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Educ. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 10 (October 2020) – 34 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Statistics show that nearly 60% of all gifted students are not actualising their potential. [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Strategies for Successful Learning with Geographical Comics: An Eye-Tracking Study with Young Learners
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 293; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100293 - 21 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Many studies report that comics are useful as learning material. However, there is little known about how learning with comics works. Based on previously established theories about multimedia learning, we conducted an eye-tracking experiment to examine learning about geography with a specially designed [...] Read more.
Many studies report that comics are useful as learning material. However, there is little known about how learning with comics works. Based on previously established theories about multimedia learning, we conducted an eye-tracking experiment to examine learning about geography with a specially designed combination of comic and map which we call geo-comic. In our experiment, we show that our geo-comic fulfills many prerequisites for promoting deep learning. Thus, we establish guidelines for an effective design of geo-comics and recommend deploying comics in combination with maps in geography classes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Curriculum and Instruction)
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Open AccessArticle
Modified Blended Learning in Engineering Higher Education during the COVID-19 Lockdown—Building Automation Courses Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 292; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100292 - 20 Oct 2020
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Abstract
The blended learning method with its supporting electronic tools is a very well-known approach in academic education. In most of its practical applications, direct face to face contacts between students and the teacher as well as students with each other in groups are [...] Read more.
The blended learning method with its supporting electronic tools is a very well-known approach in academic education. In most of its practical applications, direct face to face contacts between students and the teacher as well as students with each other in groups are important elements in the organization of lectures and classes. This is of particular importance in conducting laboratory classes in teaching process for engineers. However, the COVID-19 lockdown in the spring of 2020 closed schools, universities and completely eliminated the possibility of direct interpersonal contacts. These extraordinary circumstances forced changes in the organization of the teaching process, in particular the introduction of distance learning. Therefore, this paper proposes a modified blended learning method as well as describes a case study on its introduction in the education of building automation engineers at a technical university. A new organizational structure of this modified method is presented, with discussion of tools and methods of active distance learning, introduced during the COVID-19 lockdown period. Finally, some experiences, general reflections along with the identification of the preferred forms of distance learning by students are presented. The future works are briefly described as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue E-learning in Engineering Education: Challenges and Solutions)
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Open AccessReview
Online Delivery of Teaching and Laboratory Practices: Continuity of University Programmes during COVID-19 Pandemic
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100291 - 19 Oct 2020
Viewed by 353
Abstract
A great number of universities worldwide are having their education interrupted, partially or fully, by the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Consequently, an increasing number of universities have taken the steps necessary to transform their teaching, including laboratory workshops into an online [...] Read more.
A great number of universities worldwide are having their education interrupted, partially or fully, by the spread of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Consequently, an increasing number of universities have taken the steps necessary to transform their teaching, including laboratory workshops into an online or blended mode of delivery. Irrespective of the measures taken, universities must continue to maintain their high academic standards and provide a high-quality student experience as required for delivery of learning outcomes associated with each degree programme. This has created a challenge across the higher education landscape, where academics had to switch to remote teaching and different approaches to achieving laboratory delivery. As a result, students have not been receiving face-to-face teaching, and access to laboratory facilities has been limited or nearly impossible. This paper reviews numerous approaches taken by universities to deliver teaching and laboratory practices remotely, in consideration of the COVID-19 pandemic, whilst also considering the potential impacts on the student learning experience. This review is primarily focused on the fields of engineering, science and technology, based on published literature including books, reviewing web-based provision of selected universities, institutional and national policy documents. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experiences of Preservice and In-Service Teachers in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Infusion Curriculum
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 290; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100290 - 18 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Considering the limited field experience offered for preservice teachers to competently prepare them to implement the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in schools, the purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of preservice and in-service teachers participating in a CSPAP [...] Read more.
Considering the limited field experience offered for preservice teachers to competently prepare them to implement the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) in schools, the purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of preservice and in-service teachers participating in a CSPAP infusion curriculum within a physical education teacher education program. Fourteen preservice teachers enrolled in an elementary physical education course implemented four CSPAP projects in four elementary schools as part of coursework. At the end of the project, the preservice teachers participated in focus group discussions and submitted self-reflection papers, while four in-service teachers who partnered in the program participated in interviews. Guided by Self-Determination Theory, results indicated that the preservice teachers developed competency and experienced autonomy in CSPAP implementation during field experiences. Furthermore, they felt a sense of relatedness with the teachers, classmates, and children throughout the program. Support for future implementation is spurred through the school community. In view of the increasing need for preservice teachers to be equipped with the skills to implement CSPAPs, infusing a CSPAP curriculum within a physical education course is viable to facilitate intrinsic motivation among preservice teachers to implement physical activity programs in the future. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Kinds of Mathematical Reasoning Addressed in Empirical Research in Mathematics Education: A Systematic Review
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 289; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100289 - 17 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Mathematical reasoning is gaining increasing significance in mathematics education. It has become part of school curricula and the numbers of empirical studies are growing. Researchers investigate mathematical reasoning, yet, what is being under investigation is diverse—which goes along with a diversity of understandings [...] Read more.
Mathematical reasoning is gaining increasing significance in mathematics education. It has become part of school curricula and the numbers of empirical studies are growing. Researchers investigate mathematical reasoning, yet, what is being under investigation is diverse—which goes along with a diversity of understandings of the term reasoning. The aim of this article is to provide an overview on kinds of mathematical reasoning that are addressed in mathematics education research. We conducted a systematic review focusing on the question: What kinds of reasoning are addressed in empirical research in mathematics education? We pursued this question by searching for articles in the database Web of Science with the term reason* in the title. Based on this search, we used a systematic approach to inductively find kinds of reasoning addressed in empirical research in mathematics education. We found three domain-general kinds of reasoning (e.g., creative reasoning) as well as six domain-specific kinds of reasoning (e.g., algebraic reasoning). The article gives an overview on these different kinds of reasoning both in a domain-general and domain-specific perspective, which may be of value for both research and practice (e.g., school teaching). Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Literacy Teacher Educators Creating Space for Children’s Literature
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100288 - 17 Oct 2020
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Abstract
This paper reports on a qualitative research study that examined how 10 literacy teacher educators (LTEs) utilized children’s literature to invite teacher trainees to critically engage with social issues, challenge their assumptions about literacy, and begin to develop the knowledge and dispositions to [...] Read more.
This paper reports on a qualitative research study that examined how 10 literacy teacher educators (LTEs) utilized children’s literature to invite teacher trainees to critically engage with social issues, challenge their assumptions about literacy, and begin to develop the knowledge and dispositions to work alongside diverse learners (e.g., culturally, linguistically, socio-economically). The LTEs recognized that teacher trainees often entered their literacy courses with restricted conceptions of literacy and deficit assumptions about children from economically marginalized and/or culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. Within their courses, the LTEs positioned literacy as a multifaceted social practice, wherein access to a variety of representational resources facilitates the active construction of knowledge and identities. The LTEs modeled instructional strategies and designed assignments that encouraged teacher trainees to use children’s literature as a means to connect with issues relevant to the lives of young learners within contemporary classrooms. This research will be of interest to LTEs who endeavor to use children’s literature as a springboard to support teacher trainees to develop a self-reflective stance and a critical cultural consciousness. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Potential Educational Value of Mobile Augmented Reality Games: The Case of EduPARK App
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100287 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 190
Abstract
New teaching methodologies are nowadays integrating mobile devices, augmented reality (AR), and game-based learning in educational contexts. The combination of these three elements is considered highly innovative, and it allows learning to move beyond traditional classroom environments to nature spaces that students can [...] Read more.
New teaching methodologies are nowadays integrating mobile devices, augmented reality (AR), and game-based learning in educational contexts. The combination of these three elements is considered highly innovative, and it allows learning to move beyond traditional classroom environments to nature spaces that students can physically explore. The literature does not present many studies of this approach’s educational value. The purpose of the study is to present an illustrative case of a mobile AR game in order to analyse its educational value based on the users’ opinion, both teachers and students, and on logs of game results. Through a mixed method approach, the educational value scale was applied to 924 users after playing the EduPARK app in a Green City Park. Results revealed high educational value scores, especially among teachers and students of 2nd and 3rd Cycles of Basic Education (83.0 for both). Hence, this particular software seems to be more suitable for 10–15 years-old students who highlighted motivational features, such as treasure hunting, points gathering, the use of mobile devices in nature settings, and AR features to learn. This study empirically revealed that mobile AR games have educational value, so these specific game features might be useful for those who are interested in creating or using games supported by apps for educational purposes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Trends in Game-Based Learning Supported by Mobile Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
“Can East Asian Students Think?”: Orientalism, Critical Thinking, and the Decolonial Project
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100286 - 16 Oct 2020
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Abstract
Amidst the increasing calls for the decolonisation of universities, this article interrogates the representation of East Asian students in Western academia. It is argued that East Asian students are often imagined in Orientalist ways, as can be evidenced by evaluating the depiction of [...] Read more.
Amidst the increasing calls for the decolonisation of universities, this article interrogates the representation of East Asian students in Western academia. It is argued that East Asian students are often imagined in Orientalist ways, as can be evidenced by evaluating the depiction of East Asian students in academic publications. More specifically, it is suggested that common perceptions of East Asian students as lacking in critical thinking may unwittingly reinforce stereotypes that are rooted in historic narratives which depict East Asians as inferior to (white) Westerners. This article also explores the way in which East Asian academics and students may also subscribe to these Orientalist perceptions. Finally, this article offers a refutation of the stereotype that East Asian students struggle with critical thinking and it suggests that being more reflexive about the way that we imagine ethnic minority students should be a key component of our efforts to decolonise the university. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Health-Habits with the S.M.A.R.T. Questionnaire: An Observational Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100285 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 370
Abstract
The civil education approach uses sports practise as a preventive intervention to increase self-awareness and to help modulate emotion in adolescents. Indeed, sports participation results in a better quality of life, more favourable cardio-metabolic and sleeping profiles and a healthier body composition. Adolescents [...] Read more.
The civil education approach uses sports practise as a preventive intervention to increase self-awareness and to help modulate emotion in adolescents. Indeed, sports participation results in a better quality of life, more favourable cardio-metabolic and sleeping profiles and a healthier body composition. Adolescents involved in sport activities also report a higher level of social and emotional skills, and reduced mental health distress. However, the Italian school’s program provides only two hours weekly of physical education, with lack of options and participation. In alignment with the civil educational approach, the research team aims to develop a predictive sport, movement, eating habits, relationships and technologies (S.M.A.R.T.) questionnaire to identify the youths that present a higher risk of delinquency. The following research aims to explore preliminary data from 501 adolescents completing the S.M.A.R.T. The results show that the female group (n = 260) was healthier than the male group (n = 241); particularly, the female group demonstrated a higher level of self-awareness in the use of technologies (p < 0.05). Our results produce the first data set on a cohort of young adolescents in Italy using the S.M.A.R.T. questionnaire. The questionnaire possesses a high response rate and should now be implemented towards validation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Bringing Out-of-School Learning into the Classroom: Self- versus Peer-Monitoring of Learning Behaviour
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100284 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Based on classroom management fostering autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, this study examines effects of reciprocal peer-monitoring of learning behaviours on cognitive and affective outcomes. Within our study, 470 German secondary school students between 13 and 16 years of age participated in a [...] Read more.
Based on classroom management fostering autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, this study examines effects of reciprocal peer-monitoring of learning behaviours on cognitive and affective outcomes. Within our study, 470 German secondary school students between 13 and 16 years of age participated in a multimodal hands- and minds-on exhibition focusing on renewable resources. Three groups were separated and monitored via a pre-post-follow up questionnaire: the first conducted peer-monitoring with the performance of specific roles to manage students’ learning behaviours, the second accomplished a self-monitoring strategy, while the third group did not visit the exhibition. In contrast to the latter control group, both treatment groups produced a high increase in short- and long-term knowledge achievement. The peer-monitored group scored higher in cognitive learning outcomes than the self-monitored group did. Interestingly, the perceived level of choice did not differ between both treatment groups, whereas peer-monitoring increased students’ perceived competence and simultaneously reduced the perceived level of anxiety and boredom. Peer-monitoring realised with the performance of specific roles seems to keep students “on task” without lowering indicators for students’ intrinsic motivation. Herewith, we are amongst the first to suggest peer-monitoring as a semi-formal learning approach to balance between teacher-controlled instruction and free-choice exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Sustainable and Flipped STEM Education: Formative Assessment Online Interface for Observing Pre-Service Teachers’ Performance and Motivation
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 283; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100283 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 296
Abstract
Sustainable science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education involves lifelong education in various domains. Active learning strategies are receiving increased attention as an important tool, and particularly online-based formative assessment interfaces, although challenges to their use remain in sustainable and flipped STEM education. [...] Read more.
Sustainable science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education involves lifelong education in various domains. Active learning strategies are receiving increased attention as an important tool, and particularly online-based formative assessment interfaces, although challenges to their use remain in sustainable and flipped STEM education. In this research, we observed pre-service teachers’ (PSTs’) performance and motivation in a university STEM course that was planned as a randomized examination of 71 students during a 2017/2018 course with an online interface for sustainable and flipped formative assessment. In terms of PSTs’ standardized performance and the motivation effect survey, we gathered and examined the data to observe pre- and post-test results on adaptive assignments. Additionally, feedback from/to instructors and their log records were recorded by the proposed interface. The results demonstrate the PSTs’ positive performance and motivation, and the feedback and log records reiterate its positive influence with 98.6% participation in the sustainable and flipped online formative assessment interface. Consequently, the foremost drawbacks and challenges that current and traditional STEM education are facing are meaningfully reflected by the results obtained. Thus, the platform allows PSTs to be more involved in experimental contexts and validates learning performance, and the motivations effect survey provides a sustainable and active learning methodology for their future profession. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Research on Cross-Domain Study Curricula in Cyber-Physical Systems: A Case Study of Belarusian and Ukrainian Universities
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100282 - 15 Oct 2020
Viewed by 214
Abstract
The increasing importance of continuingly complex Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) challenges and encourages universities worldwide to organize up-to-date CPS oriented educational programs. The Erasmus+ project “CybPhys” aims to support CPS oriented educational programs in Belarus and Ukraine. We put forward a hypothesis that the [...] Read more.
The increasing importance of continuingly complex Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) challenges and encourages universities worldwide to organize up-to-date CPS oriented educational programs. The Erasmus+ project “CybPhys” aims to support CPS oriented educational programs in Belarus and Ukraine. We put forward a hypothesis that the educational situation, training opportunities, situation of the labor market, and general economic development are related to each other and can vary depending on the region. In order to validate our hypothesis and to provide input to curricula modernizations, an in-depth study in the form of surveys was conducted in the years 2019–2020. The results of the study showed that the differences between the perceptions of stakeholders in different regions of one country were more significant than the deviations between the global evaluation marks obtained from Belarusian and Ukrainian respondents. In order to increase the synergy of the CybPhys partners, the transdisciplinary and T-shape skills approaches are introduced to the education programs of the partner’s universities. An innovative ICT based teaching and learning environment and associated teaching methodologies will be developed. The research provides valuable input to the development of industry and research-oriented cross-domain study programs in Cyber-Physical Systems focused on the needs of Belarusian and Ukrainian industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Engineering Education in Knowledge Based Society)
Open AccessArticle
Rights of Indigenous Children: Reading Children’s Literature through an Indigenous Knowledges Lens
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100281 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Indigenous children’s literature supports Indigenous communities’ rights to revitalization, and to the transmission to future generations, of Indigenous histories, languages, and world views, as put forth in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Drawing on Indigenous teachings that were [...] Read more.
Indigenous children’s literature supports Indigenous communities’ rights to revitalization, and to the transmission to future generations, of Indigenous histories, languages, and world views, as put forth in the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Drawing on Indigenous teachings that were given to him by Elders, an Indigenous Knowledge Keeper, Red Bear, interprets 10 Indigenous picture books published in Canada between 2015 and 2019 by mainstream and Indigenous publishing companies. These books were selected from the International Best Books for Children Canada’s list of Indigenous books and websites of four Canadian Indigenous publishers. We discuss the Knowledge Keeper’s interpretation of books that are grouped within four categories: intergenerational impact of residential schools, stories using spiritual lessons from nature, autobiography and biography, and stories using teachings about relationships. Recognizing the richness, authenticity, and integrity of Red Bear’s interpretation of the books, we propose that all teachers should strive to learn Indigenous cultural perspectives and knowledge when reading Indigenous children’s literature. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Simulation-Supported Inquiry on South African Natural Sciences Learners’ Understanding of Atomic and Molecular Structures
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 280; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100280 - 14 Oct 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of interactive computer simulation-supported inquiry on South African grade 8 learners’ comprehension of atoms and molecular structures. Two sample groups of 34 learners per sample group were used, one acting as a control group who were exposed to [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of interactive computer simulation-supported inquiry on South African grade 8 learners’ comprehension of atoms and molecular structures. Two sample groups of 34 learners per sample group were used, one acting as a control group who were exposed to a teacher-directed pedagogy while the experimental group used simulations in inquiry-based learning as an intervention to enhance their understanding of atomic and molecular structures. Data were collected by means of conceptual tests, a questionnaire survey, and individual interviews. A statistical analysis of quantitative data gleaned from the post-test showed that the learners in the experimental group performed better than the control group learners. This reflects that the interactive simulations using in an inquiry activity impacted more favorably on the conceptual understanding of learners compared to a teacher-directed approach. The results of the questionnaire survey indicated that learners in the experimental class had a positive experience of using the simulations. They recognized that the simulations enhanced their visualization of abstract concepts, and they reflected on their efficacy in manipulating the simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancing Undergraduate Student Success in STEM Fields through Growth-Mindset and Grit
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 279; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100279 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 289
Abstract
Concern about graduation rates in higher education has led universities to offer courses that help students develop success skills. Scientist Life Skills, a new course for freshman at Florida A&M University, focuses on helping students matriculate into majors via development of growth mindset, [...] Read more.
Concern about graduation rates in higher education has led universities to offer courses that help students develop success skills. Scientist Life Skills, a new course for freshman at Florida A&M University, focuses on helping students matriculate into majors via development of growth mindset, grit, and critical thinking. Here, we assessed the outcomes of this course and explored the associations between building life skills and student success. A series of mindset, grit, and critical-thinking assessment measures were used to collect data before and after the course. Our results showed that the new course achieved its intended goals of providing STEM students with a set of tools that help them seamlessly transition into the university and successfully matriculate through their majors. Specifically, the course design significantly moved students toward a growth-mindset, increased their critical thinking, and their second-semester grade point averages (GPAs). This model life skills course can be adopted in non-STEM areas as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Geography Teachers’ Knowledge of and Perceptions on Dyslexia
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100278 - 12 Oct 2020
Viewed by 231
Abstract
At all levels of education, teachers are actively involved in improving students’ learning outcomes and developing their own pedagogical experience. As a consequence, the teacher’s role in managing learning difficulties is of particular importance. This research investigates secondary school geography teachers’ knowledge of [...] Read more.
At all levels of education, teachers are actively involved in improving students’ learning outcomes and developing their own pedagogical experience. As a consequence, the teacher’s role in managing learning difficulties is of particular importance. This research investigates secondary school geography teachers’ knowledge of and perceptions of dyslexia. For research purposes, 61 questionnaires were distributed to secondary teachers teaching geography all over Greece. The questionnaire included a total of 30 questions about demographic and personal information, teachers’ knowledge of and perceptions of dyslexia, and teaching approaches they adopt while teaching geography. The research examined teachers’ willingness to use teaching tools and innovative approaches that would help all students and, more specifically, dyslexics. The responses were coded using SPSSv.23.00. The results show that teachers’ knowledge of dyslexia is contradictory, as most teachers (93.4%) believe that dyslexia affects students’ performance only in language courses, whereas a smaller percentage of teachers (just 27.8%) believe that dyslexic students also find it difficult to participate in science courses, and only 26.2% believe they face difficulties in orientation as well. Teachers also have unclear views on how to manage dyslexia and how to implement effective teaching strategies. The results show the importance of geography teachers’ training on dyslexia and the integration of new technology in teaching dyslexic students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects and Prerequisites of Self-Generation in Inquiry-Based Learning
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 277; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100277 - 10 Oct 2020
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Abstract
The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of self-generation in inquiry-based learning and to identify the role of feedback. While open-ended inquiry-based learning with a high degree of self-generation requirements has long been considered optimal for facilitating effective learning, its [...] Read more.
The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of self-generation in inquiry-based learning and to identify the role of feedback. While open-ended inquiry-based learning with a high degree of self-generation requirements has long been considered optimal for facilitating effective learning, its long-run effects have been critically challenged. This study employed a 3 (learning condition) × 2 (retention interval) mixed factorial design (N = 98). An inquiry activity involving the self-generation of content knowledge with or without subsequent feedback was compared to an inquiry task in which students simply read hypotheses and data interpretations. Self-generation without feedback was subject to rereading and self-generation with feedback. However, no differences were found under the two latter conditions. An additional analysis of individual learners’ abilities revealed that different abilities (e.g., cognitive load, self-generation success) served as predictors of performance in the disparate treatments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Prediction of Factors That Affect the Knowledge and Use Higher Education Professors from Spain Make of ICT Resources to Teach, Evaluate and Research: A Study with Research Methods in Educational Technology
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 276; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100276 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 241
Abstract
Due to the rise of new technologies, further development of digital competence by professors is necessary. The aim of this paper is to know the pedagogical digital competence of lecturers in Spain, focused on a model called PDC-TER: ICT resources to Teach, to [...] Read more.
Due to the rise of new technologies, further development of digital competence by professors is necessary. The aim of this paper is to know the pedagogical digital competence of lecturers in Spain, focused on a model called PDC-TER: ICT resources to Teach, to Evaluate and to Research; as well as to predict those variables that affect the level of this competence through different regressions (Multiple Linear Regression, MLR). A study has been carried out in the Spanish territory, with a total of 867 lecturers. For it, an ex post facto non-probabilistic study based on the survey technique has been proposed. The results show that the professors have an average level of digital pedagogical competence, while in the 2.0 tools for teaching and research dimensions, it has a medium high level of competence, as well as a medium level in relation to the use of tools 2.0 for the evaluation. Furthermore, one of the variables predictive of the level of digital competence in the three dimensions of the PDC-TER model, is the number of research and innovation projects in which they have participated. These data highlight the need to improve the digital competence of professors in order to meet the demands of the qualified professions of the future, and therefore, prepare students for it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
University Students’ Perception of the Usefulness of the Flipped Classroom Methodology
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 275; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100275 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 271
Abstract
In a digital and interconnected context, where educational processes are in constant change, active methodologies take on a relevant role by making students the protagonists of their learning. Among the different possibilities, the flipped classroom stands out for its time optimization, the incorporation [...] Read more.
In a digital and interconnected context, where educational processes are in constant change, active methodologies take on a relevant role by making students the protagonists of their learning. Among the different possibilities, the flipped classroom stands out for its time optimization, the incorporation of technological resources, and the personalization of the processes. The aim of this research is to analyze the perception of higher education students about the usefulness of the flipped classroom as a methodology. The information was collected with a validated instrument, which was applied to a sample of 123 students from the Faculty of Educational Sciences of the University of Málaga (Spain). A positive evaluation of the usefulness of the flipped classroom as a learning methodology was reflected in the results, highlighting its instrumental dimension. Significant differences were perceived regarding the usefulness of the flipped classroom for the promotion of autonomous learning, which had a superior valuation according to women. In conclusion, the flipped classroom stands as a methodological alternative to promote learning that has a positive evaluation from the students that made up the sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Conceptualising Gifted Student (Dis) Engagement through the Lens of Learner (Re) Engagement
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 274; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100274 - 10 Oct 2020
Viewed by 503
Abstract
It is well-recognised that disengagement is a growing problem in schools across the globe. Furthermore, statistics show that nearly 60% of all gifted students are not actualising their potential, exposing the loss of potential for both the individual and society. While disengagement and [...] Read more.
It is well-recognised that disengagement is a growing problem in schools across the globe. Furthermore, statistics show that nearly 60% of all gifted students are not actualising their potential, exposing the loss of potential for both the individual and society. While disengagement and underachievement are complex issues with no one root cause, it is well-established that when students are actively engaged in their learning, they learn more effectively. Talent actualisation is not guaranteed just because a student is gifted. As such there is heightened concern about student (dis)engagement, where there is a failure to adequately support (re)engagement so that gifted potential can develop into talent actualisation, which is evidenced through mastery. This conceptual article provides a new lens through which to explore (re)engagement opportunities for gifted students by conceptualising the interrelationship between three interconnected constructs: (1) four engagement dimensions (behavioural, affective, social, and cognitive); (2) Neihart and Betts’ six profiles of the gifted; and (3) appropriate pedagogical approaches aimed at (re)engagement. The authors’ focus on proposing new conceptualisations of these three interdependent constructs through a framework titled the (Re) Engagement Nexus Model. This model is intended as a starting point for future research in personalising (re)engagement opportunities for gifted learners and preventing underachievement and disengagement before it becomes entrenched. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gifted Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Education and Care: How Teachers Promote the Inclusion of Children and Youth at Risk in South Africa
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 273; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100273 - 09 Oct 2020
Viewed by 295
Abstract
Children and youth at risk, particularly those placed in child and youth care centres (CYCC) in South Africa, have suffered from school disengagement due to multiple barriers to learning such as the exposure to crime and violence at a young age. As children [...] Read more.
Children and youth at risk, particularly those placed in child and youth care centres (CYCC) in South Africa, have suffered from school disengagement due to multiple barriers to learning such as the exposure to crime and violence at a young age. As children and youth at risk at these centres find it difficult to engage in learning, new approaches need to be found to re-engage their interest to learn. This article discusses how the ‘Curriculum of Care’, an adaptation of the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS), responds to the educational needs of children and youth at risk at a CYCC in the Western Cape. It draws primarily from interviews and a focus group discussion with the centre manager and teachers at the institution. The findings reveal that positive learning outcomes, and the effective integration of children and youth at risk, are shaped by positive teacher–learner relationships; however, the findings raise questions about the extent to which such a curriculum prepares children and youth at risk for life after they leave the institution. The article suggests that the institutions providing education and care for children and youth at risk need to provide a curriculum balancing academic rigour with care to promote a holistic, inclusive education programme that enables youth and children at risk to effectively navigate their entry into society. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research in Inclusive Education)
Open AccessArticle
Simulated Fieldwork: A Virtual Approach to Clinical Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 272; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100272 - 02 Oct 2020
Viewed by 431
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate student satisfaction and perceived clinical reasoning and learning using a computer-based simulation platform that incorporates case-based learning principles. The simulation was used to replace a previously scheduled face-to-face clinical rotation which was cancelled due to [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate student satisfaction and perceived clinical reasoning and learning using a computer-based simulation platform that incorporates case-based learning principles. The simulation was used to replace a previously scheduled face-to-face clinical rotation which was cancelled due to COVID-19. A descriptive design was used to implement the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale (SSES) with students (n = 27) following each a low fidelity (paper cases) and high fidelity (Simucase™) simulation. A comparison of the SSES data following paper cases and simulation scenarios indicated statistically significant increases in Debrief and Reflection (p = 0.008) and Clinical Reasoning (p = 0.043), suggesting that students develop in-depth reflection, reasoning, and clinical abilities as they progress through their simulated experience. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Digital Escape Room, Using Genial.Ly and A Breakout to Learn Algebra at Secondary Education Level in Spain
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 271; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100271 - 01 Oct 2020
Viewed by 376
Abstract
One of the main objectives in mathematics education is to motivate students due to the fact that their interest in this area is often very low. The use of different technologies, as well as gamification in the classroom, can help us to meet [...] Read more.
One of the main objectives in mathematics education is to motivate students due to the fact that their interest in this area is often very low. The use of different technologies, as well as gamification in the classroom, can help us to meet this goal. In this case, it is presented the use of two techniques, which are a digital escape room, using Genial.ly and a breakout, for learning algebra in the third course of secondary education. To carry out the experience, a comparison of the course 2018/2019 and the course 2019/2020 is made. Students of both courses completed an exam of algebraic fractions and then an equations exam; the exams were done in the course 2019/2020 taken after having used the techniques. The results show that there are low significant differences between both courses in the algebraic fractions exam qualifications, but those of the equations exam were significant, with a difference of almost two points, which led us to conclude that the use of this techniques improved the qualifications of students. Finally, the perception that students had of the experience was very positive, as shown by the data obtained and allowed them to improve their knowledge as well as their motivation and teamwork. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Trends in STEM Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Factors Affecting Acceptance of E-Learning: A Machine Learning Algorithm Approach
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 270; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100270 - 30 Sep 2020
Viewed by 415
Abstract
The Covid-19 epidemic is affecting all areas of life, including the training activities of universities around the world. Therefore, the online learning method is an effective method in the present time and is used by many universities. However, not all training institutions have [...] Read more.
The Covid-19 epidemic is affecting all areas of life, including the training activities of universities around the world. Therefore, the online learning method is an effective method in the present time and is used by many universities. However, not all training institutions have sufficient conditions, resources, and experience to carry out online learning, especially in under-resourced developing countries. Therefore, the construction of traditional courses (face to face), e-learning, or blended learning in limited conditions that still meet the needs of students is a problem faced by many universities today. To solve this problem, we propose a method of evaluating the influence of these factors on the e-learning system. From there, it is a matter of clarifying the importance and prioritizing construction investment for each factor based on the K-means clustering algorithm, using the data of students who have been participating in the system. At the same time, we propose a model to support students to choose one of the learning methods, such as traditional, e-learning or blended learning, which is suitable for their skills and abilities. The data classification method with the algorithms multilayer perceptron (MP), random forest (RF), K-nearest neighbor (KNN), support vector machine (SVM) and naïve bayes (NB) is applied to find the model fit. The experiment was conducted on 679 data samples collected from 303 students studying at the Academy of Journalism and Communication (AJC), Vietnam. With our proposed method, the results are obtained from experimentation for the different effects of infrastructure, teachers, and courses, also as features of these factors. At the same time, the accuracy of the prediction results which help students to choose an appropriate learning method is up to 81.52%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Technology Enhanced Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Cooperative Collaboration in the Hybrid Space of Google Docs Based Group Work
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100269 - 30 Sep 2020
Viewed by 427
Abstract
This study investigates how Google Docs is used and affects group work in classrooms. Inspired by networked learning theory and the concept of learning spaces in education theory, Google Docs group work is conceptualized as a hybrid learning space. Based on close video [...] Read more.
This study investigates how Google Docs is used and affects group work in classrooms. Inspired by networked learning theory and the concept of learning spaces in education theory, Google Docs group work is conceptualized as a hybrid learning space. Based on close video ethnographic examinations of group work sessions, the analysis focuses upon what the pupils actually do when combining oral and written communication, how the hybrid Google Docs space affects collaborative and cooperative activity, as well as the role of the group’s social context. Whereas Google Docs is often associated with collaboration, the findings in this study suggest: (1) that Google Docs in fact helps single group members to establish multimodal leadership to dominate the hybrid learning space of the group work settings; and (2) that Google Docs provides space for non-leaders to make cooperative contributions. This motivates a conceptual reassessment of collaboration and cooperation as working patterns before the paper ends with a discussion of potential pedagogical implications for the use of Google Docs in group work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Entrepreneurship Education with Companies: Teachers Organizing School-Company Interaction
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100268 - 29 Sep 2020
Viewed by 394
Abstract
Previous research into entrepreneurial learning has focused mainly on defining its aims; however, there seems to be little discussion on understanding the barriers or incentives involved when carrying out the pedagogical solutions that would enable entrepreneurial learning. In this study, we examine basic [...] Read more.
Previous research into entrepreneurial learning has focused mainly on defining its aims; however, there seems to be little discussion on understanding the barriers or incentives involved when carrying out the pedagogical solutions that would enable entrepreneurial learning. In this study, we examine basic education level schools’ cooperation with outside partners, especially from the school principals’ and teachers’ viewpoints. The study aims to understand the perspectives of teachers and principals on planning and organizing school-company interaction. To do this, content analysis was used in this qualitative study. The data were collected via semi-structured interviews with school teachers and principals, involving a total of 35 people working in basic education. The findings of the study show that principals and teachers intentionally select long-term cooperation methods to meet the aims of entrepreneurial learning. On the other hand, teachers that have chosen to apply short-term school-company cooperation methods have highlighted the ease of these methods rather than learning. Finally, our findings suggest that planning and organizing entrepreneurial learning would benefit from school-level commitment where collaboration between teachers and between teachers and company representatives is valued. We believe that would lead to more satisfied teachers and longer-term school-company cooperation, and also believe that short-term school-company cooperation methods would better meet the aims of entrepreneurial learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
Open AccessArticle
How ‘Networked’ are Online Collaborative Concept-Maps? Introducing Metrics for Quantifying and Comparing the ‘Networkedness’ of Collaboratively Constructed Content
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 267; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100267 - 28 Sep 2020
Viewed by 493
Abstract
With the growing role of online multi-participant collaborations in shaping the academic, professional, and civic spheres, incorporating collaborative online practices in educational settings has become imperative. As more educators include such practices in their curricula, they are faced with new challenges. Assessment of [...] Read more.
With the growing role of online multi-participant collaborations in shaping the academic, professional, and civic spheres, incorporating collaborative online practices in educational settings has become imperative. As more educators include such practices in their curricula, they are faced with new challenges. Assessment of collaborations, especially in larger groups, is particularly challenging. Assessing the quality of the collaborative “thought process” and its product is essential for both pedagogical and evaluative purposes. While traditional quantitative quality measures were designed for individual work or the aggregated work of individuals, capturing the complexity and the integrative nature of high-quality collaborative learning requires novel methodologies. Network analysis provides methods and tools that can identify, describe, and quantify non-linear and complex phenomena. This paper applies network analysis to the content created by students through large-scale online collaborative concept-mapping and explores how these can be applied for the assessment of the quality of a collective product. Quantitative network structure measures are introduced for this purpose. The application and the affordances of these metrics are demonstrated on data from six large-group online collaborative discussions from academic settings. The metrics presented here address the organization and the integration of the content and enable a comparison of collaborative discussions. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Measuring the Degree of Academic Satisfaction: The Case of a Brazilian National Institute
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100266 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 393
Abstract
The Brazilian National Institutes are strategic elements for the growth and development of Brazilian society since they have the purpose of meeting social and economic demands. However, for this purpose to be materialized, it is essential to develop strategies and mechanisms that consider [...] Read more.
The Brazilian National Institutes are strategic elements for the growth and development of Brazilian society since they have the purpose of meeting social and economic demands. However, for this purpose to be materialized, it is essential to develop strategies and mechanisms that consider the current educational context, marked in large part by the transformation of education into a product and the increased awareness of students who expect to have their own needs met in terms of achievement and satisfaction. Based on this premise, this research aims to present an indicator for measuring student satisfaction of students from the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Piauí-Campus Oeiras (FIEPI-Campus Oeiras), in order to provide evidence of how satisfaction has presented itself in relation to the different educational profiles present in the institution. The study was conducted with a sample of 290 students from FIEPI-Campus Oeiras. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire structured in two sections, in which the first was intended to obtain information to characterize the sample and the second section, composed of 14 items, aimed at measuring students’ satisfaction with the institution. Descriptive, exploratory, and inferential statistical techniques were used for the data treatment and for the validation of the results. The results indicate that the students are slightly satisfied with the institution and that the average satisfaction is different in relation to the courses and technological axes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
Open AccessEditorial
Young Children, Maker Literacies and Social Change
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 265; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100265 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
Although making—that is, playing, experimenting, expressing, connecting, and constructing with different tools and materials towards personal and collective ends—has characterised the everyday activities of many children and adults across cultures for ages, there seems to be no doubt that novel digital technologies and [...] Read more.
Although making—that is, playing, experimenting, expressing, connecting, and constructing with different tools and materials towards personal and collective ends—has characterised the everyday activities of many children and adults across cultures for ages, there seems to be no doubt that novel digital technologies and media are transforming and re-mixing more traditional maker activities, with new opportunities for communication, collaboration, learning, and civic engagement [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Young Children, Maker Literacies and Social Change)
Open AccessArticle
Barriers and Assistance for Female Leaders in Academic STEM in the US
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 264; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100264 - 27 Sep 2020
Viewed by 447
Abstract
Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are under-represented, and women are also less likely than men to be in leadership positions, generally. Little is known about the intersection of these areas: women in leadership in STEM. To determine what sort [...] Read more.
Women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are under-represented, and women are also less likely than men to be in leadership positions, generally. Little is known about the intersection of these areas: women in leadership in STEM. To determine what sort of barriers and assistance female STEM leaders have encountered, a survey was developed asking women who are in academic leadership positions in STEM about their experiences. The main barriers were similar in the STEM area and in leadership: balancing work/home life, devaluing of achievements, and imposter syndrome. The main two types of assistance in both STEM and leadership were support from spouse/partner, and encouragement from peers. The main barriers women encounter are cultural and will take time to overcome. The main assistance women have had comes from people, not training or institutional structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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