Editor's Choice Articles

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.

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Article

Article
Abrasion Behavior of Different Charcoal Toothpastes on Human Dentin When Using Electric Toothbrushes
Dent. J. 2022, 10(3), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10030046 - 11 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate abrasion on human dentin after brushing with activated charcoal toothpastes. A self-designed brushing machine was used to brush five groups (Group A: Water, Group B: Sensodyne Pro Schmelz, Group C: Splat Blackwood, Group D: Curaprox [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate abrasion on human dentin after brushing with activated charcoal toothpastes. A self-designed brushing machine was used to brush five groups (Group A: Water, Group B: Sensodyne Pro Schmelz, Group C: Splat Blackwood, Group D: Curaprox Black is White, and Group E: Prokudent Black Brilliant) with electrically powered toothbrushes for 4 h. The abrasive dentin wear was calculated using profilometry data. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analyses and scanning electron microscopy were used to analyze the composition of the toothpastes. Mean dentin loss by brushing were (71 ± 28) µm (Splat Blackwood), (44 ± 16) µm (Curaprox Black is White), (38 ± 13) µm (Prokudent Black Brilliant), (28 ± 14) µm (Sensodyne Pro Schmelz), and (28 ± 13) µm (Water). Groups A/B/D/E and group C each lie in one subset, which is statistically different from the other subset according to a post hoc Tukey test (p = 0.05). Within the limitations, it can be concluded that the content of activated charcoal in charcoal toothpastes had little influence on the observed abrasive behavior, although one of the charcoal toothpastes showed the highest abrasion on dentin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Article
The Effects of Ultrasonic Scaling and Air-Abrasive Powders on the Decontamination of 9 Implant-Abutment Surfaces: Scanning Electron Analysis and In Vitro Study
Dent. J. 2022, 10(3), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10030036 - 01 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1026
Abstract
(1) Background: The aim of this study is to understand from a microscopic point of view whether bicarbonate air-abrasive powders associated with ultrasonic instruments can decontaminate nine different surfaces used for the abutment/implant junction. Fibroblast growth was carried out on decontaminated surface in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The aim of this study is to understand from a microscopic point of view whether bicarbonate air-abrasive powders associated with ultrasonic instruments can decontaminate nine different surfaces used for the abutment/implant junction. Fibroblast growth was carried out on decontaminated surface in order to understand if there are significative differences in terms of biocompatibility. (2) Methods: After taking samples of patient plaque, nine different surfaces were contaminated and analyzed by SEM, then their wettability was evaluated. Fibroblasts were cultured on the decontaminated surfaces to understand their ability to establish a connective tissue seal after decontamination. The results were analyzed from a statistical point of view to hypothesize a mathematical model capable of explaining the properties of the surfaces. (3) Results: A negative correlation between roughness and contamination has been demonstrated, whereas a weak correlation was observed between wettability and decontamination capacity. All surfaces were topographically damaged after the decontamination treatment. Grade 5 titanium surfaces appear tougher, whereas anodized surfaces tend to lose the anodizing layer. (4) Conclusions: further studies will be needed to fully understand how these decontaminated surfaces affect the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of fibroblasts and osteoblasts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Bio-Logic Approaches to Implant Dentistry)
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Article
Factors Affecting Dental Students’ Comfort with Online Synchronous Learning
Dent. J. 2022, 10(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10020026 - 12 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused many universities to expand their use of videoconferencing technology to continue academic coursework. This study examines dental students’ experience, comfort levels, and preferences with videoconferencing. Methods: Of 100 s-year US dental students enrolled in a local anesthesia course, [...] Read more.
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused many universities to expand their use of videoconferencing technology to continue academic coursework. This study examines dental students’ experience, comfort levels, and preferences with videoconferencing. Methods: Of 100 s-year US dental students enrolled in a local anesthesia course, 54 completed a survey following an online synchronous lecture given in August 2020. Survey questions asked about prior experience with videoconferencing, comfort levels with online and traditional classes, and reasons for not turning on their video (showing their face). Results: Overall, 48.2% had little or no experience with videoconferencing prior to March 2020. Students were more comfortable with in-classroom parameters (listening, asking questions, answering questions, and interacting in small groups (breakouts)) than with online synchronous learning, although differences were not significant (p’s > 0.10). Regression analyses showed there were significant positive associations between videoconferencing experience and comfort with both answering questions and interacting in breakouts (B = 0.55, p = 0.04 and B = 0.54, p = 0.03, respectively). Students reported being more comfortable during in-classroom breakouts than in breakouts using videoconferencing (p = 0.003). Main reasons for students not turning on their cameras were that they did not want to dress up (48.1%), other students were not using their video features (46.3%), and they felt they did not look good (35.5%). Conclusions: Dental students were somewhat more comfortable with traditional in-person vs. online classroom parameters. Prior experience with videoconferencing was associated with increased comfort with synchronous learning, suggesting that after the pandemic, it may be beneficial to structure dental school curricula as a hybrid learning experience with both in-person and online synchronous courses. Full article
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Article
Relationship between Dynamics of TNF-α and Its Soluble Receptors in Saliva and Periodontal Health State
Dent. J. 2022, 10(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10020025 - 08 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1221
Abstract
Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2) are reported to protect against excessive TNF-α, a primary mediator of systemic responses to infection. This study aimed to investigate the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 in saliva and to verify [...] Read more.
Soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 (sTNF-R1 and sTNF-R2) are reported to protect against excessive TNF-α, a primary mediator of systemic responses to infection. This study aimed to investigate the levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 in saliva and to verify whether their dynamics are associated with periodontal health. The study population comprised 28 adult patients. Probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, and bleeding on probing were assessed, and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) was calculated. Stimulated saliva was collected before the oral examinations. The levels of TNF-α, sTNF-R1, sTNF-R2, and total protein (TP) in saliva samples were determined. There were significant positive correlations between TNF-α, sTNF-R1, and sTNF-R2 to TP (/TP) in stimulated saliva. Moreover, there were significant positive correlations between PISA and sTNF-R2/TP. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that PISA was significantly associated with sTNF-R2/TP in saliva; however, TNF-α/TP was not significantly associated with PISA. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that significant relationships exist between the salivary levels of TNF-α and sTNF-R1, and that salivary sTNF-R2 is associated with the expansion of inflamed periodontal tissue. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Oral Hygiene, Periodontology and Peri-implant Diseases)
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Article
An In-Vitro Evaluation of Articulation Accuracy for Digitally Milled Models vs. Conventional Gypsum Casts
Dent. J. 2022, 10(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10010011 - 11 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1120
Abstract
With the advent of a digital workflow in dentistry, the inter-occlusal articulation of digital models is now possible through various means. The Cadent iTero intraoral scanner uses a buccal scan in maximum intercuspation to record the maxillomandibular relationship. This in-vitro study compares the [...] Read more.
With the advent of a digital workflow in dentistry, the inter-occlusal articulation of digital models is now possible through various means. The Cadent iTero intraoral scanner uses a buccal scan in maximum intercuspation to record the maxillomandibular relationship. This in-vitro study compares the occlusion derived from conventionally articulated stone casts versus that of digitally articulated quadrant milled models. Thirty sets of stone casts poured from full arch polyvinyl siloxane impressions (Group A) and thirty sets of polyurethane quadrant models milled from digital impressions (Group B) were used for this study. The full arch stone casts were hand-articulated and mounted on semi-adjustable articulators, while the digitally derived models were pre-mounted from the milling center based on the data obtained from the buccal scanning procedure. A T-scan sensor was used to obtain a bite registration from each set of models in both groups. The T-scan data derived from groups A and B were compared to that from the master model to evaluate the reproducibility of the occlusion in the two groups. A statistically significant difference of the contact region surface area was found on #11 of the digitally articulated models compared to the master. An analysis of the force distribution also showed a tendency for a heavier distribution on the more anterior #11 tooth for the digitally articulated models. Within the limitations of this study, the use of a digitally articulated quadrant model system may result in a loss of accuracy, in terms of occlusion, the further anteriorly the tooth to be restored is located. Care must be taken to consider the sources of inaccuracies in the digital workflow to minimize them for a more efficient and effective restorative process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Dentistry Journal in 2021)
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Review

Review
Oral Health and Liver Disease: Bidirectional Associations—A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(2), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10020016 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Several links between chronic liver disease and oral health have been described and are discussed in this narrative review. Oral manifestations such as lichen planus, ulcers, xerostomia, erosion and tongue abnormalities seem to be particularly prevalent among patients with chronic liver disease. These [...] Read more.
Several links between chronic liver disease and oral health have been described and are discussed in this narrative review. Oral manifestations such as lichen planus, ulcers, xerostomia, erosion and tongue abnormalities seem to be particularly prevalent among patients with chronic liver disease. These may be causal, coincidental, secondary to therapeutic interventions, or attributable to other factors commonly observed in liver disease patients. In addition, findings from both experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that periodontitis can induce liver injury and contribute to the progression of chronic liver disease through periodontitis-induced systemic inflammation, endotoxemia, and gut dysbiosis with increased intestinal translocation. This has brought forward the hypothesis of an oral-gut-liver axis. Preliminary clinical intervention studies indicate that local periodontal treatments may lead to beneficial liver effects, but more human studies are needed to clarify if treatment of periodontitis truly can halt or reverse progression of liver disease and improve liver-related outcomes. Full article
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Review
Simulating the Intraoral Aging of Dental Bonding Agents: A Narrative Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10010013 - 15 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1115
Abstract
Despite their popularity, resin composite restorations fail earlier and at higher rates than comparable amalgam restorations. One of the reasons for these rates of failure are the properties of current dental bonding agents. Modern bonding agents are vulnerable to gradual chemical and mechanical [...] Read more.
Despite their popularity, resin composite restorations fail earlier and at higher rates than comparable amalgam restorations. One of the reasons for these rates of failure are the properties of current dental bonding agents. Modern bonding agents are vulnerable to gradual chemical and mechanical degradation from a number of avenues such as daily use in chewing, catalytic hydrolysis facilitated by salivary or bacterial enzymes, and thermal fluctuations. These stressors have been found to work synergistically, all contributing to the deterioration and eventual failure of the hybrid layer. Due to the expense and difficulty in conducting in vivo experiments, in vitro protocols meant to accurately simulate the oral environment’s stressors are important in the development of bonding agents and materials that are more resistant to these processes of degradation. This narrative review serves to summarize the currently employed methods of aging dental materials and critically appraise them in the context of our knowledge of the oral environment’s parameters. Full article
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Review
The Effects of Physical Exercise on Saliva Composition: A Comprehensive Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10010007 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1285
Abstract
Saliva consists of organic and inorganic constituents. During exercise, analysis of the saliva can provide valuable information regarding training stress, adaptation and exercise performance. The objective of the present article was to review the effect of physical exercise on saliva composition. The shift [...] Read more.
Saliva consists of organic and inorganic constituents. During exercise, analysis of the saliva can provide valuable information regarding training stress, adaptation and exercise performance. The objective of the present article was to review the effect of physical exercise on saliva composition. The shift in the composition of the saliva, during and after a workout, reflects the benefits of exercise, its potential risks and the capability of the saliva to serve as a health indicator. The type and the frequency of training, the physical condition and the athletes’ general health influence the hormones, immunoglobulins and saliva enzymes. The correlation between saliva and physical exercise has to be further investigated and the available knowledge to be applied for the benefit of the athletes during sports activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oral Health and Athletes)

Other

Systematic Review
Temporal and Permanent Changes Induced by Maxillary Sinus Lifting with Bone Grafts and Maxillary Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery in the Voice Characteristics—Systematic Review
Dent. J. 2022, 10(3), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10030047 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1038
Abstract
Sinus surgery procedures such as sinus lifting with bone grafting or maxillary functional endoscopy surgery (FESS) can present different complications. The aims of this systematic review are to compile the post-operatory complications of sinus elevation with bone grafting and FESS including voice changes, [...] Read more.
Sinus surgery procedures such as sinus lifting with bone grafting or maxillary functional endoscopy surgery (FESS) can present different complications. The aims of this systematic review are to compile the post-operatory complications of sinus elevation with bone grafting and FESS including voice changes, and to elucidate if those changes are either permanent or temporary. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used, and the literature was exhaustively searched without time restrictions for randomized and non-randomized clinical studies, cohort studies (prospective and retrospective), and clinical case reports with ≥4 cases focused on sinus lift procedures with bone grafts and functional endoscopic maxillary sinus surgery. A total of 435 manuscripts were identified. After reading the abstracts, 101 articles were selected to be read in full. Twenty articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included for analysis. Within the limitations of this systematic review, complications are frequent after sinus lifting with bone grafts and after FEES. Voice parameters are scarcely evaluated after sinus lifting with bone grafts and no voice changes are reported. The voice changes that occur after FESS include a decreased fundamental frequency, increased nasality, and nasalance, all of which are transitory. Full article
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Case Report
Clear Cell Odontogenic Carcinoma: A Series of Three Cases
Dent. J. 2022, 10(3), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/dj10030034 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1049
Abstract
Background: Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare malignant odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of the jaws. It is composed of irregular nests of clear to faintly eosinophilic cells resembling clear cell rests of primitive dental lamina and an intermixed hyalinized fibrous stroma. Most [...] Read more.
Background: Clear cell odontogenic carcinoma (CCOC) is a rare malignant odontogenic epithelial neoplasm of the jaws. It is composed of irregular nests of clear to faintly eosinophilic cells resembling clear cell rests of primitive dental lamina and an intermixed hyalinized fibrous stroma. Most cases occur in the 5th and 6th decades of life, with a female predominance. The mandible is affected more than the maxilla. Clinical features vary from asymptomatic to non-specific pain, ill-defined radiolucency, root resorption, and sometimes soft tissue extension. Histology varies from bland to high grade. CCOC demonstrated a significant tendency to recur. Metastasis typically involves regional lymph nodes, which haves been reported in 20–25% of cases. Pulmonary metastasis rarely occurs. Differential diagnoses are broad and include odontogenic, salivary, melanocytic, and metastatic neoplasia. CCOCs are positive for cytokeratins, mainly AE1/AE3 and CK19. Most cases show EWSR1 rearrangement and rarely, the BRAFV600E mutation. Design: Patient charts were reviewed at our institution. A total of three cases were found in electronic medical records, which were diagnosed as clear cell odontogenic carcinoma over a period of six years (2014–2019). Patient charts were reviewed for medical history and radiology data. The pathology slides were reviewed by one or more faculty members. Results: We present three cases of CCOC, ranging in age from 40 to 69 years (two women and one man). Two cases involved the maxilla and one involved the mandible. Two presented with painful swelling and one with mass recurrence. Radiography results show that two had poorly defined radiolucent lesions, and one was heterogeneous with a small nodule projecting into the maxillary sinus. Histological examination revealed an epithelial neoplasm composed of irregular sheets, cords, and nests of polygonal cells with central hyperchromatic, mildly pleomorphic nuclei surrounded by clear to pale eosinophilic cytoplasm, with occasional mitotic figures. The tumor had infiltrated the bone and soft tissues. Two cases were immunopositive for CK5/6 and one case was positive for p63 and CK19. Interestingly, the eosinophilic dentinoid matrix interspersed among tumor cells in one case was consistent with its odontogenic origin. Histochemical staining showed PAS-positive and diastase-labile intracytoplasmic material consistent with glycogen. Conclusion: Our study highlights the potential diagnostic significance of dentinoid (although reportedly seen in only 7% of cases), along with CK5/6 immunopositivity, in supporting the histologic diagnosis of CCOC among a variety of neoplasia in its differential diagnosis. Full article
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