
Metabolomic Approach for Characterization of Polyphenolic Compounds in Laminaria japonica, Undaria pinnatifida, Sargassum fusiforme and Ascophyllum nodosum
Foods 2021, 10(1), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010192 - 19 Jan 2021
Viewed by 677
Abstract
Profiling of polyphenolics in four types of brown macroalgae, namely Laminaria japonica (L. japonica), Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida), Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme), and Ascophyllum nodosum (A. nodosum), and their effect on oxidation resistance were investigated [...] Read more.
Profiling of polyphenolics in four types of brown macroalgae, namely Laminaria japonica (L. japonica), Undaria pinnatifida (U. pinnatifida), Sargassum fusiforme (S. fusiforme), and Ascophyllum nodosum (A. nodosum), and their effect on oxidation resistance were investigated for the first time. Polyphenolic extracts from marine brown macroalgae were shown to effectively remove oxidants from cells and cellular systems. A. nodosum showed the highest antioxidant activity among evaluated brown macroalgae, showing a better scavenging effect on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and alleviating oxidative damage caused by hydrogen peroxide to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) cells. Through Q-Exactive HF-X mass spectrometry analysis, 12 polyphenolic compounds were preliminarily identified, including phlorotannins, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. Significant differences in content and variety of polyphenolics were found in evaluated brown macroalgae, which could be related to differences in antioxidant activity in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, the antioxidant activity might be related to the total phenolic content and the types of polyphenolics, especially phlorotannins. The findings presented in this study indicate that A. nodosum could be used as an important substitute for functional ingredients in foods and pharmaceutical preparations, as well as a raw material for phlorotannins research. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Different Types of SPME Arrow Sorbents to Analyze Volatile Compounds in Cirsium setidens Nakai
Foods 2020, 9(6), 785; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060785 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1007
Abstract
Cirsium setidens Nakai is a perennial plant extensively used as food in Korea. Various reports have illustrated the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities; however, little is known about the volatile compounds present in this plant. Here, a novel [...] Read more.
Cirsium setidens Nakai is a perennial plant extensively used as food in Korea. Various reports have illustrated the presence of phytochemicals with antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities; however, little is known about the volatile compounds present in this plant. Here, a novel solid-phase microextraction (SPME) Arrow method was performed to extract and analyze volatile compounds from freeze-dried Cirsium setidens Nakai. Four types of SPME Arrows coated with films, such as carbon wide range/polydimethylsiloxane, divinylbenzene/polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane, and polyacrylate were evaluated to identify the most suitable Arrow. The carbon wide range/polydimethylsiloxane Arrow was found to exhibit high affinity for the volatile compounds present in Cirsium setidens Nakai. A total of 58 volatile compounds were identified. The major compounds were 2-Pentylfuran, 1-Methylcycloheptanol, 1-Penten-3-ol, 2,2,4,6,6-Pentamethylheptane, 2,3,6,7-Tetramethyloctane, 5-Ethyl-2,2,3-trimethylheptane, 3,5-Octadien-2-one, β-Cyclocitral, and trans-β-Ionone. The present study demonstrates that the SPME Arrow coated with the carbon wide range/polydimethylsiloxane film is suitable for the analytical profiling of volatile compounds present in Cirsium setidens Nakai. Full article
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Article
Interaction between Myricetin Aggregates and Lipase under Simplified Intestinal Conditions
Foods 2020, 9(6), 777; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9060777 - 11 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 770
Abstract
Myricetin, a flavonoid found in the plant kingdom, has previously been identified as a food molecule with beneficial effects against obesity. This property has been related with its potential to inhibit lipase, the enzyme responsible for fat digestion. In this study, we investigate [...] Read more.
Myricetin, a flavonoid found in the plant kingdom, has previously been identified as a food molecule with beneficial effects against obesity. This property has been related with its potential to inhibit lipase, the enzyme responsible for fat digestion. In this study, we investigate the interaction between myricetin and lipase under simplified intestinal conditions from a colloidal point of view. The results show that myricetin form aggregates in aqueous medium and under simplified intestinal condition, where it was found that lipase is in its monomeric form. Although lipase inhibition by myricetin at a molecular level has been reported previously, the results of this study suggest that myricetin aggregates inhibit lipase by a sequestering mechanism as well. The size of these aggregates was determined to be in the range of a few nm to >200 nm. Full article
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Review

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Review
Recovery of Phytochemicals via Electromagnetic Irradiation (Microwave-Assisted-Extraction): Betalain and Phenolic Compounds in Perspective
Foods 2020, 9(7), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/foods9070918 - 12 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Food colorants processed via agro-industrial wastes are in demand as food waste management becomes vital not only for its health benefits but also for cost reduction through waste valorization. Huge efforts have been made to recover valuable components from food wastes and applied [...] Read more.
Food colorants processed via agro-industrial wastes are in demand as food waste management becomes vital not only for its health benefits but also for cost reduction through waste valorization. Huge efforts have been made to recover valuable components from food wastes and applied in various fields to prove their versatility rather than for feed ruminant usage only. Betalains and phenolics, antioxidant-rich compounds responsible for host color and so commonly used as natural colorants in food and cosmetic industries, are copiously present in several kinds of fruits and vegetables as well as their wastes. Technological innovation has brought extensive convenient ways of bioactive compounds extraction with many advantages like less use of solvents and energy in a short period of processing time in comparison with the classical solid–liquid extraction methods. Emerging technologies, particularly microwave irradiation, have been amenable to electromagnetic technology for decades. Practically, they have been deployed for functional and supplement food production. In this review, the feasibility of dielectric heating (microwave irradiation) in the extraction of betalain and phenolic compounds mostly from fruit and vegetable wastes was discussed. Full article
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