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Inorganics, Volume 6, Issue 3 (September 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The cover picture shows two noncovalent π-type complexes between Ag derivatives (Ag2 and AgCl) and [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Computational Structures and SAPT Interaction Energies of HXeSH···H2Y (Y=O or S) Complexes
Inorganics 2018, 6(3), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/inorganics6030100
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Ab initio calculations of the structures, vibrational spectra and supermolecular and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) interaction energies of the HXeOH and HXeSH complexes with H2O and H2S molecules are presented. Two minima already reported in the literature were reproduced
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Ab initio calculations of the structures, vibrational spectra and supermolecular and symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) interaction energies of the HXeOH and HXeSH complexes with H2O and H2S molecules are presented. Two minima already reported in the literature were reproduced and ten new ones were found together with some transition states. All complexes show blue shift in Xe–H stretching mode upon complexation. The computed spectra suggest that it should be possible to detect and distinguish the complexes experimentally. The structures where H2O or H2S is the proton-donor were found to be the most stable for all complex compositions. The SAPT analysis shows significant differences between the complexes with H2O and H2S indicating much larger dispersion and exchange contributions in the complexes with H2S. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Non-Covalent Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle Stepwise Introduction of Different Substituents to α-Chloro-ω-hydrooligosilanes: Convenient Synthesis of Unsymmetrically Substituted Oligosilanes
Received: 12 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
A series of unsymmetrically substituted oligosilanes were synthesized via stepwise introduction of different substituents to α-chloro-ω-hydrooligosilanes. The reactions of α-chloro-ω-hydrooligosilanes with organolithium or Grignard reagents gave hydrooligosilanes having various alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl and aryl groups. Thus-obtained hydrooligosilanes were converted into alkoxyoligosilanes by ruthenium-catalyzed
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A series of unsymmetrically substituted oligosilanes were synthesized via stepwise introduction of different substituents to α-chloro-ω-hydrooligosilanes. The reactions of α-chloro-ω-hydrooligosilanes with organolithium or Grignard reagents gave hydrooligosilanes having various alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl and aryl groups. Thus-obtained hydrooligosilanes were converted into alkoxyoligosilanes by ruthenium-catalyzed dehydrogenative alkoxylation with alcohols. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of NiFe2O4-LDH Composites with High Adsorption and Photocatalytic Activity for Methyl Orange Degradation
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
The presence of hazardous chemicals in wastewater produced by industrial activities and human metropoles is threating the availability of safe drinking water. The development of a multifunctional material coupling adsorption and photocatalytic activity is hereby particularly promising for the removal of pollutants. We
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The presence of hazardous chemicals in wastewater produced by industrial activities and human metropoles is threating the availability of safe drinking water. The development of a multifunctional material coupling adsorption and photocatalytic activity is hereby particularly promising for the removal of pollutants. We have proved the adsorption and catalytic activity of NiFe2O4-layered double hydroxide (LDH) composite through the degradation of methyl orange (MO) at room temperature under visible light. This degradation is enhanced by using a set of small light-emitting diodes (LEDs) providing a uniform 405 nm UV light. The remediation process is based on a first-step rapid adsorption of MO molecules by the LDH structures followed by the photocatalytic oxidation of the pollutant by the (·OH) radicals produced by the NiFe2O4 semiconductor nanoparticles (NPs). The magnetic properties of the ferrite NPs allow a facile separation of the composite from the liquid media via a simple magnet. NiFe2O4-LDH composite could find wide application as a highly effective adsorbent/oxidizing catalyst operating under visible or near UV light. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed Metal Oxides)
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Open AccessArticle Arene Ruthenium Metalla-Assemblies with Anthracene Moieties for PDT Applications
Received: 16 July 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
The synthesis and characterization of three metalla-rectangles of the general formula [Ru46-p-cymene)44-clip)22-Lanthr)2][CF3SO3]4 (Lanthr: 9,10-bis(3,3’-ethynylpyridyl) anthracene; clip
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The synthesis and characterization of three metalla-rectangles of the general formula [Ru46-p-cymene)44-clip)22-Lanthr)2][CF3SO3]4 (Lanthr: 9,10-bis(3,3’-ethynylpyridyl) anthracene; clip = oxa: oxalato; dobq: 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzoquinonato; donq: 5,8-dioxido-1,4-naphthoquinonato) are presented. The molecular structure of the metalla-rectangle [Ru46-p-cymene)44-oxa)22-Lanthr)2]4+ has been confirmed by the single-crystal X-ray structure analysis of [Ru46-p-cymene)44-oxa)22-Lanthr)2][CF3SO3]4 · 4 acetone (A2 · 4 acetone), thus showing the anthracene moieties to be available for reaction with oxygen. While the formation of the endoperoxide form of Lanthr was observed in solution upon white light irradiation, the same reaction does not occur when Lanthr is part of the metalla-assemblies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Macrocycles and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle High-Throughput Synthesis of Pillared-Layered Magnesium Tetraphosphonate Coordination Polymers: Framework Interconversions and Proton Conductivity Studies
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 6 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Novel pillared-layered framework materials were synthesized by high-throughput or microwave-assisted methodology that contain Mg2+ and the zwitterionic linker HDTMP (hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(methylenephosphonic acid)). Three compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. In the compound {Mg[(HO3PCH
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Novel pillared-layered framework materials were synthesized by high-throughput or microwave-assisted methodology that contain Mg2+ and the zwitterionic linker HDTMP (hexamethylenediamine-N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis(methylenephosphonic acid)). Three compounds were structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction. In the compound {Mg[(HO3PCH2)2N(CH2)6N(CH2PO3H2)2]·(H2O)}n(1), obtained at 140 °C by hydrothermal or microwave-assisted reaction, the layers are built by isolated Mg2+ octahedra coordinated by oxygen atoms from six different zwitterionic HDTMP ligands. Each amino-bis(methylenephosphonate) moiety links three Mg2+ ions, bridging two of them through one phosphonate group and connecting the third polyhedron in a monodentate fashion. In Compound 2, {Mg[(HO3PCH2)2N(CH2)6N(CH2PO3H2)2]}n, hydrothermally synthesized at 180 °C, the layers are composed of bidentate amino-bis(methylenephosphonate) moieties connected to three Mg2+ ions, with one of the phosphonate groups acting as a bridging ligand. Various subtle structural changes are noted for the other two compounds. Thermodiffraction of 1 reveals that a crystalline-to-crystalline phase transformation occurs concomitantly with its dehydration, leading to a new anhydrous phase, namely, {Mg[(HO3PCH2)2N(CH2)6N(CH2PO3H2)2]}n(1deh). This process is fully reversible upon equilibrating the solid at room temperature. The reported compounds can adsorb ammonia and CO2. Compound 1 exhibits a moderate proton conductivity, ~1.5 × 10−5 S·cm−1 at 80 °C and 95% RH, that increases a half order of magnitude after experiencing a complete dehydration/rehydration process, 11deh1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Phosphates and Phosphonates)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterisation of Linear and Towards Cyclic Diferrocenes with Alkynyl Spacers
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Ferrocenediyl systems offer a motif that incorporates multiple functionality and redox-active centers, enabling these units to be used as molecular scaffolds in linear and cyclic compounds. Herein, we discuss a new modular methodology for the synthesis and incorporation of ferrocenediyl motifs within extended
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Ferrocenediyl systems offer a motif that incorporates multiple functionality and redox-active centers, enabling these units to be used as molecular scaffolds in linear and cyclic compounds. Herein, we discuss a new modular methodology for the synthesis and incorporation of ferrocenediyl motifs within extended conjugated systems. We have synthesized a family of compounds featuring ferrocenediyl-ethynyl units with various para-substituted aromatic linkages. Extended linear, open-chain species have been isolated and understanding towards the analogous cyclic compounds gained. The new compounds have been probed using NMR, mass spectrometry, cyclic voltammetry and X-ray crystallography to gain further understanding of their structural and electronic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Macrocycles and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle New Mixed Y0.5R0.5VO4 and RVO4:Bi Materials: Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Some Luminescence Properties
Received: 25 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
The results are reported on a precise crystal structure and microstructure determination of new mixed YVO4-based orthovanadates of Y0.5R0.5VO4 (R = Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu) as well as some Bi3+-doped
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The results are reported on a precise crystal structure and microstructure determination of new mixed YVO4-based orthovanadates of Y0.5R0.5VO4 (R = Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu) as well as some Bi3+-doped RVO4 (R = La, Gd, Y, Lu) nano- (submicro-) materials. The formation of continuous solid solutions in the YVO4RVO4 pseudo-binary systems (R = Sm, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, Lu) has been proved. The lattice constants and unit cell volumes of the new mixed orthovanadates were analyzed as a function of R3+ cation radius. The impact of crystal structure parameters on the energy band gap of the materials was studied by means of photoluminescence studies of the Bi3+-doped compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed Metal Oxides)
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Open AccessArticle One-Dimensional Fluorene-Based Co(II) Phosphonate Co(H2O)2PO3C–C12H9·H2O: Structure and Magnetism
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
A new Co(II) phosphonate, Co(H2O)2PO3C–C12H9·H2O, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The monoclinic P21/c structure of this organic–inorganic hybrid consists of isolated perovskite-type chains of corner-shared CoO
[...] Read more.
A new Co(II) phosphonate, Co(H2O)2PO3C–C12H9·H2O, has been synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The monoclinic P21/c structure of this organic–inorganic hybrid consists of isolated perovskite-type chains of corner-shared CoO4(H2O)2 octahedra interconnected via phosphonate groups. The unique one-dimensional structure of this phase is closely related to the single-chain magnet (SCM) phosphonate Co(H2L)(H2O), with L = 4-Me-C6H4-CH2N(CPO3H2)2, that contains isolated chains of CoO5N octahedra. Like the latter, this hybrid exhibits 1D antiferromagnetic interactions and the possibility of an effective pseudo spin contribution due to spin canting at low temperature, but, in contrast, is not an SCM. This different magnetic behavior is explained by the different geometry of the octahedral chains and by the possible existence of weak antiferromagnetic interactions between the chains. This opens the route to the investigation of a large series of compounds by tuning the chemical composition and structure of the phosphonic acid used as organic precursor of hybrid materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Phosphates and Phosphonates)
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Open AccessArticle Manganese Fluorene Phosphonates: Formation of Isolated Chains
Received: 17 July 2018 / Revised: 31 August 2018 / Accepted: 3 September 2018 / Published: 5 September 2018
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Abstract
9,9-dimethylfluorenyl-2-phosphonic acid 1 was reacted with manganese nitrate tetrahydrate to produce under hydrothermal conditions the crystalline manganese phosphonate Mn(H2O)2[O2(OH)PC15H13]2·2H2O which crystallize in the P21/c space
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9,9-dimethylfluorenyl-2-phosphonic acid 1 was reacted with manganese nitrate tetrahydrate to produce under hydrothermal conditions the crystalline manganese phosphonate Mn(H2O)2[O2(OH)PC15H13]2·2H2O which crystallize in the P21/c space group. This compound is a rare example of Mn-phosphonate material featuring isolated chains. The interactions between these chains containing the 9,9-dimethylfluorenyl moieties, result from Van der Waals interactions involving the fluorene ligands and C···H–C hydrogen bonds as revealed by Hirshfeld Surfaces. This material features antiferromagnetic exchange interactions as revealed by the magnetic susceptibility as a function of the temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Phosphates and Phosphonates)
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Open AccessEditorial Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 29 August 2018 / Accepted: 30 August 2018 / Published: 4 September 2018
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Abstract
Storage of renewable energy remains a key obstacle for the implementation of a carbon free energy system. There is an urgent need to develop a variety of energy storage systems with varying performance, covering both long-term/large-scale and high gravimetric and volumetric densities for
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Storage of renewable energy remains a key obstacle for the implementation of a carbon free energy system. There is an urgent need to develop a variety of energy storage systems with varying performance, covering both long-term/large-scale and high gravimetric and volumetric densities for stationary and mobile applications. Novel materials with extraordinary properties have the potential to form the basis for technological paradigm shifts. Here, we present metal hydrides as a diverse class of materials with fascinating structures, compositions and properties. These materials can potentially form the basis for novel energy storage technologies as batteries and for hydrogen storage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials Based on Metal Hydrides) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle Assembly of ZnO Nanoparticles on SiO2@α-Fe2O3 Nanocomposites for an Efficient Photo-Fenton Reaction
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 2 September 2018 / Published: 3 September 2018
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Abstract
The SiO2@α-Fe2O3/ZnO metal oxide nanocomposites employed in this study were obtained using the sol-gel method. Their photocatalytic activities were enhanced by photo-Fenton reactions. The metal oxide composite of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were deposited
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The SiO2@α-Fe2O3/ZnO metal oxide nanocomposites employed in this study were obtained using the sol-gel method. Their photocatalytic activities were enhanced by photo-Fenton reactions. The metal oxide composite of ZnO and α-Fe2O3 nanoparticles were deposited on the SiO2 nanospheres intended for visible light photocatalysis. Further, the as-synthesized SiO2@α-Fe2O3/ZnO nanocomposites exhibited a robust crystallinity and a high adsorption of dye molecules when compared to SiO2@ZnO and SiO2@α-Fe2O3 nanocomposites, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated a rapid Methylene Blue (MB) degradation among these catalysts within short intervals of time with the addition of α-Fe2O3/ZnO mixed metal oxide catalysts on the SiO2 nanospheres. Finally, a photo-Fenton reaction was implemented to confirm the presence of the hydroxyl (OH) radicals, which are powerful agents used for the degradation of organic pollutants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed Metal Oxides)
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Open AccessArticle Crystal Structure and Coordination of B-Cations in the Ruddlesden–Popper Phases Sr3−xPrx(Fe1.25Ni0.75)O7−δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4)
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 24 August 2018 / Published: 31 August 2018
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Abstract
Compounds Sr3−xPrxFe1.25Ni0.75O7−δ with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 and Ruddlesden–Popper n = 2 type structures were synthesized and investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Both samples, prepared at
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Compounds Sr3−xPrxFe1.25Ni0.75O7−δ with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4 and Ruddlesden–Popper n = 2 type structures were synthesized and investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Both samples, prepared at 1300 °C under N2(g) flow and samples subsequently air-annealed at 900 °C, were studied. The structures contained oxygen vacancies in the perovskite layers, and the Fe/Ni cations had an average coordination number less than six. The oxygen content was considerably higher for air-annealed samples than for samples prepared under N2, 7 − δ = ~6.6 and ~5.6 per formula unit, respectively. Mössbauer data collected at 7 K, below magnetic ordering temperatures, were consistent with X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and neutron powder diffraction (NPD) results. The electrical conductivity was considerably higher for the air-annealed samples and was for x = 0.1~30 S·cm−1 at 500 °C. The thermal expansion coefficients were measured in air between room temperature and 900 °C and was found to be 20–24 ppm·K−1 overall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed Metal Oxides)
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Open AccessArticle Decomposition of d- and f-Shell Contributions to Uranium Bonding from the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules: Application to Uranium and Uranyl Halides
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 14 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 30 August 2018
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Abstract
The electronic structures of a series of uranium hexahalide and uranyl tetrahalide complexes were simulated at the density functional theoretical (DFT) level. The resulting electronic structures were analyzed using a novel application of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) by exploiting
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The electronic structures of a series of uranium hexahalide and uranyl tetrahalide complexes were simulated at the density functional theoretical (DFT) level. The resulting electronic structures were analyzed using a novel application of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM) by exploiting the high symmetry of the complexes to determine 5f- and 6d-shell contributions to bonding via symmetry arguments. This analysis revealed fluoride ligation to result in strong bonds with a significant covalent character while ligation by chloride and bromide species resulted in more ionic interactions with little differentiation between the ligands. Fluoride ligands were also found to be most capable of perturbing an existing electronic structure. 5f contributions to overlap-driven covalency were found to be larger than 6d contributions for all interactions in all complexes studied while degeneracy-driven covalent contributions showed significantly greater variation. σ-contributions to degeneracy-driven covalency were found to be consistently larger than those of individual π-components while the total π-contribution was, in some cases, larger. Strong correlations were found between overlap-driven covalent bond contributions, U–O vibrational frequencies, and energetic stability, which indicates that overlap-driven covalency leads to bond stabilization in these complexes and that uranyl vibrational frequencies can be used to quantitatively probe equatorial bond covalency. For uranium hexahalides, degeneracy-driven covalency was found to anti-correlate with bond stability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Density Functional Theory in Inorganic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle The Importance of Solvent Effects on the Mechanism of the Pfeiffer Effect
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 29 August 2018
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Abstract
The Pfeiffer effect is observed when an optically active compound such as an amino acid is introduced to a solution containing a labile racemic metal complex, and an equilibrium shift is obtained. The “perturbation” results in an excess of one enantiomer over the
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The Pfeiffer effect is observed when an optically active compound such as an amino acid is introduced to a solution containing a labile racemic metal complex, and an equilibrium shift is obtained. The “perturbation” results in an excess of one enantiomer over the other. The shift is a result of a preferential outer sphere interaction between the introduced chiral species and one enantiomeric form (Λ or ∆) of a labile metal complex. Speculations regarding the mechanism of the Pfeiffer effect have attributed observations to a singular factor such as pH, solvent polarity, or numerous other intermolecular interactions. Through the use of the lanthanide(III) complexes [Tb(DPA)3]3− and [Eu(DPA)3]3− (where DPA = 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylate) and the amino acids l-serine and l-proline; it is becoming clear that the mechanism is not so simply described as per the preliminary findings that are discussed in this study. It appears that the true mechanism is far more complicated than the attribute just a singular factor. This work attempts to shine light on the fact that understanding the behavior of the solvent environment may hypothetically be the key to offering a more detailed description of the mechanism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chiral Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessReview Ddpd as Expanded Terpyridine: Dramatic Effects of Symmetry and Electronic Properties in First Row Transition Metal Complexes
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 18 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 27 August 2018
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Abstract
The 2,2′:6′:2″-terpyridine ligand has literally shaped the coordination chemistry of transition metal complexes in a plethora of fields. Expansion of the ligand bite by amine functionalities between the pyridine units in the tridentate N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dipyridine-2-yl-pyridine-2,6-diamine ligand (ddpd)
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The 2,2′:6′:2″-terpyridine ligand has literally shaped the coordination chemistry of transition metal complexes in a plethora of fields. Expansion of the ligand bite by amine functionalities between the pyridine units in the tridentate N,N’-dimethyl-N,N’-dipyridine-2-yl-pyridine-2,6-diamine ligand (ddpd) modifies the properties of corresponding transition metal complexes, comprising redox chemistry, molecular dynamics, magnetism and luminescence. The origins of these differences between ddpd and tpy complexes will be elucidated and comprehensively summarized with respect to first row transition metal complexes with d2–d10 electron configurations. Emerging applications of these ddpd complexes complementary to those of the well-known terpyridine ligand will be highlighted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue First-Row Transition Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Metalation Studies on Titanocene Dithiolates
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 22 August 2018 / Published: 24 August 2018
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Abstract
Titanocene bis-arylthiolates [(C5H4X)(C5H4Y)Ti(SC6H4R)2] (X,Y = H, Cl; R = H, Me) can be prepared from the corresponding titanocene dichlorides by reacting with the thiols in the presence of DABCO
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Titanocene bis-arylthiolates [(C5H4X)(C5H4Y)Ti(SC6H4R)2] (X,Y = H, Cl; R = H, Me) can be prepared from the corresponding titanocene dichlorides by reacting with the thiols in the presence of DABCO as a base. They react with n-butyl lithium to give unstable Ti(III) radical anions. While the unsubstituted thiolates (X = Y = R = H) react with lithium Di-isopropylamide by decomposing to dimeric fulvalene-bridged and thiolate-bridged Ti(III) compounds, the ring-chlorinated compounds can be deprotonated with LDA and give appropriate electrophiles di-substituted and tri-substituted titanocene dithiolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallocene Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle Gd3Li3Te2O12:U6+,Eu3+: A Tunable Red Emitting Garnet Showing Efficient U6+ to Eu3+ Energy Transfer at Room Temperature
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 21 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
Since the invention of fluorescent light sources, there is strong interest in Eu3+ activated phosphors as they are able to provide a high color rendering index (CRI) and luminous efficacy, which will also hold for phosphor converted light emitting diodes. Due to
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Since the invention of fluorescent light sources, there is strong interest in Eu3+ activated phosphors as they are able to provide a high color rendering index (CRI) and luminous efficacy, which will also hold for phosphor converted light emitting diodes. Due to an efficient U6+ to Eu3+ energy transfer in Gd3Li3Te2O12:U6+,Eu3+, this inorganic composition shows red photoluminescence peaking at 611 nm. That means Eu3+ photoluminescence can be nicely sensitized via excitation into the U6+ excitation bands. Therefore, photoluminescence properties, such as temperature dependent emission and emission lifetime measurements, are presented. Charge transfer bands were investigated in detail. Additionally, density functional theory calculations reveal the band structure of the pure, i.e., non-doped host material. Obtained theoretical results were evaluated experimentally by the aid of diffuse UV reflectance spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed Metal Oxides)
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Open AccessArticle High-Performance La0.5Ba0.5Co1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3O3−δ-BaZr1−zYzO3−δ Cathode Composites via an Exsolution Mechanism for Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 20 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
A novel exsolution process was used to fabricate complex all-oxide nanocomposite cathodes for Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells (PCFCs). The nanocomposite cathodes with La0.5Ba0.5Co1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3O3−δ-BaZr1−zYzO3−δ nominal composition
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A novel exsolution process was used to fabricate complex all-oxide nanocomposite cathodes for Protonic Ceramic Fuel Cells (PCFCs). The nanocomposite cathodes with La0.5Ba0.5Co1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3O3−δ-BaZr1−zYzO3−δ nominal composition were prepared from a single-phase precursor via an oxidation-driven exsolution mechanism. The exsolution process results in a highly nanostructured and intimately interconnected percolating network of the two final phases, one proton conducting (BaZr1−zYzO3−δ) and one mixed oxygen ion and electron conducting (La0.5Ba0.5Co1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3O3−δ), yielding excellent cathode performance. The cathode powder is synthesized as a single-phase cubic precursor by a modified Pechini route followed by annealing at 700 °C in N2. The precursor phase is exsolved into two cubic perovskite phases by further heat treatment in air. The phase composition and chemical composition of the two phases were confirmed by Rietveld refinement. The electrical conductivity of the composites was measured and the electrochemical performance was determined by impedance spectroscopy of symmetrical cells using BaZr0.9Y0.1O2.95 as electrolyte. Our results establish the potential of this exsolution method where a large number of different cations can be used to design composite cathodes. The La0.5Ba0.5Co1/3Mn1/3Fe1/3O3−δ-BaZr0.9Y0.1O2.95 composite cathode shows the best performance of 0.44 Ω·cm2 at 600 °C in 3% moist synthetic air. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mixed Metal Oxides)
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Open AccessArticle Phenylacetylene and Carbon Dioxide Activation by an Organometallic Samarium Complex
Received: 3 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
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Abstract
Small molecule activation is a topic of growing importance and the use of low-valent f-elements to perform these reactions is nowadays well established. The complex Cptt2Sm(thf) (1, Cptt = 1,3-(tBu)2Cp) is shown to
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Small molecule activation is a topic of growing importance and the use of low-valent f-elements to perform these reactions is nowadays well established. The complex Cptt2Sm(thf) (1, Cptt = 1,3-(tBu)2Cp) is shown to activate the alkyne C–H bond of phenylacetylene to form the Cptt2Sm(C≡C–Ph)(thf) complex. The subsequent reaction of this Sm(III) complex with CO2 leads to the CO2 insertion, yielding a dimeric [Cptt2Sm(O2C–C≡C–Ph)]2 complex (2), in which the carbon dioxide has been inserted in the Sm–C bond. Along with the experimental chemical structure analysis, theoretical calculations have been performed in order to rationalize the formation of 1 and 2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Mediated Small Molecule Activation)
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Open AccessReview Porphyrins for Second Order Nonlinear Optics (NLO): An Intriguing History §
Received: 10 July 2018 / Revised: 7 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
This short review outlines the main results obtained by our research group over the last 15 years in the field of porphyrins and metal porphyrins for second order nonlinear optics (NLO). This overview aims to provide a general framework of the key factors
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This short review outlines the main results obtained by our research group over the last 15 years in the field of porphyrins and metal porphyrins for second order nonlinear optics (NLO). This overview aims to provide a general framework of the key factors which affect the second order NLO response of porphyrin chromophores. The pivotal role of the porphyrin ring as π-conjugated linker, the nature of the metal center, the substitution pattern which features the geometrical arrangement of donor and acceptor substituents in the different classes of porphyrin NLO-phores, as well as the aggregation phenomena and the role of solvents are addressed in detail. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Complexes as Nonlinear Optical Molecular Materials)
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Open AccessReview Dynamic Helicity Control of Oligo(salamo)-Based Metal Helicates
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 10 August 2018 / Published: 17 August 2018
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Abstract
Much attention has recently focused on helical structures that can change their helicity in response to external stimuli. The requirements for the invertible helical structures are a dynamic feature and well-defined structures. In this context, helical metal complexes with a labile coordination sphere
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Much attention has recently focused on helical structures that can change their helicity in response to external stimuli. The requirements for the invertible helical structures are a dynamic feature and well-defined structures. In this context, helical metal complexes with a labile coordination sphere have a great advantage. There are several types of dynamic helicity controls, including the responsive helicity inversion. In this review article, dynamic helical structures based on oligo(salamo) metal complexes are described as one of the possible designs. The introduction of chiral carboxylate ions into Zn3La tetranuclear structures as an additive is effective to control the P/M ratio of the helix. The dynamic helicity inversion can be achieved by chemical modification, such as protonation/deprotonation or desilylation with fluoride ion. When (S)-2-hydroxypropyl groups are introduced into the oligo(salamo) ligand, the helicity of the resultant complexes is sensitively influenced by the metal ions. The replacement of the metal ions based on the affinity trend resulted in a sequential multistep helicity inversion. Chiral salen derivatives are also effective to bias the helicity; by incorporating the gauche/anti transformation of a 1,2-disubstituted ethylene unit, a fully predictable helicity inversion system was achieved, in which the helicity can be controlled by the molecular lengths of the diammonium guests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chiral Metal Complexes)
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Open AccessArticle On the Rehydration of Organic Layered Double Hydroxides to form Low-Ordered Carbon/LDH Nanocomposites
Received: 22 July 2018 / Revised: 5 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 14 August 2018
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Abstract
Low-ordered carbon/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites were prepared by rehydration of the oxides produced by calcination of an organic LDH. While the memory effect is a widely recognized effect on oxides produced by inorganic LDH, it is unprecedented from the calcination/rehydration of organic
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Low-ordered carbon/layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanocomposites were prepared by rehydration of the oxides produced by calcination of an organic LDH. While the memory effect is a widely recognized effect on oxides produced by inorganic LDH, it is unprecedented from the calcination/rehydration of organic ones. Different temperatures (400, 600, and 1100 °C) were tested on the basis of thermogravimetric data. Water, instead of a carbonate solution, was used for the rehydration, with CO2 available from water itself and/or air to induce a slower process with an easier and better intercalation of the carbonaceous species. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), infrared in reflection mode (IR), and Raman spectroscopies and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRPD indicated the presence of carbonate LDH, and of residuals of unreacted oxides. IR confirmed that the prevailing anion is carbonate, coming from the water used for the rehydration and/or air. Raman data indicated the presence of low-ordered carbonaceous species moieties and SEM and XRPD the absence of separated bulky graphitic sheets, suggesting an intimate mixing of the low ordered carbonaceous phase with reconstructed LDH. Organic LDH gave better memory effect after calcination at 400 °C. Conversely, the carbonaceous species are observed after rehydration of the sample calcined at 600 °C with a reduced memory effect, demonstrating the interference of the carbonaceous phase with LDH reconstruction and the bonding with LDH layers to form a low-ordered carbon/LDH nanocomposite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Breakthroughs with Layered Double Hydroxides)
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Open AccessArticle Metal-Catalyzed Degradation of Cellulose in Ionic Liquid Media
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 2 August 2018 / Accepted: 8 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
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Abstract
Biomass conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has been widely investigated as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based feedstock, since it can be efficiently converted to fuel, plastic, polyester, and other industrial chemicals. In this report, the degradation of commercial cellulose, the isomerization of glucose to
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Biomass conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) has been widely investigated as a sustainable alternative to petroleum-based feedstock, since it can be efficiently converted to fuel, plastic, polyester, and other industrial chemicals. In this report, the degradation of commercial cellulose, the isomerization of glucose to fructose, and the conversion of glucose to HMF in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([BMIM]Cl]) using metal catalysts (CrCl3, ZnCl2, MgCl2) as well as tungsten and molybdenum oxide-based polyoxometalates (POM) were investigated. Tungsten and molybdenum oxide-based POMs in ionic liquids (IL) were able to degrade cellulose to majority glucose and epimerize glucose to mannose (in the case of the molybdenum oxide-based POM). A certain amount of glucose was also converted to HMF. The tungsten oxide-based POM in IL showed good activity for cellulose degradation but the overall products yield remained 28.6% lower than those obtained using CrCl3 as a catalyst. Lowering the cellulose loading did not significantly influence the results and the addition of water to the reaction medium decreased the product yields remarkably. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Ionic Liquid)
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Open AccessArticle Pb(II) Extraction with Benzo-18-Crown-6 Ether into Benzene under the Co-Presence of Cd(II) Nitrate in Water
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 27 July 2018 / Accepted: 31 July 2018 / Published: 9 August 2018
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Abstract
Extraction of Pb(II) with picrate ion [Pic] and 0, 0.58, 15, 48, or 97 mmol·dm−3 Cd(NO3)2 by benzo-18-crown-6 ether (B18C6; L as its symbol) into benzene (Bz) was studied. Three kinds of extraction constants, Kex,
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Extraction of Pb(II) with picrate ion [Pic] and 0, 0.58, 15, 48, or 97 mmol·dm−3 Cd(NO3)2 by benzo-18-crown-6 ether (B18C6; L as its symbol) into benzene (Bz) was studied. Three kinds of extraction constants, Kex, Kex±, and KPb/PbL (or Kex2±), were determined at 298 K: these constants were defined as [PbLPic2]Bz/P, [PbLPic+]Bz[Pic]Bz/P, and [PbL2+]Bz/[Pb2+][L]Bz (or [PbL2+]Bz([Pic]Bz)2/P), respectively. The symbol P shows [Pb2+][L]Bz[Pic]2 and the subscript “Bz” denotes the Bz phase, Bz saturated with water. Simultaneously, conditional distribution constants, KD,Pic (=[Pic]Bz/[Pic]), of Pic with distribution equilibrium-potential differences (dep) were determined. Then, based on the above four constants and others, the component equilibrium constants of K1,Bz (=[PbLPic+]Bz/[PbL2+]Bz[Pic]Bz), K2,Bz (=[PbLPic2]Bz/[PbLPic+]Bz[Pic]Bz), and KD,PbL (=[PbL2+]Bz/[PbL2+]) were obtained. Using these constants, the Pb(II) extraction with B18C6 under the co-presence of Cd(II) in the water phase was characterized. In such a characterization, I and IBz dependences on the constants were mainly discussed, where their symbols denote the ionic strength of the water phase and that of the Bz one, respectively. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Characterization of the Germathioacid Chloride Coordinated by an N-Heterocyclic Carbene §
Received: 28 June 2018 / Revised: 29 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
Carboxylic acid chlorides are useful substrates in organic chemistry. Many germanium analogues of carboxylic acid chloride have been synthesized so far. Nevertheless, all of the reported germathioacid chlorides use bidentate nitrogen ligands and contain germanium-nitrogen bonds. Our group synthesized germathioacid chloride, Ge(S)Cl{C6
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Carboxylic acid chlorides are useful substrates in organic chemistry. Many germanium analogues of carboxylic acid chloride have been synthesized so far. Nevertheless, all of the reported germathioacid chlorides use bidentate nitrogen ligands and contain germanium-nitrogen bonds. Our group synthesized germathioacid chloride, Ge(S)Cl{C6H3-2,6-Tip2}(Im-i-Pr2Me2), using N-heterocyclic carbene (Im-i-Pr2Me2). As a result of density functional theory (DFT) calculation, it was found that electrons are localized on sulfur, and the germanium-sulfur bond is a single bond with a slight double bond property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Coordination Chemistry of Silicon)
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Open AccessArticle Oxidation of Benzylic Alcohols and Lignin Model Compounds with Layered Double Hydroxide Catalysts
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 27 July 2018 / Published: 31 July 2018
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Abstract
Alcohol oxidation to carbonyl compounds is one of the most commonly used reactions in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we report the use of base metal layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalysts for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols in polar solvents. These catalysts are ideal reagents
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Alcohol oxidation to carbonyl compounds is one of the most commonly used reactions in synthetic chemistry. Herein, we report the use of base metal layered double hydroxide (LDH) catalysts for the oxidation of benzylic alcohols in polar solvents. These catalysts are ideal reagents for alcohol oxidations due to their ease of synthesis, tunability, and ease of separation from the reaction medium. LDHs synthesized in this study were fully characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, NH3-temperature programmed desorption (TPD), pulsed CO2 chemisorption, N2 physisorption, electron microscopy, and elemental analysis. LDHs were found to effectively oxidize benzylic alcohols to their corresponding carbonyl compounds in diphenyl ether, using O2 as the terminal oxidant. LDH catalysts were also applied to the oxidation of lignin β-O-4 model compounds. Typically, for all catalysts, only trace amounts of the ketone formed from benzylic alcohol oxidation were observed, the main products comprising benzoic acids and phenols arising from β-aryl ether cleavage. This observation is consistent with the higher reactivity of the ketones, resulting from weakening of the Cβ–O4 bond that was shown to be aerobically cleaved at 180 °C in the absence of a catalyst. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Breakthroughs with Layered Double Hydroxides)
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Open AccessReview Hydrotalcite-Type Materials Electrodeposited on Open-Cell Metallic Foams as Structured Catalysts
Received: 10 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 26 July 2018 / Published: 29 July 2018
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Abstract
Structured catalysts based on hydrotalcite-derived coatings on open-cell metallic foams combine tailored basic/acidic sites, relatively high specific surface area and/or metal dispersion of the coating as well as low pressure drop and enhanced heat and mass transfer of the 3D metallic support. The
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Structured catalysts based on hydrotalcite-derived coatings on open-cell metallic foams combine tailored basic/acidic sites, relatively high specific surface area and/or metal dispersion of the coating as well as low pressure drop and enhanced heat and mass transfer of the 3D metallic support. The properties of the resulting structured catalysts depend on the coating procedure. We have proposed the electro-base generation method for in situ and fast precipitation of Ni/Al and Rh/Mg/Al hydrotalcite-type materials on FeCrAlloy foams, which after calcination at high temperature give rise to structured catalysts for syngas (CO + H2) production through Steam Reforming and Catalytic Partial Oxidation of CH4. The fundamental understanding of the electrochemical-chemical reactions relevant for the electrodeposition and the influence of electrosynthesis parameters on the properties of the as-deposited coatings as well the resulting structured catalysts and, hence, on their catalytic performance, were summarized. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Breakthroughs with Layered Double Hydroxides)
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Open AccessArticle Tetraruthenium Metallamacrocycles with Potentially Coordinating Appended Functionalities
Received: 26 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 24 July 2018
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Abstract
We present four new tetraruthenium macrocycles built from two 1,4-divinylphenylene diruthenium and two isophthalic acid building blocks with peripheral, potentially mono- or tridentate donor functions attached to the isophthalic linkers. These macrocycles are characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and, in the
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We present four new tetraruthenium macrocycles built from two 1,4-divinylphenylene diruthenium and two isophthalic acid building blocks with peripheral, potentially mono- or tridentate donor functions attached to the isophthalic linkers. These macrocycles are characterized by multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and, in the case of the thioacetyl-appended complex 4, by X-ray crystallography. Cyclic and square wave voltammetry establish that the macrocycles can be oxidized in four consecutive redox steps that come as two pairs of two closely spaced one-electron waves. Spectroscopic changes observed during IR and UV/Vis/NIR spectroelectrochemical experiments (NIR = near infrared) show that the isophthalate linkers insulate the electroactive divinylphenylene diruthenium moieties against each other. The macrocycles exhibit nevertheless pronounced polyelectrochromism with highly intense absorptions in the Vis (2+/4+ states) and the NIR (2+ states) with extinction coefficients of up to >100,000 M−1·cm−1. The strong absorptivity enhancement with respect to the individual divinylphenylene diruthenium building blocks is attributed to conformational restrictions imposed by the macrocycle backbone. Moreover, the di- and tetracations of these macrocycles are paramagnetic as revealed by EPR spectroscopy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organometallic Macrocycles and Their Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Chiral, Heterometallic Lanthanide–Transition Metal Complexes by Design
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 12 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 19 July 2018
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Abstract
Achieving control over coordination geometries in lanthanide complexes remains a challenge to the coordination chemist. This is particularly the case in the field of molecule-based magnetism, where barriers for magnetic relaxation processes as well as tunneling pathways are strongly influenced by the lanthanide
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Achieving control over coordination geometries in lanthanide complexes remains a challenge to the coordination chemist. This is particularly the case in the field of molecule-based magnetism, where barriers for magnetic relaxation processes as well as tunneling pathways are strongly influenced by the lanthanide coordination geometry. Addressing the challenge of design of 4f-element coordination environments, the ubiquitous Ln(hfac)3 moieties have been shown to be applicable as Lewis acids coordinating transition metal acetylacetonates facially leading to simple, chiral lanthanide–transition metal heterodinuclear complexes. The broad scope of this approach is illustrated by the synthesis of a range of such complexes LnM: LnM(hfac)32-acac-O,O,O′)3 (Ln = La, Pr, Gd; M = Cr, Fe, Ga), with approximate three-fold symmetry. The complexes have been crystallographically characterized and exhibit polymorphism for some combinations of 4f and 3d metal centers. However, an isostructural set of systems spanning several lanthanides which exhibit spontaneous resolution in the orthorhombic Sohncke space group P212121 is presented here. The electronic structure and ensuing magnetic properties have been studied by EPR spectroscopy and magnetometry. The GdFe, PrFe, and PrCr complexes exhibit ferromagnetic coupling, while GdCr exhibits antiferromagnetic coupling. GdGa exhibits slow relaxation of the magnetization in applied static fields. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Magnetic Lanthanide Complexes)
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Open AccessReview Self-Assembly in Polyoxometalate and Metal Coordination-Based Systems: Synthetic Approaches and Developments
Received: 8 June 2018 / Revised: 6 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 July 2018 / Published: 13 July 2018
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Abstract
Utilizing new experimental approaches and gradual understanding of the underlying chemical processes has led to advances in the self-assembly of inorganic and metal–organic compounds at a very fast pace over the last decades. Exploitation of unveiled information originating from initial experimental observations has
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Utilizing new experimental approaches and gradual understanding of the underlying chemical processes has led to advances in the self-assembly of inorganic and metal–organic compounds at a very fast pace over the last decades. Exploitation of unveiled information originating from initial experimental observations has sparked the development of new families of compounds with unique structural characteristics and functionalities. The main source of inspiration for numerous research groups originated from the implementation of the design element along with the discovery of new chemical components which can self-assemble into complex structures with wide range of sizes, topologies and functionalities. Not only do self-assembled inorganic and metal–organic chemical systems belong to families of compounds with configurable structures, but also have a vast array of physical properties which reflect the chemical information stored in the various “modular” molecular subunits. The purpose of this short review article is not the exhaustive discussion of the broad field of inorganic and metal–organic chemical systems, but the discussion of some representative examples from each category which demonstrate the implementation of new synthetic approaches and design principles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Self-Assembly of Supramolecular Coordination Compounds)
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