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Dent. J., Volume 7, Issue 2 (June 2019)

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Open AccessCommentary
Delivering Mobile Dentistry to the Geriatric Population—The Future of Dentistry
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020062 - 04 Jun 2019
Viewed by 766
Abstract
The human population throughout the world is aging rapidly, and will require the adoption of new modes of dental practice to address the special needs of this demographic. These are some of the reflections of my decade of providing mobile dentistry to geriatric [...] Read more.
The human population throughout the world is aging rapidly, and will require the adoption of new modes of dental practice to address the special needs of this demographic. These are some of the reflections of my decade of providing mobile dentistry to geriatric patients. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Spectrophotometric Determination of the Aggregation Activity of Platelets in Platelet-Rich Plasma for Better Quality Control
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020061 - 03 Jun 2019
Viewed by 766
Abstract
Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is now widely used in regenerative medicine and dentistry, contradictory clinical outcomes have often been obtained. To minimize such differences and to obtain high quality evidence from clinical studies, the PRP preparation protocol needs to be standardized. In addition, [...] Read more.
Although platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is now widely used in regenerative medicine and dentistry, contradictory clinical outcomes have often been obtained. To minimize such differences and to obtain high quality evidence from clinical studies, the PRP preparation protocol needs to be standardized. In addition, emphasis must be placed on quality control. Following our previous spectrophotometric method of platelet counting, in this study, another simple and convenient spectrophotometric method to determine platelet aggregation activity has been developed. Citrated blood samples were collected from healthy donors and used. After centrifugation twice, platelets were suspended in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced aggregation was determined using a spectrophotometer at 615 nm. For validation, platelets pretreated with aspirin, an antiplatelet agent, or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), an oxidative stress-inducing agent, were also analyzed. Optimal platelet concentration, assay buffer solution, and representative time point for determination of aggregation were found to be 50–100 × 104/μL, PBS, and 3 min after stimulation, respectively. Suppressed or injured platelets showed a significantly lower aggregation response to ADP. Therefore, it suggests that this spectrophotometric method may be useful in quick chair-side evaluation of individual PRP quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft and Hard Tissue Regeneration)
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Open AccessArticle
Anorexia, Oral Health and Antioxidant Salivary System: A Clinical Study on Adult Female Subjects
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020060 - 01 Jun 2019
Viewed by 736
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the oral health status and salivary antioxidant system between patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. A total of 25 female AN patients and 25 matched healthy controls were enrolled. Clinical parameters and [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to compare the oral health status and salivary antioxidant system between patients diagnosed with anorexia nervosa (AN) and healthy controls. A total of 25 female AN patients and 25 matched healthy controls were enrolled. Clinical parameters and saliva samples were collected for each patient. Two questionnaires to investigate oral health and hygiene were administered. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity and High Reactive Oxygen Species (hROS) were evaluated. Salivary concentration of SOD was significantly higher in subjects with AN compared with control group (1.010 ± 0.462 vs. 0.579 ± 0.296 U/mL; p = 0.0003). No significant differences between groups were identified for hROS (233.72 ± 88.27 vs. 199.49 ± 74.72; p = 0.15). Data from questionnaires indicated that, although most of the patients recognized the oral hygiene importance in maintaining a good oral health, more than half of them had poor oral hygiene. Altered biochemical composition of saliva in patients with AN could be interpreted as an effective defence mechanism against oxidative stress. Moreover, despite the discrepancy between clinical findings and perception of the oral health in AN population arose, the quality of life of these patients appears not to be significantly affected by their dental condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Microbiome in Human Health and Disease)
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Open AccessCommunication
Salivary Cortisol Levels in Patients with Oral Lichen Planus—A Pilot Case-Control Study
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020059 - 01 Jun 2019
Viewed by 652
Abstract
It is known that cortisol level increases in stress situations. The aim of the study was to measure the levels of salivary cortisol in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and healthy controls. This was a case-control pilot study which included seven patients [...] Read more.
It is known that cortisol level increases in stress situations. The aim of the study was to measure the levels of salivary cortisol in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP) and healthy controls. This was a case-control pilot study which included seven patients with reticular (non-symptomatic) OLP, eight patients with atrophic/erosive (symptomatic) OLP, and nine healthy controls. We hypothesized that patients with an atrophic/erosive type of OLP have higher levels of cortisol compared to patients with the reticular type of OLP and healthy controls. In each participant, unstimulated saliva was collected in order to determine cortisol levels by using commercially available ELISA kit. Our results have shown no differences between levels of salivary cortisol in OLP patients and healthy controls. We can conclude that further research with a larger number of OLP patients is needed to determine the correlation between OLP and stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Medicine)
Open AccessArticle
Effect of Dietary Fiber on the Composition of the Murine Dental Microbiome
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020058 - 01 Jun 2019
Viewed by 709
Abstract
The oral cavity houses a diverse consortium of microorganisms, heavily influenced by host diet, that can mediate dental health and disease. While the impact of dietary carbohydrates to the dental microbiome has been well-documented, the effect of fiber as a mechanical influence on [...] Read more.
The oral cavity houses a diverse consortium of microorganisms, heavily influenced by host diet, that can mediate dental health and disease. While the impact of dietary carbohydrates to the dental microbiome has been well-documented, the effect of fiber as a mechanical influence on the dental microbiome is unexplored. We performed 16S rRNA gene analysis to investigate the response of the dental microbiome to the presence of increased fiber in terms of microbial taxonomic abundance and diversity. Dental microbial community structure was significantly different in mice fed a diet supplemented with increased fiber and/or sugar. Fiber significantly affected measures of beta diversity at the phylum and genus levels, and a strong interactive effect on alpha diversity was observed between sugar and fiber at the phylum level. The addition of fiber also induced significant variation in relative taxonomic abundance. This study demonstrates that fiber can promote significant variations in the mouse dental microbiome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health to Global Health: Impact of Nutrition)
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Open AccessReview
Role of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography in the Management of Periodontal Disease
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020057 - 01 Jun 2019
Viewed by 923
Abstract
The goal of this paper was to review the current literature surrounding the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) related to the diagnosis, prognostic determination, and treatment of periodontal diseases. A literature review was completed to identify peer-reviewed articles related to CBCT [...] Read more.
The goal of this paper was to review the current literature surrounding the use of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) related to the diagnosis, prognostic determination, and treatment of periodontal diseases. A literature review was completed to identify peer-reviewed articles related to CBCT and periodontics. The results were filtered to pool only articles specific to CBCT and periodontal diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment/outcomes. The articles were reviewed and findings summarized. Author’s commentary on technological advances and additional potential uses of CBCT in the field of periodontics were included. There is evidence to suggest that CBCT imaging can be more accurate in diagnosing specific periodontal defects (intrabony and furcation defects), and therefore be helpful in the prognostic determination and treatment planning. However, at this time, CBCT cannot be recommended as the standard of care. It is up to the individual clinician to use one’s own judgment as to when the additional information provided by CBCT may be beneficial, while applying the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. With continued technological advances in CBCT imaging (higher resolution, reduced imaging artifacts, lower exposure, etc.) the author’s believe that CBCT usage will become more prominent in diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Science in Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
An Overview of Different Interdental Cleaning Aids and Their Effectiveness
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020056 - 01 Jun 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Optimisation of plaque control is essential for the success of non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. This cannot be achieved with brushing alone; hence, there is a need for adjunctive interdental cleaning aids. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of [...] Read more.
Optimisation of plaque control is essential for the success of non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. This cannot be achieved with brushing alone; hence, there is a need for adjunctive interdental cleaning aids. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of different interdental cleaning aids and review the literature for consensus on their effectiveness. A literature search of articles in English, up to December 2018, was conducted in Pubmed. High-quality flossing is difficult to achieve, and ineffective routine use of floss may not confer significant benefits over brushing alone. Interdental brushes are more effective than brushing as a monotherapy. They are at least as good if not superior to floss in reducing plaque and gingivitis. Although they are effective for patients regardless of their periodontal status (healthy or active), they are especially indicated in periodontal patients where widened embrasures are common. Added benefits include ease of use, patient acceptance, and recontouring of interdental tissues. Rubberpiks do not demonstrate inferiority to conventional interdental brushes. Wooden interdental aids appear to offer no significant advantage over brushing with respect to plaque removal; they may, however, reduce gingival bleeding. Oral irrigators are a promising tool for reducing gingival inflammation, despite minimal changes to plaque levels. For cleaning around dental implants, oral irrigators and interdental brushes are preferred over floss. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Periodontal Therapy)
Open AccessCase Report
Idiopathic Exposed Bone Lesions of the Jaw
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020055 - 01 Jun 2019
Viewed by 661
Abstract
Introduction: Osteonecrosis of the jaw is defined as exposed bone in the oral cavity that does not heal longer than eight weeks after identification. The two most common predisposing factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw are medication-related and radiotherapy. Rarely, exposed bone in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Osteonecrosis of the jaw is defined as exposed bone in the oral cavity that does not heal longer than eight weeks after identification. The two most common predisposing factors for osteonecrosis of the jaw are medication-related and radiotherapy. Rarely, exposed bone in the maxillofacial region can occur due to other causes and represents a clinical and therapeutic challenge for the dentist because there is no universally accepted treatment protocol. Case presentation: We report a case of a patient with two idiopathic lesions of exposed bone which have healed after systemic antibiotic therapy, seven weeks after the first examination. Conclusion: Exposed bone lesions of the jaw are a rare entity and are poorly documented in the literature. It is necessary to exclude possible local or systemic contributing factors. Surgical and conservative therapy (antibiotics) are the treatment of choice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Medicine)
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Open AccessComment
Reply to Comment—Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Myeloma Patients Receiving Denosumab or Zoledronic Acid. Comment on Pivotal Trial by Raje et al. Published in Lancet Oncology
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020054 - 16 May 2019
Viewed by 710
Abstract
We read the comment by Fusco et al [...] Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Photobiomodulation Therapy in the Treatment of Chronic Dysphagia Post Hormonal Therapy in a Breast Cancer Patient
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020053 - 13 May 2019
Viewed by 682
Abstract
Among the few supportive care measures available for the management of dysphagia, Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, defined as the therapeutic use of light, has shown significant promise. In this case report, effective management of chronic dysphagia post hormonal therapy in a breast cancer patient [...] Read more.
Among the few supportive care measures available for the management of dysphagia, Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy, defined as the therapeutic use of light, has shown significant promise. In this case report, effective management of chronic dysphagia post hormonal therapy in a breast cancer patient was made. Experts in the supportive care in cancer and PBM proposed and requested further investigations of the protocol used in this case report in the management of dysphagia. In this case report, the protocol of PBM was proposed by experts in supportive care in cancer. Functional outcome swallowing scale for staging oropharyngeal dysphagia was used to assess the effectiveness of the treatment in pre-operative, per and post-operative stage. This case reports that PBM is effective in the management of dysphagia, a side effect of hormonal therapy in a cancer patient. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photobiomodulation)
Open AccessReview
Cone Beam Computed Tomography in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: An Evidence-Based Review
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020052 - 02 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 959
Abstract
Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a valuable imaging technique in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) that can help direct a surgeon’s approach to a variety of conditions. A 3-dimensional analysis of head and neck anatomy allows practitioners to plan appropriately, operate with [...] Read more.
Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) is a valuable imaging technique in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) that can help direct a surgeon’s approach to a variety of conditions. A 3-dimensional analysis of head and neck anatomy allows practitioners to plan appropriately, operate with confidence, and assess results post-operatively. CBCT imaging has clear indications and limitations. CBCT offers the clinician 3-dimensional and multi-planar views for a more accurate diagnosis and treatment without the financial burden and radiation exposure of conventional computed tomography (CT) scans. Furthermore, CBCT overcomes certain limitations of 2-dimensional imaging, such as distortion, magnification, and superimposition. However, CBCT lacks the detailed depiction of soft tissue conditions for evaluation of pathologic conditions, head and neck infections, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc evaluation. This review evaluates the evidence-based research supporting the application of CBCT in the various fields of oral and maxillofacial surgery, including dentoalveolar surgery, dental implants, TMJ, orthognathic surgery, trauma, and pathology, and will assess the value of CBCT in pre-operative assessment, surgical planning, and post-operative analysis when applicable. Additionally, the significant limitations of CBCT and potential areas for future research will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Science in Dentistry)
Open AccessReview
Brief Motivational Interviewing in Dental Practice
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020051 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 844
Abstract
Motivational Interviewing has been demonstrated to be effective for a wide range of health behaviors. It is an effective behavior change method, which can be utilized in the dental practice setting. It can be used as a brief intervention to increase motivation to [...] Read more.
Motivational Interviewing has been demonstrated to be effective for a wide range of health behaviors. It is an effective behavior change method, which can be utilized in the dental practice setting. It can be used as a brief intervention to increase motivation to improve patients’ oral hygiene behaviors as well as providing a framework for delivering diet, smoking cessation, oral health changes, and alcohol advice. It involves four processes: engaging, focusing, evoking, and planning, guiding, which supports the patient towards a positive behavior change. Motivational Interviewing is a collaborative, patient-centered approach evoking the patient’s own motivation to change, thereby enhancing the relationship between the clinician and patient and improving patient outcomes. This review will provide an overview on the topic for dental professionals as well as helpful suggestions for supporting a positive behavior change in their dental practices. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report
Comparison of Two-Dimensional and Three-Dimensional Radiographs Using Clinically Relevant Parameters
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020050 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 724
Abstract
This work compared the assessment of clinically relevant parameters by two-dimensional, that is, full-mouth intraoral radiograph (I-O) and panoramic radiograph (OPT), and three-dimensional, that is, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), imaging methods. Different radiographic images (CBCT, I-O and OPT) were available for a [...] Read more.
This work compared the assessment of clinically relevant parameters by two-dimensional, that is, full-mouth intraoral radiograph (I-O) and panoramic radiograph (OPT), and three-dimensional, that is, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), imaging methods. Different radiographic images (CBCT, I-O and OPT) were available for a 53-year-old female patient with dental and periodontal problems. A total of 14 dental and periodontal parameters were assessed by two independent examiners and compared among the three radiographic imaging modalities. For 10 parameters (71%), the CBCT images were superior to both I-O and OPT images. In contrast, CBCT demonstrated an inferior performance compared to I-O and OPT in the assessment of caries and dental restorations. Compared to OPT, I-O provided more clinically relevant findings for 10 out of 14 parameters (71%). Agreement between I-O and OPT was found with respect to dehiscence, fenestration, the number of bone walls and the root canal cross-section. Differences between the radiographic images were more likely to be detected when maxillary teeth rather than mandibular teeth were assessed with regard to furcation involvement, root proximity and root fusion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Imaging Science in Dentistry)
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Open AccessReview
The Association between Tooth Loss and Alzheimer’s Disease: a Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis of Case Control Studies
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020049 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Alzheimer’s disease is classified as a neurodegenerative condition, a heterogeneous group of illnesses characterized by the slow and progressive loss of one or more functions of the nervous system. Its incidence tends to increase gradually from 65 years of age, up to a [...] Read more.
Alzheimer’s disease is classified as a neurodegenerative condition, a heterogeneous group of illnesses characterized by the slow and progressive loss of one or more functions of the nervous system. Its incidence tends to increase gradually from 65 years of age, up to a prevalence of 4% at age 75. The loss of dental elements is more prevalent in this population and might negatively affect the masticatory capacity, quality of life, and pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. This study investigated problems related to oral health and the loss of dental elements in elderly patients suffering from Alzheimer’s and considered whether local inflammatory processes could affect the etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. The purpose of this systematic review is to identify a link between the causes leading to tooth loss and the onset/progression of Alzheimer’s disease. We also studied whether there is a higher incidence of tooth loss (primary outcome) and edentulism (secondary outcome) among Alzheimer’s patients. We searched records in electronic databases such as PubMed, EBSCO, and Web of Science using the following keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease AND periodontal, Alzheimer’s Disease AND periodontitis, dementia AND (periodontitis OR periodontal) “Alzheimer’s Disease” AND “tooth” OR “dental loss,” “dementia” AND “edentulous,” “Alzheimer’s Disease” AND “edentulous,” “dementia” AND “tooth” OR “dental loss.” The records were screened, and after applying the eligibility and inclusion criteria, nine articles were left, six of which were analyzed for the primary outcome (loss of dental elements) and six for the secondary outcome (tooth loss). Results from this meta-analysis revealed that Alzheimer’s disease patients have an increased risk of dental loss (hazard ratio (HR) 1.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00–2.30, p = 0.05) and edentulous condition (HR 2.26, 95% CI 1.70–3.01, p < 0.001). A quantitative analysis of the included studies indicated that patients suffering from Alzheimer’s disease are characterized by a greater number of lost dental elements and general edentulism compared to the control groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Hygiene and Epidemiology Volume 2)
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Open AccessArticle
Differential MicroRNA Expression of miR-21 and miR-155 within Oral Cancer Extracellular Vesicles in Response to Melatonin
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020048 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 989
Abstract
Objective: Extracellular vesicles derived from oral cancer cells, which include Exosomes and Oncosomes, are membranous vesicles secreted into the surrounding extracellular environment. These extracellular vesicles can regulate and modulate oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression through the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules including [...] Read more.
Objective: Extracellular vesicles derived from oral cancer cells, which include Exosomes and Oncosomes, are membranous vesicles secreted into the surrounding extracellular environment. These extracellular vesicles can regulate and modulate oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) progression through the horizontal transfer of bioactive molecules including proteins, lipids and microRNA (miRNA). The primary objective of this study was to examine the potential to isolate and evaluate extracellular vesicles (including exosomes) from various oral cancer cell lines and to explore potential differences in miRNA content. Methods: The OSCC cell lines SCC9, SCC25 and CAL27 were cultured in DMEM containing 10% exosome-free fetal bovine serum. Cell-culture conditioned media was collected for exosome and extracellular vesicle isolation after 72 h. Isolation was completed using the Total Exosome Isolation reagent (Invitrogen) and extracellular vesicle RNA was purified using the Total Exosome RNA isolation kit (Invitrogen). Extracellular vesicle miRNA content was evaluated using primers specific for miR-16, -21, -133a and -155. Results: Extracellular vesicles were successfully isolated from all three OSCC cell lines and total extracellular vesicle RNA was isolated. Molecular screening using primers specific for several miRNA revealed differential baseline expression among the different cell lines. The addition of melatonin significantly reduced the expression of miR-155 in all of the OSCC extracellular vesicles. However, miR-21 was significantly increased in each of the three OSCC isolates. No significant changes in miR-133a expression were observed under melatonin administration. Conclusions: Although many studies have documented changes in gene expression among various cancers under melatonin administration, few studies have evaluated these effects on microRNAs. These results may be among the first to evaluate the effects of melatonin on microRNA expression in oral cancers, which suggests the differential modulation of specific microRNAs, such as miR-21, miR-133a and miR-155, may be of significant importance when evaluating the mechanisms and pathways involved in melatonin-associated anti-tumor effects. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Inspection of the Microbiota in Endodontic Lesions
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020047 - 01 May 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 873
Abstract
The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to create a biologically acceptable environment within the root canal system that allows for the healing and maintenance of the health of the peri-radicular tissue. Bacteria are one of the main causes of pulp problems, and [...] Read more.
The primary objective of endodontic therapy is to create a biologically acceptable environment within the root canal system that allows for the healing and maintenance of the health of the peri-radicular tissue. Bacteria are one of the main causes of pulp problems, and they have different methods of penetrating and invading the endodontic space such as through carious lesions, traumatic pulp exposures, and fractures. The types of bacteria found range from facultative anaerobes to aerobes, up to the most resistant species able to survive in nutrient-free environments; the bacterial species Enterococcus faecalis belongs to this last group. Enterococcus faecalis is considered one of the main causes of recurring apical periodontal lesions following endodontic treatment, with persistent lesions occurring even after re-treatment. The review presented in this paper was performed in accordance with the PRISMA protocol and covers articles from the related scientific literature that were sourced from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the following terms as keywords: “endodontic treatment”, “endodontic bacteria”, “microbial endodontic”, and “endodontic failure”. Only the articles considered most relevant for the purposes of this paper were read in full and taken into consideration for the following review. The results show that Enterococcus faecalis, Actinomycetes, and Propionibacterium propionicum are the species most frequently involved in persistent radicular and extra-radicular infections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Microbiology)
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Open AccessReview
Animal Experiments in Periodontal and Peri-Implant Research: Are There Any Changes?
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020046 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 615
Abstract
Animal experiments are a source of debate. This bibliometric study aims to identify published research in two representative dental journals: the Journal of Periodontology (JP) and the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (JCP). Two time points (1982/83 and 2012/13) covering 30 years were chosen. [...] Read more.
Animal experiments are a source of debate. This bibliometric study aims to identify published research in two representative dental journals: the Journal of Periodontology (JP) and the Journal of Clinical Periodontology (JCP). Two time points (1982/83 and 2012/13) covering 30 years were chosen. Articles describing data from animal experiments were identified and the data were extracted and compared between journals and time points. In 1982/83, 27 animal studies were published in JP and 17 in JCP. For 2012/13, 54 animal studies were considered in JP and 37 in JCP. The species examined were predominantly dogs (37%) in JCP and rats (61%) in JP in 1982/83. In 2012/13, rodents accounted for 85% in JP and for 54% in JCP. The number of animals used per study increased by a factor of 1.6–2.6. The diversity of geographic origin and articles from emerging countries increased over time. The number of animals examined per study and the publications describing these experiments seemed to have increased in the journals analyzed in the last decades. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Collagen Cross-Link Deficiency on Incorporation of Grafted Bone
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020045 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 622
Abstract
Bone matrix collagen, is one of the major contributors to bone quality. No studies have examined how bone quality affects the results of bone transplantation. Collagen cross-links (CCL) are the key factor in collagen properties. The purpose was to investigate the influences of [...] Read more.
Bone matrix collagen, is one of the major contributors to bone quality. No studies have examined how bone quality affects the results of bone transplantation. Collagen cross-links (CCL) are the key factor in collagen properties. The purpose was to investigate the influences of CCL for both grafted bone and recipient site bone on the success of bone augmentation. Four-week-old male Wister rats (n = 54) were divided into control and test groups. Control and test groups equally sub-divided into donors and recipients. An additional six rats were used to characterize bone at day zero. Test groups received 0.2% beta-aminoproperionitrile (BAPN) for 4 weeks as CCL inhibitor. Animals were further divided into donor and recipient groups. The transplanted bone chips integrated with host bone by 25% more in CCL-deficient animals compared to control. However, no difference in cortical thickness among all conditions. CCL-deficient transplanted bone did not show any extra signs of osteocyte apoptosis, while sclerostin expression was comparable to that in control. The host periosteum of CCL-deficient animals showed higher cellular activity, as well as higher bone quantity and osteoclast activity. Collagen cross-links deficiency in host bone might accelerate the incorporation of grafted bone. effect. Incorporation of the bone grafts appears to depend mainly on host condition rather than graft condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health to Global Health: Impact of Nutrition)
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Open AccessArticle
Improving Efficiency in Dental School Clinics by Computerizing a Manual Task
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020044 - 01 May 2019
Viewed by 546
Abstract
Background: We computerized a formerly manual task of requesting dental faculty to conduct quality checks on student providers during patient encounters. We surveyed student providers who experienced the manual and computerized versions of the faculty request process for one year each. Methods: All [...] Read more.
Background: We computerized a formerly manual task of requesting dental faculty to conduct quality checks on student providers during patient encounters. We surveyed student providers who experienced the manual and computerized versions of the faculty request process for one year each. Methods: All surveys were emailed to student providers and there were no reminders or incentives to complete the survey. Simple descriptive data were used to present the results of the study and Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval was provided by the University of Michigan Medical School Committee on Human Research (HUM00131029) on 1 June 2018 Results: The response rate for the survey was 47.1%. A total of 16.1% of student providers reported that the Faculty Request System (FRS) helped them save 1–10 min per clinic session, 22.3% said it saved them 11–20 min, 29.5% said it saved them 21–30 min, 21.4% said it saved 31–40 min, 2.67% said it saved 41–50 min, and 7.14% said it saved more than 50 min per clinic session. Regarding how student providers used the additional time they gained from the FRS, 96.4% said they used some of the time to write up their notes, 88.4% said they used some of the time to discuss treatments with their patients, 83.9% said they engaged in general conversation with their patients, 81.3% said they took care of other patient-related duties, while 1.8% said they had less time available after the implementation of the FRS. Conclusions: The FRS enabled student providers to remain with their patients for almost a full 30 min more (during a 3 h session). This paper describes several benefits experienced by student providers, and the resulting impacts on patient experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Efficiency and Quality in Dental Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Oral Cancer Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Dentists in the State of Qatar
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020043 - 11 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 956
Abstract
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess existing knowledge on oral cancer (OC), attitude toward OC examination, and clinical practice among dentists practicing in the governmental health sector in the State of Qatar, including the influence of personal characteristics. Materials and [...] Read more.
Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess existing knowledge on oral cancer (OC), attitude toward OC examination, and clinical practice among dentists practicing in the governmental health sector in the State of Qatar, including the influence of personal characteristics. Materials and Methods: All 271 dentists practicing in Primary Health Care Centers (PHCC) and the Hamad Medical Corporation (HMC) were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Of these, 177 completed a self-administered, 48-item questionnaire. Based on the responses, knowledge of the risk factors for and clinical presentation of OC was categorized as high, medium, or low, and then further separated into satisfactory (medium/high) and unsatisfactory (low). Information on attitudes toward OC examination and clinical practice was also taken from the questionnaire. Results: The mean score for knowledge of the clinical presentation of OC was 7.59 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.40) out of 14. The mean score for knowledge of the risk factors for OC was 8.96 (SD = 2.31) out of 16. Dentists with ≤10 years of experience were more likely to have satisfactory knowledge of OC compared to dentists with >15 years of experience. Attending a continuous professional development (CPD) course on OC showed a trend with satisfactory clinical knowledge, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: This study identified gaps in dentists’ knowledge of OC; dentists demonstrated unsatisfactory knowledge of the clinical presentation of and risk factors for OC. The findings highlighted the need for educational interventions on OC, which are essential to improving health care outcomes and delivery of care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Polyphenols Inhibit Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020042 - 11 Apr 2019
Viewed by 1129
Abstract
Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) are two major contributors to dental caries. They have a symbiotic relationship, allowing them to create an enhanced biofilm. Our goal was to examine whether two natural polyphenols (Padma [...] Read more.
Background: Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Candida albicans (C. albicans) are two major contributors to dental caries. They have a symbiotic relationship, allowing them to create an enhanced biofilm. Our goal was to examine whether two natural polyphenols (Padma hepaten (PH) and a polyphenol extraction from green tea (PPFGT)) could inhibit the caries-inducing properties of S. mutans and C. albicans. Methods: Co-species biofilms of S. mutans and C. albicans were grown in the presence of PH and PPFGT. Biofilm formation was tested spectrophotometrically. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) secretion was quantified using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Biofilm development was also tested on orthodontic surfaces (Essix) to assess biofilm inhibition ability on such an orthodontic appliance. Results: PPFGT and PH dose-dependently inhibited biofilm formation without affecting the planktonic growth. We found a significant reduction in biofilm total biomass using 0.625 mg/mL PPFGT and 0.16 mg/mL PH. A concentration of 0.31 mg/mL PPFGT and 0.16 mg/mL PH inhibited the total cell growth by 54% and EPS secretion by 81%. A reduction in biofilm formation and EPS secretion was also observed on orthodontic PVC surfaces. Conclusions: The polyphenolic extractions PPFGT and PH have an inhibitory effect on S. mutans and C. albicans biofilm formation and EPS secretion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Hygiene and Biofilms in Orthodontics)
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Open AccessArticle
Accuracy of Computer-Assisted Template-Based Implant Placement Using Two Different Surgical Templates Designed with or without Metallic Sleeves: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020041 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 991
Abstract
Purpose: To compare virtual planning accuracy of novel computer-assisted, template-based implant placement techniques, which make use of CAD/CAM stereolithographic surgical templates with or without metallic sleeves. Furthermore, to compare open versus closed sleeves for templates without metallic sleeves. Materials and methods: Any [...] Read more.
Purpose: To compare virtual planning accuracy of novel computer-assisted, template-based implant placement techniques, which make use of CAD/CAM stereolithographic surgical templates with or without metallic sleeves. Furthermore, to compare open versus closed sleeves for templates without metallic sleeves. Materials and methods: Any partially edentulous patients requiring at least one implant to be placed according to a computer-assisted template-based protocol were enrolled. Patients were randomized according to a parallel group design into two arms: Surgical template with or without metallic sleeves. Three deviation parameters (angular, horizontal, vertical) were defined to evaluate the discrepancy between the planned and placed implant positions. Results: No implants failed, and no complications were experienced. Forty-one implants were placed using surgical templates with metallic sleeves while 49 implants were placed with a surgical template without metallic sleeves. Of these, 16 implants were placed through open sleeves and 33 through closed sleeves. There was a statistically significant difference in angle (p = 0.0212) and in the vertical plan (p = 0.0073) with lower values for implants placed with a surgical template without metallic sleeves. In the test group, close sleeves were more accurate compared with open sleeves in angle (p = 0.0268) and in horizontal plan (p = 0.0477). Conclusion: With the limitations of the present study, surgical templates without metallic sleeves were more accurate in the vertical plan and angle compared to the conventional template with metallic sleeves. Open sleeves should be used with caution in the molar region only in case of reduced interarch space. Further research is needed to confirm these preliminary results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Restorative Dentistry and Traumatology)
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Open AccessArticle
Ratio between Height and Thickness of the Buccal Tissues: A Pilot Study on 32 Single Implants
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020040 - 02 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 768
Abstract
Background: Previous studies have suggested that mucosal height is related to the bone level and soft tissue thickness. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the ratio between the height and width of the tissues around single implants with a [...] Read more.
Background: Previous studies have suggested that mucosal height is related to the bone level and soft tissue thickness. The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the ratio between the height and width of the tissues around single implants with a conical connection and platform switching. Methods: All patients receiving single implants (Anyridge®, MegaGen, Gyeongbuk, South Korea) and restored with single crowns, in a three-month period, were included in this study. After a provisionalization of 12 months, precision impressions were taken and stone casts were poured for measurements. For each implant, two values were collected at the buccal site: the mucosal height (MH), calculated from the vestibular shoulder of the implant to the upper gingival margin of the supra-implant tissue; and the mucosal thickness (MT), calculated from the vestibular shoulder of the analogue to the external mucosa point perpendicular to the implant major axis. Mean, standard deviation (SD), and confidence intervals (CI 95%) for MH and MT, as well as their ratios, were calculated. Correlation between MH and MT was assessed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient, with significance level set at 0.05. Results: 32 single Anyridge® implants were eligible for this evaluation. The mean MH was 3.44 mm (±1.28), the mean MT was 3.29 (±1.46). The average of the ratio between MH and MT of the supra-implant mucosa was therefore 1:1.19 (±0.55). The relation between MH and MT was statistically significant at p ≤ 0.01 (Pearson two-tailed 95% CI). Conclusions: Our study found a constant relationship between width and height of the peri-implant mucosa. However, our results are different from those of Nozawa et al., who found a ratio of 1:1.5 between height and thickness of the peri-implant tissues. This may be determined by the different sample and follow-up period, as well as by the implants used in our study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Osseointegration of Dental Implants)
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Open AccessArticle
Socioeconomic Inequalities in Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Brazilians: A Cross-Sectional Study
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020039 - 02 Apr 2019
Viewed by 710
Abstract
Objective: Assess the magnitude of the socioeconomic inequalities related to the impact of oral health on quality of life among adults and elderly individuals. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data from the most recent oral health survey from the state of [...] Read more.
Objective: Assess the magnitude of the socioeconomic inequalities related to the impact of oral health on quality of life among adults and elderly individuals. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with data from the most recent oral health survey from the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The sample included data on 2288 individuals—1159 adults in the 35–44 age group and 1129 adults in the 65–74 age group. Socioeconomic inequalities in Oral Impacts on Daily Performance ratings were measured using two inequality measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and the relative index of inequality (RII). Results: The prevalence of negative impact of oral health on quality of life was 42.2% for the total sample, 44.9% among adults and 37.5% among elderly individuals. Significant absolute and relative income inequalities were found for the total sample (SII −27.8; RII 0.52) and both age groups (adults: SII −32.4; RII 0.49; elderly: SII −18.3; RI 0.63), meaning that individuals in the lowest income level had the highest prevalence of negative impacts. Regarding schooling, no significant differences were observed among the elderly. Conclusion: There were significant socioeconomic inequalities related to the negative impact of oral health-related quality of life in Brazil among both age groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health Disparities Due to Race, Ethnicity, and Class)
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Open AccessCase Report
Two Rare Cases of Non-Syndromic Paramolars with Family Occurrence and a Review of Literature
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020038 - 01 Apr 2019
Viewed by 656
Abstract
Supernumerary teeth (or hyperdontia) are teeth that exceed the normal number of deciduous or permanent teeth in the oral cavity. The occurrence of supernumerary teeth without any associated syndrome has been frequently reported and many case reports have been published. This article reports [...] Read more.
Supernumerary teeth (or hyperdontia) are teeth that exceed the normal number of deciduous or permanent teeth in the oral cavity. The occurrence of supernumerary teeth without any associated syndrome has been frequently reported and many case reports have been published. This article reports two rare cases of familial occurrence of multiple paramolars without the presence of any other syndrome for two consecutive generations. Limited cases of bilateral maxillary or mandibular paramolars have been reported. In addition, prevalence, classification, etiology, complications, diagnosis and therapeutic strategies that may be adopted when supernumeraries occur are discussed. A review of similar cases published in the literature is included as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Dental Education)
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Open AccessReview
Medical Model in Caries Management
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020037 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
The current mode of dental caries management mainly operates through irreversible and symptomatic treatment by means of drilling and filling, while caries prevention is largely overlooked or omitted. Focus should be redirected through a medical model towards elimination of the disease through tackling [...] Read more.
The current mode of dental caries management mainly operates through irreversible and symptomatic treatment by means of drilling and filling, while caries prevention is largely overlooked or omitted. Focus should be redirected through a medical model towards elimination of the disease through tackling its causes and risk factors to address current and future caries initiation. Caries is the demineralisation of dental hard tissues by bacterial acids when periodically exposed to fermentable carbohydrates. The medical model of caries management is a philosophy that steers sustainable caries management through controlling bacterial infection, a reduction of risk levels, remineralisation of teeth and long-term follow-up. Its goal is to prevent new and recurrent caries, arrest ongoing caries processes by alteration of the cariogenic environment, and support the healing of remineralisable enamel and dentine. The mechanism involves dietary counselling and plaque control, placement of dental sealants, administration of fluoride agents and chemotherapeutic medications and use of chewing gum. This paradigm shift from a surgical to a medical model aims to pursue the ultimate intention of maintaining a caries-free dentition and is anticipated to promote true oral health-related quality of life. The objective of this paper is to discuss the medical model of caries management. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Self-Help Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Children’s Dental Anxiety in General Dental Practice
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020036 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 941
Abstract
Dental anxiety is very common; however, there is a lack of studies focusing on reducing children’s dental anxiety. One such initiative, the guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) resources ‘Your teeth, you are in control’, reduces dental anxiety in children attending paediatric dentistry [...] Read more.
Dental anxiety is very common; however, there is a lack of studies focusing on reducing children’s dental anxiety. One such initiative, the guided self-help cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) resources ‘Your teeth, you are in control’, reduces dental anxiety in children attending paediatric dentistry clinics. This service evaluation aims to investigate whether such CBT resources reduce children’s dental anxiety when implemented in general dental practice. A convenience sample of children was given the resources by their dental practitioner. There was no control group. Children completed the Children’s Experiences of Dental Anxiety Measure (CEDAM) prior to using the resources and on completion of a course of dental treatment. Overall, 84 children were involved, with a mean age of 10.9 years; 48 were female and 59 were living in the most deprived area of England. At baseline the mean CEDAM score was 20.3, and on receiving the resource and completing treatment the mean CEDAM score was 16.4, showing a significant reduction in dental anxiety (t = 14.6, (df = 83), p < 0.001, 95% CI: 3.4–4.4). The items that improved the most were worry over having dental treatment and dental treatment being painful. The service evaluation indicates a reduction in child dental anxiety following the use of CBT resources in general practice. Further evaluation, preferably a randomised controlled trial, is needed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Impacts of Dental Conditions in Childhood)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Methods of Biosilicate Microparticle Application on Dentin Adhesion
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020035 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 753
Abstract
Restorative procedures associated with bioglasses have shown to be a strategy to satisfy the contemporary concept of minimally invasive dentistry. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength to dentin treated by two different methods of biosilicate microparticle application. Dentin [...] Read more.
Restorative procedures associated with bioglasses have shown to be a strategy to satisfy the contemporary concept of minimally invasive dentistry. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate bond strength to dentin treated by two different methods of biosilicate microparticle application. Dentin surfaces from 30 sound human molars were exposed and randomly assigned into three groups (n = 10) according to the surface treatment: (1) blasting with biosilicate microparticles (distance = 1 cm/pressure = 5 bar/time = 1 min); (2) 10% biosilicate microparticles paste; and (3) control (no treatment). After, dentin surfaces were restored with self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy Bond) and nanofilled composite (Filtek Z350). Specimens were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface to obtain sticks (cross-section area = 1 mm2), which were submitted to microtensile test (0.5 mm/min; 50 kgf). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 5%). Dentin/adhesive interfaces were morphologically analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data analysis showed that biosilicate-treated groups reached similar results (p > 0.05) and both of them demonstrated higher values (p < 0.05) than control group. SEM micrographs revealed hybridization with clear resin tags and no separation between resin-dentin adhesive interfaces. Within the limitations of this study, surface treatment with biosilicate positively influenced the adhesion to dentin and does not alter the morphology of the adhesive interface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adhesion to Enamel and Dentin)
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Open AccessEditorial
Science is not a Social Opinion
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020034 - 01 Apr 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 707
Abstract
Recently, the main American associations in the dental field reported concerns regarding a film on the Netflix, Amazon, Apple, and Vimeo platforms that reported that endodontic treatments of root canals are linked to serious systemic pathologies, against any scientific evidence. This extreme case [...] Read more.
Recently, the main American associations in the dental field reported concerns regarding a film on the Netflix, Amazon, Apple, and Vimeo platforms that reported that endodontic treatments of root canals are linked to serious systemic pathologies, against any scientific evidence. This extreme case highlights how information, in a social networking era, is dramatically conditioned by a small number of users, leading to large scale consequences in political opinions, alimentary choices, or even in healthcare policy. It is urgent to demonstrate a strong awareness by the academic, institutional, and associative bodies in order to restore the correct flow of information on mass media and social networks. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Protective Effect of UP446 on Ligature-Induced Periodontitis in Beagle Dogs
Dent. J. 2019, 7(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj7020033 - 28 Mar 2019
Viewed by 910
Abstract
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the gum caused by a formation of a plaque that triggers immune responses and inflammation leading to the destruction of tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Chronic usage of synthetic chemicals and antibiotics is limited by [...] Read more.
Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease of the gum caused by a formation of a plaque that triggers immune responses and inflammation leading to the destruction of tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. Chronic usage of synthetic chemicals and antibiotics is limited by undesired adverse events to the host. A botanical composition (UP446), which consists primarily of bioflavonoids such as baicalin from roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and catechins from heartwoods of Acacia catechu, was evaluated for its effect on ligature-induced periodontal disease in beagle dogs. Disease model was induced in 20 male and female dogs. After a 12-week induction of periodontitis, animals were assigned to a placebo, positive control (doxycycline), and two treatment groups consisting of five animals each. The placebo group was only administrated to normal dog chow (25 g/kg/day). In the doxycycline treatment group, animals were fed a normal diet (25 g/kg/day) and doxycycline (5 mg/kg) was orally administrated every day. Treatment of UP446 was done by feeding the regular diet formulated with 0.1% and 0.2% of UP446 by weight. Clinical indices such as plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment level (CAL), probing pocket depth (PPD), and bleeding on probing (BoP) were measured every two weeks for 12 weeks. UP446 administered to beagle dogs for 12 weeks at 0.1% and 0.2% resulted in statistically significant reductions in gingivitis, pocket depth, loss of attachment, and gum bleeding. UP446 could potentially be used alone or as an adjunct with other oral hygiene preparations for periodontal disease in both human and companion animals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease)
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