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Educ. Sci., Volume 10, Issue 11 (November 2020) – 53 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The global pandemic of COVID-19 precipitated the transition to emergency remote teaching (ERT) at [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
A Systematic Review on Inclusive Education of Students with Visual Impairment
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110346 - 22 Nov 2020
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Abstract
This was a systematic review on the inclusive education of students with visual impairment. This study focused on two of the most addressed topics: the perceptions of general education teachers and challenges faced by students with visual impairment in accessing academic subjects. It [...] Read more.
This was a systematic review on the inclusive education of students with visual impairment. This study focused on two of the most addressed topics: the perceptions of general education teachers and challenges faced by students with visual impairment in accessing academic subjects. It synthesized the findings of 18 peer-reviewed articles published in English from 1980 to 2020. General education teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with visual impairment were both positive and negative and were influenced by teacher-, student-, and environment-related factors. Feeling unprepared, one of the main teacher-related factors, seemed to have a great effect. In terms of access to academic subjects, the most discussed subjects were Mathematics, Science, and Physical Education. Although students with visual impairment seemed to be studying at or above their grade level, their exclusion from participation in classroom activities was apparent. Unfortunately, these challenges lead to short- and long-term consequences. Key elements in increasing accessibility to subjects were: general education teachers possessing a generic set of effective pedagogical strategies, effective teaching-learning tools, and external support. The importance of teacher training and a holistic support system were emphasized. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Responding to Global Learning Needs during a Pandemic: An Analysis of the Trends in Platform Use and Incidence of COVID-19
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110345 - 22 Nov 2020
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Abstract
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to be a pandemic. As a result, the OpenWHO.org online platform, which serves as WHO’s learning hub for emergencies, was tested for the first time on its [...] Read more.
On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to be a pandemic. As a result, the OpenWHO.org online platform, which serves as WHO’s learning hub for emergencies, was tested for the first time on its core purpose of scaling up trusted public health information in a global emergency. This descriptive study examines and documents the WHO learning response in the early months of the pandemic by comparing epidemiological information and OpenWHO.org use in the countries with the highest COVID-19 cases. Statistical datasets from OpenWHO.org and WHO’s COVID-19 dashboard were overlaid for the period 11 March–22 May 2020. During this period, for most of the 24 countries with the highest COVID-19 cases, platform use showed a corresponding trend. Courses published in the official languages spoken in these countries were well utilized, indicating a need to produce materials in languages spoken by affected communities. Of the countries with the highest number of users on OpenWHO, only half were top users of the platform before the pandemic. The existence of an established online platform for health emergencies assisted WHO in massively and quickly scaling up the dissemination of essential learning materials for COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Massive Open Online Courses)
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Open AccessArticle
Upgrading a Learning Context: Evaluation of Sintra’s Educational Project
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 344; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110344 - 22 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The changes observed in the school context demand new practices and impose new challenges to the operational assistants that, due to their relevant role in the educational environment, must be prepared and endowed with knowledge and skills to conduct their profession in a [...] Read more.
The changes observed in the school context demand new practices and impose new challenges to the operational assistants that, due to their relevant role in the educational environment, must be prepared and endowed with knowledge and skills to conduct their profession in a fully useful way. This is only possible through the promotion of their training and capacitation in a real work context. Through the European project entitled “Innovative Plans to Combat School Failure” which was implemented in Portugal, we assess the impacts of a training-capacitation action directed to operational assistants and explore the dynamics and influences underlying the learning process put in practice in the schools of the county of Sintra. This assessment conducted by a higher education institution (Iscte-University Institute of Lisbon) mobilized a mixed methodology-survey and focus groups with operational assistants and interviews conducted to school directors. We verified that a training activity conducted in the real working context potentiates the performance of these professionals, namely in terms of autonomy and adaptation to different contexts and duties, conflict management and cooperation, whose effects reflected on the organizational dynamics of the school institutions of the county of Sintra. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Student-Centered and ICT-Enabled Learning Models in Veterinarian Programs: What Changed with COVID-19?
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 343; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110343 - 21 Nov 2020
Viewed by 139
Abstract
COVID-19 highlighted higher education’s resistance to implementing the student-centered and ICT (information and communication technology)-enabled learning practices as incentivized by the Bologna Declaration. ICTs were crucial to keep the students in educational programs during the outbreak; however, some students were left out, increasing [...] Read more.
COVID-19 highlighted higher education’s resistance to implementing the student-centered and ICT (information and communication technology)-enabled learning practices as incentivized by the Bologna Declaration. ICTs were crucial to keep the students in educational programs during the outbreak; however, some students were left out, increasing socioeconomic differences, and many teachers needed the training to provide online lectures effectively. Despite those barriers, the current context could be an opportunity to invest in new teaching and learning practices. The main goal of this research is to analyze how teachers and students from veterinary programs in Portugal adapted to the digital environment, and perceive whether this change imposed by COVID-19 could provide teachers and higher institutions with new solutions to implement effective student-centered and ICT-enabled learning models. Results show that veterinary programs are based on student-centered practices by nature, but that the use of ICTs is still incipient. Teachers, students, and members from the Professional Order claim that the worst change brought by COVID-19 was the cancellation of hands-on sessions, impoverishing the students’ education during the time of mandatory confinement. Actors say that it is important to invest in innovative teaching and learning practices enabled by ICTs in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Developing Multimodal Narrative Genres in Childhood: An Analysis of Pupils’ Written Texts Based on Systemic Functional Linguistics Theory
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 342; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110342 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 156
Abstract
Social sustainability embraces literacy development as a means by which children integrate their knowledge in society and become powerful and meaningful. In this context, the development of writing among young children requires the design of new teaching strategies that allow for the multimodal [...] Read more.
Social sustainability embraces literacy development as a means by which children integrate their knowledge in society and become powerful and meaningful. In this context, the development of writing among young children requires the design of new teaching strategies that allow for the multimodal repertoire brought by children into the classroom. Systemic Functional Linguistics offers tools for the analysis of children’s multimodal writing, which plays an important role in their literacy development. Our research was carried out in an urban context, the participants being 12 children aged 7 to 8. Data were collected through participant observation, conversations, and the analysis of documents and products generated by the children. From them, we analysed two stories written by two girls, which showed the way in which the children created meaning by combining verbal and visual modes, and how these modes interact (intersemiosis). The performance of a literacy task in which children are able to integrate their knowledge and heritage into the classroom, may constitute an interdisciplinary tool for their participation and engagement in the school, thus leading to a more equal society. In consequence, we propose that the integration of a genre-based pedagogy in the classroom should include greater awareness in teachers of the value of pupils’ multimodal assessments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Holistic Learning Versus Instrumentalism in Teacher Education: Lessons from Values Pedagogy and Related Research
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110341 - 20 Nov 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
This article constitutes a literature review, focusing on the idea of holistic learning, as found in key sources, and its essential contrasting with instrumentalist approaches to learning. It will move to explore updated research on holistic learning factors, with special attention to insights [...] Read more.
This article constitutes a literature review, focusing on the idea of holistic learning, as found in key sources, and its essential contrasting with instrumentalist approaches to learning. It will move to explore updated research on holistic learning factors, with special attention to insights gleaned from values pedagogy and the research that underpins it. The article will juxtapose those insights with the instrumentalism that, it will allege, too often dictates teacher education directions. The article will conclude with an argument that teacher education has become, in modern times, a service industry, too often serving the agendas of governments and teacher unions, rather than preparing teachers to follow the guidelines provided by the latest research into student wellbeing and societal betterment. The article will focus especially on a number of Australian examples to mount the argument that nonetheless applies more generally across Western domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contemporary Teacher Education: A Global Perspective)
Open AccessArticle
Gateway to Outdoors: Partnership and Programming of Outdoor Education Centers in Urban Areas
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110340 - 19 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The purpose of the study is to understand the challenges and opportunities of urban outdoor education centers in partnership and programming. The context for this study involves efforts by all-season outdoor education centers, Outdoor Campus (OC), in two urban areas in South Dakota [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to understand the challenges and opportunities of urban outdoor education centers in partnership and programming. The context for this study involves efforts by all-season outdoor education centers, Outdoor Campus (OC), in two urban areas in South Dakota (SD). Outdoor education scope and social-ecological framework were applied to guide this qualitative study. Semi-structured interview questions were used to interview eight outdoor educators in 2019, including four individuals from each service location composed of three males and five female educators. Qualitative content analysis was applied to identify common themes and essential quotations that emerged from the data analyzed through the interviews. Three main themes emerged: (1) gateway to our outdoor legacy (2) working together for outdoor education, including three sub-themes: formal partnership, programmatic partnership, and finding balance in partnership, (3) challenges as opportunities in outdoor education programs, including two sub-themes: common challenges and evolving process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mathematics Applied to the Economy and Sustainable Development Goals: A Necessary Relationship of Dependence
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110339 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 167
Abstract
Higher education must include training in sustainability to make all actors aware of the serious problems our planet is facing. Mathematics plays an important role in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and at the same time these allow working with [...] Read more.
Higher education must include training in sustainability to make all actors aware of the serious problems our planet is facing. Mathematics plays an important role in the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and at the same time these allow working with real situations in the subject of mathematics, providing the student with active learning. Sustainability is used to make the student see the usefulness of mathematics while instilling values and attitudes towards it. A set of problems have been raised during the academic year that are solved with the developed mathematical techniques, and through a survey, the students’ perceptions about the usefulness of mathematics to reach the goals established in the SDG has been evaluated. The results show that, regardless of the student’s gender, the student’s assessment of the usefulness of this subject in solving real problems improved. It has been observed that this teaching methodology has helped to motivate students and even those who do not like this subject have improved their appreciation of it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Learning and Teaching Mathematical Concepts and Methods)
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Open AccessReview
The Impact of Undergraduate Research Journals on the Scholarly World: Present but Small
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110338 - 18 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Background: Undergraduate research journals are a popular mechanism for inducting students into research, communication, and publication facets of academia. A thematic review of 17 review papers found little evidence for journal impact. Methods: A scoping review identified 91 journals. A systematic search identified [...] Read more.
Background: Undergraduate research journals are a popular mechanism for inducting students into research, communication, and publication facets of academia. A thematic review of 17 review papers found little evidence for journal impact. Methods: A scoping review identified 91 journals. A systematic search identified the journal website, its International Standard Serial Number (if any), its citation rate on Google Scholar, its start year and end year (if applicable). Results: Seventy-five journals had both a Google Scholar h-index and a discoverable start year. Sixty-eight had been cited one or more times. The median h-index was 2, mode was h = 1, and the average h-index = 4.38. Correlation with start year was not statistically significant, neither was content field of journals. Conclusions: Surprisingly, almost all currently published journals have been cited at least once, showing that undergraduate research journals have some impact on the scholarly world. Further analyses are suggested to examine career impact of publication on students and faculty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Undergraduate Research as a High Impact Practice in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Structure of Entrepreneurial Team Members’ Competencies: Between Effectuation and Causation
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110337 - 18 Nov 2020
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Abstract
A conscious shaping of entrepreneurial competence is a relevant element of entrepreneurial education. In order to recognize which of the competencies regarded as entrepreneurial are characteristic of members of entrepreneurial teams, which is crucial for the work of those teams, it is necessary [...] Read more.
A conscious shaping of entrepreneurial competence is a relevant element of entrepreneurial education. In order to recognize which of the competencies regarded as entrepreneurial are characteristic of members of entrepreneurial teams, which is crucial for the work of those teams, it is necessary to identify the structure of those competencies. This quantitative study was conducted with the use of a survey method and involved 111 entrepreneurs working within 48 entrepreneurial teams. The main objective of the research was to verify the compliance of entrepreneurial competence with the effectual vs. causal approach, which would allow us to answer the question regarding which of these approaches characterizes entrepreneurs to a greater extent. This study aimed to examine which entrepreneurial competencies characterize entrepreneurs working in entrepreneurial teams, to verify them with the effectual vs. causal approach, and to define their internal structure. The results of this research revealed that the competencies related to the effectual approach are indicated to more frequently and strongly characterize the surveyed entrepreneurs. Additionally, an exploratory factor analysis enabled the identification of three main, internally consistent groups of elements forming the competence structure of the surveyed entrepreneurs. Our results may be used in the development and modernization of curricula and courses in entrepreneurship education. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
Open AccessArticle
Factors That Determine Completion Rates of Biomedical Students in a PhD Programme
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110336 - 18 Nov 2020
Viewed by 164
Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study is to identify potential predictors of academic success or failure in Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programmes in the field of biomedicine. Based on these, the policies and structure of academic programmes granting PhD degrees in biomedicine [...] Read more.
Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study is to identify potential predictors of academic success or failure in Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) programmes in the field of biomedicine. Based on these, the policies and structure of academic programmes granting PhD degrees in biomedicine might be improved. Literature review (State of the art): At the present moment, most European and all of the EU doctoral education systems in biomedicine are regulated by the Salzburg principles of the Bologna process. Almost all the programmes formally comply with regulations, but the degree to which rules are applied varies greatly. The European Research Council (ERC) and various stakeholders’ associations, such as the Organisation for PhD Education in Biomedicine and Health Sciences in the European System (ORPHEUS), have recognised this and in their policies, they recommend regular evaluation of PhD programme structures. One such evaluation that was conducted at our institution motivated us to search for quantifiable factors that can help the process of PhD programme structural reform. Since the literature is scarce on this matter, we decided to conduct analysis of our own data and thus study the relationships between recommended EU policies and real-world data. Methods: Biology of Neoplasms is a PhD programme founded under Bologna process rules. It enrols students with Doctor of Medicine (MD), Doctor of Dental Medicine (DMD) or similar degrees in the biomedical field. A large portion of enrolled PhD students work full time in medical practices. A retrospective analysis was conducted on students who enrolled between 2006 and 2017. In order to quantify academic success, outcome measures of graduation (completion) rate, time to graduation, average impact factor of published papers comprising a PhD thesis and the ratio of the latter two were formed. Age, sex, employment institution, mentor experience and tuition subsidy were considered as potential predictors. Results: A total of 124 students were enrolled in the study—38% male. Out of the total, 21 (16.94%) students discontinued the study programme and 22 students graduated (17.7%). The average impact factor (IF) of published papers was 2.66 ± 1.51. Mentor experience (Odds ratio (OR) = 6.7) and student employment in academia (OR = 11.7) were significant predictors of successful graduation. Stricter criteria for graduation had no effect on graduation in newly enrolled students. Likewise, sex, tuition subsidy and age did not affect graduation rates. Surprisingly, time to graduation was not affected by any of the considered predictors. On the other hand, students that were mentored by experienced mentors and employed in academia outperformed their peers in terms of impact factors of publications related to their thesis. Conclusion: Characteristics such as gender, age at enrolment and even tuition paid by the institution do not have a significant impact on completion rate. Experienced mentors and employment in academic institutions seem to be the factors that predict a successful completion of a PhD programme. Furthermore, our results give a quantifiable support to the ORPHEUS and ERC recommendations and policies. These conclusions can be easily applied to any PhD programme formed under the tenets of the Bologna process. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Heterogeneity versus Homogeneity in Schools: A Study of the Educational Value of Classroom Interaction
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110335 - 18 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The degree of homogeneity and heterogeneity among schools affects the comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the school system and the type and scope of classroom interaction. Since the beginning of the 1980s, interest has gradually increased in the effects of homogeneity and heterogeneity of [...] Read more.
The degree of homogeneity and heterogeneity among schools affects the comprehensiveness and inclusiveness of the school system and the type and scope of classroom interaction. Since the beginning of the 1980s, interest has gradually increased in the effects of homogeneity and heterogeneity of schools on classroom interactions; this research involves various disciplines and has different goals. The present paper contributes to academic debate on the often ignored consequences of socialisation of pupils with diversity. In particular, we revise the evidence on the effect of socialisation (or lack of it) with diversity resulting from the degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity to which school children are exposed through their interactions in the classroom. We aim, in particular, to shed light on what the assumed value of classroom interactions as an argument in favour or either heterogeneous or homogeneous groups. We review work analysing school homogeneity in relation to age, gender, ethnicity and disability and the effect on classroom interactions. Most studies concur with current achievement motivation theories, which highlight the important role of context and agents of socialisation, such as classroom peers, in the development of pupils’ beliefs and behaviours. Studies that find support for classroom homogeneity tend to focus narrowly on academic performance, whereas findings that support classroom heterogeneity tend to analyse higher order values such as equity and inclusiveness. The findings in the literature suggest, furthermore, that children’s experiences of exclusion and diversity influence their friendship decision-making, suggesting that heterogeneous schools promote a more inclusive society. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Exploring Multiple Intelligence Theory Prospects as a Vehicle for Discovering the Relationship of Neuroeducation with Imaginative/Waldorf Pedagogy: A Systematic Literature Review
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110334 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 148
Abstract
Waldorf Education follows a holistic approach of children’s development, where the fundamental characteristics are creative/artistic activities, integrating imagination-based teaching methods to support and enhance the development of children’s and adolescents’ physical, social, emotional, and cognitive skills. Neuroeducation provides the most relevant level of [...] Read more.
Waldorf Education follows a holistic approach of children’s development, where the fundamental characteristics are creative/artistic activities, integrating imagination-based teaching methods to support and enhance the development of children’s and adolescents’ physical, social, emotional, and cognitive skills. Neuroeducation provides the most relevant level of analysis for resolving today’s core problems in education. Multiple Intelligence (MI) theory investigates ways of using the theory as a framework in school for improving work quality, collaborations, opportunities for choice, and a role for the arts. To that end, we provide a systematic literature review that critiques and synthesizes representative literature on these three topics in order to reveal new perspectives towards a novel transformative educational paradigm in a digitized society. A comprehensive analysis of theoretical and empirical articles between 2000 and 2019 is provided. The search included five main academic databases (ERIC, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, and Scopus) using predefined selection criteria. In total, 321 different articles were screened, from which 43 articles met the predefined inclusion criteria. The results indicate a correlation between pedagogical practices of Waldorf schools and MI theory compatible teaching practices and between Waldorf schools and neuroeducation. Further empirical research examining different facets of this relationship is still needed to establish live and effective schools as Learning Organizations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Early Childhood Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Implementation of Agile Methodologies in an Engineering Course
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110333 - 17 Nov 2020
Viewed by 124
Abstract
At present, a new generation of students is studying at universities with their specific abilities and skills. In addition to hard skills, potential employers also require significantly developed soft skills from their employees. The school, and not just the university, is entering this [...] Read more.
At present, a new generation of students is studying at universities with their specific abilities and skills. In addition to hard skills, potential employers also require significantly developed soft skills from their employees. The school, and not just the university, is entering this process in a different position than in the past due to the changing requirements placed on it. Activities in the school environment must adapt to emerging trends. This article explains how present-day requirements on graduates and specifics of the new generation of students challenge the approach to education. In order to increase the efficiency and attractiveness of the educational process, the SCRUM framework has been implemented into course Mathematics 1. The re-designed course was implemented and validated by an experimental group of students in the academic year 2019/2020. Two questionnaire analyses and a comparison of learning outcomes were conducted to find out the answers to research questions. The results of students indicate that agile methodologies are useful for increasing the efficiency of the educational process. The paper offers our proposal for the introduction of agile methodology into the educational process and our first-hand experience with this way of teaching and its impact on the studying results of the experimental group and, last but not least, suggestions for possible improvements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessing Biology Pre-Service Teachers’ Professional Vision of Teaching Scientific Inquiry
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110332 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Professional vision is a key ability in the professional development of pre- and in-service teachers as it determines how professionals perceive and interpret situations. The aim of this study was to conceptualize an instrument for professional vision focusing on formative assessment in the [...] Read more.
Professional vision is a key ability in the professional development of pre- and in-service teachers as it determines how professionals perceive and interpret situations. The aim of this study was to conceptualize an instrument for professional vision focusing on formative assessment in the context of scientific inquiry. This focus is highly valuable, since formative assessment contributes to the quality of science teaching and learning. The four-dimensionality of the construct of professional vision with its abilities (perception, description, explanation, and prediction) was confirmed by means of our text-vignette-based instrument. The professional vision of pre-service teachers (N = 80) was fostered in training, involving a seminar phase and a teaching phase in an out-of-school laboratory. In a pre-post design significant interaction effects of groups (training vs. comparison group (N = 39)) and time for the ability description (F(1,117) = 29.14 p < 0.001) and prediction (F(1,117) = 14.81 p < 0.001) were found, indicating the sensitivity of the instrument. Our instrument allows the assessment of the abilities description and prediction. The scales for the abilities perception and explanation need further refinements. Nonetheless, our instrument could be a starting point to further investigate professional vision in science contexts as it incorporates the essential key features such as a situated approach. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
What Potential Entrepreneurs from Generation Y and Z Lack-IEO and the Role of EE
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110331 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
This paper addresses the issue of individual entrepreneurship orientation (IEO) and entrepreneurship education (EE), which are both important for modern economic development. Intergenerational differences in these areas were discussed, especially characteristics of Generations Y and Z. The results of research conducted among 757 [...] Read more.
This paper addresses the issue of individual entrepreneurship orientation (IEO) and entrepreneurship education (EE), which are both important for modern economic development. Intergenerational differences in these areas were discussed, especially characteristics of Generations Y and Z. The results of research conducted among 757 Polish students showing their IEO are presented. 80% of respondents displayed high levels of proactivity (primarily directed at meeting their own needs), whilst only 56% exhibited innovativeness and only 47% risk-taking. On the basis of the research results, the authors formulated recommendations for entrepreneurship education, aimed at strengthening IEO among representatives of Generations Y and Z. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Entrepreneurship Education)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Project-Based Learning (PBL) Promote Student Learning? A Performance Evaluation
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110330 - 16 Nov 2020
Viewed by 184
Abstract
The purpose of the study on which this paper is based was to conduct a performance evaluation of student learning for an introductory course in project management in a higher educational institution in Norway. This was done by utilizing performance measurement philosophy to [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study on which this paper is based was to conduct a performance evaluation of student learning for an introductory course in project management in a higher educational institution in Norway. This was done by utilizing performance measurement philosophy to evaluate perceived student learning after a project-based assignment was applied as an instructional tool. The evaluation was conducted at the end of the semester to determine whether it facilitated learning effectiveness by providing an authentic learning experience. Relevant learning criteria were identified from existing literature and were measured by means of a questionnaire survey. Ten measurement scales were established using a 5-point Likert scale. The survey was then rolled out for the same subject for two consecutive semesters for just over 100 project management students. The results indicated that the incorporation of project-based assignments has a positive impact on student learning, motivation, and performance both in the short and long term. The study finally revealed that the incorporation of project-based assignments enables the creation of real-life experiences, which further stimulates the creation and development of real-life competencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Relevance of Mobile Applications in the Learning of Physical Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110329 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 216
Abstract
Mobile telephony has developed exponentially, offering a multitude of services that could be optimal for the educational field of physical and sports activity (PSA). The objective of this research was to analyze the use of smartphone by 40 Spanish teenagers and assess the [...] Read more.
Mobile telephony has developed exponentially, offering a multitude of services that could be optimal for the educational field of physical and sports activity (PSA). The objective of this research was to analyze the use of smartphone by 40 Spanish teenagers and assess the degree of satisfaction of the Polar Beat application within the subject of physical education in high school. The instruments used were two quantitative questionnaires and the data were analyzed with the statistical package SPSS 24.0. The teenagers recognized that they use the smartphone for instant messaging, telephone calls and downloads of games and tunes. The Polar Beat application in physical education classes has allowed them a better understanding of the content developed; the students affirmed that their motivation towards PSA increased with the knowledge and use of the Polar Beat app and that smartphones are innovative and effective tools. With all this, the mobile phone could be an educational tool that awakens interest in teenagers and teachers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Digital Learning in Open and Flexible Environments)
Open AccessArticle
Dialogic Teaching during Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science: A Case Study of a Year 6 Classroom
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110328 - 12 Nov 2020
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Teachers play a critical role in promoting dialogic interaction in their students. The purpose of this case study was to investigate how one very effective teacher taught two, cooperative, inquiry-based science units to her Year 6 class. In particular, the case study focused [...] Read more.
Teachers play a critical role in promoting dialogic interaction in their students. The purpose of this case study was to investigate how one very effective teacher taught two, cooperative, inquiry-based science units to her Year 6 class. In particular, the case study focused on how she used different discourses to capture students’ curiosity in the inquiry-based tasks, provided hands-on activities to enable them to test out their hypotheses and develop explanations for what they found in order to help them become more scientifically literate and have a broader understanding of the role of science in the world in which they live. The results showed that the students engaged constructively with their peers on the inquiry group tasks; they used the correct scientific language to discuss phenomena, make claims, and compared findings. Furthermore, they became more adept at expressing their opinions and providing explanations and justifications for the ‘scientific’ positions they had adopted across the six inquiry-based science lessons; core cognitive practices that support learning. This case study highlights the importance of utilizing both authoritative and dialogic discourse to challenge and scaffold students’ thinking to support enhanced understandings and reasoned argumentation during inquiry-based science. This case study fills a gap in the literature on how teachers can utilize different communicative approaches during inquiry-based science units to promote student engagement and learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Personality and Academic Motivation in Education Degrees Students
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110327 - 11 Nov 2020
Viewed by 236
Abstract
The present study aims to understand the relationship between the big five factors of personality and academic motivation. In addition, the following variables are taken into consideration; sex, age and type of educational studies. A quantitative methodology is used, in base to a [...] Read more.
The present study aims to understand the relationship between the big five factors of personality and academic motivation. In addition, the following variables are taken into consideration; sex, age and type of educational studies. A quantitative methodology is used, in base to a not experimental, correlational study. The sample is composed of 514 students of the Faculty of Education of Leon’s University, between the three education degrees. To gather the information, participants were asked to complete the Learning and Motivation Strategies Questionnaire (CEAM) and the Personality Questionnaire Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI). The results show the significant relationship between personality facets and motivation variables. It should be noted that female results were higher in the values of intrinsic motivation, motivation towards teamwork, neuroticism, and kindness, and the male results were higher in self-efficacy. Additionally, it was observed that intrinsic motivation decreases progressively from the first to the fourth year of the degree, the need for recognition decreases in the two last study years, and the openness to experiences is higher in the last year of the degree. Finally, Social Education students are those that show a higher intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, total motivation, openness to experiences, and neuroticism, while Primary Education students’ results were higher in the need for recognition. Full article
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Open AccessReview
The History and Usage of Parenting Newsletter Interventions in Family Life Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110326 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 208
Abstract
Raising a child engages parents/caregivers in learning knowledge and skills needed for effective, healthy parenting. The field of parent and family education furnishes a variety of approaches and resources intended to assist and guide those raising and working with children. The Diffusion of [...] Read more.
Raising a child engages parents/caregivers in learning knowledge and skills needed for effective, healthy parenting. The field of parent and family education furnishes a variety of approaches and resources intended to assist and guide those raising and working with children. The Diffusion of Innovations Theory presents a clear framework for understanding how particular resources may develop and become more widely used in parent and family education. Among such resources, parenting newsletter interventions represent a unique and valuable approach to facilitating growth in parent/caregiver confidence, knowledge and skills. This paper provides an overview of the history and usage of newsletters in parent education in contexts including public health, extension and other settings. Further, it highlights key findings, challenges and future directions for parent newsletter interventions in the 21st century landscape of family life education. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Development of Students’ Learning to Learn Competence in Primary Science
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110325 - 09 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a connection between the inquiry-based teaching of science in primary school and the development of the students’ learning to learn competence. The research involved 333 fourth-grade students at primary schools in Croatia. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to determine if there is a connection between the inquiry-based teaching of science in primary school and the development of the students’ learning to learn competence. The research involved 333 fourth-grade students at primary schools in Croatia. The experimental research with parallel groups included a number of students who were exposed to inquiry-based teaching of science for three months, and a control group that was, at the same time, exposed to traditional instruction in the same curriculum content. The results of this research show that through inquiry-based teaching students developed a higher level of the learning to learn competence than by using traditional teaching methods. Therefore, it is recommended to use inquiry-based learning as often as possible, because by developing the students’ learning to learn competence, students will be empowered for the process of lifelong learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section STEM Education)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effect of Person Misfit on Item Parameter Estimation and Classification Accuracy: A Simulation Study
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110324 - 09 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Often, important decisions regarding accountability and placement of students in performance categories are made on the basis of test scores generated from tests, therefore, it is important to evaluate the validity of the inferences derived from test results. One of the threats to [...] Read more.
Often, important decisions regarding accountability and placement of students in performance categories are made on the basis of test scores generated from tests, therefore, it is important to evaluate the validity of the inferences derived from test results. One of the threats to the validity of such inferences is aberrant responding. Several person fit indices were developed to detect aberrant responding on educational and psychological tests. The majority of the person fit literature has been focused on creating and evaluating new indices. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of aberrant responding on the accuracy of estimated item parameters and refining estimations by using person fit statistics by means of simulation. Our results showed that the presence of aberrant response patterns created bias in the both b and a parameters at the item level and affected the classification of students, particularly high-performing students, into performance categories regardless of whether aberrant response patterns were present in the data or were removed. The results differed by test length and the percentage of students with aberrant response patterns. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Implementing Alternative Assessment Strategies in Chemistry Amidst COVID-19: Tensions and Reflections
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110323 - 06 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic in the first quarter of 2020 resulted in the worldwide disruption of teaching and learning in main stream schools and in institutes of higher learning. Singapore was not spared. With the closure of schools in early April, it was imminent [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic in the first quarter of 2020 resulted in the worldwide disruption of teaching and learning in main stream schools and in institutes of higher learning. Singapore was not spared. With the closure of schools in early April, it was imminent that the delivery and assessment of our freshman general chemistry course must be overhauled for the new semester. While the delivery of Home-based Learning (HBL) was a challenge for all educators, it was a mammoth roadblock for chemistry courses because of laboratory classes. Besides being thrusted to learn and use new technology tools for online lessons, instructors also had to quickly explore and design alternative assessments to substitute in-person written examinations and tests. This paper documents the struggles that played out in the decision to implement concept map assessments and “split-half” laboratory classes for safe distancing. Although these interventions are not novel, we confronted tensions as we sought to address academic integrity, administrative guidelines, and our own inadequacy particularly in concept map assessments. In light of positive and negative feedback from both staff and students, lessons were drawn to enhance future implementation and for further research. Full article
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Open AccessEssay
Emotions and Construction of National Identities in Historical Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110322 - 06 Nov 2020
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Abstract
In this study, the authors analyzed the relationship between emotions and the construction of identities, particularly national identity. We reviewed the current debate on the role of emotions and feelings in people’s actions and in the configuration of their worldviews and practical actions. [...] Read more.
In this study, the authors analyzed the relationship between emotions and the construction of identities, particularly national identity. We reviewed the current debate on the role of emotions and feelings in people’s actions and in the configuration of their worldviews and practical actions. The world is witnessing a revival of ideologies that seemed to have been definitively banished from human thought and political action in the 20th century; however, it is being proved not only that they have survived and grown, but that they are also widely disseminated through networks and have come to shape the thinking of the many people who use them when deciding the future of their societies and how they want them to be governed. The growth of populism is based on emotions and on the most extremely nationalistic discourses. We analyzed, first of all, the influence of emotions on the perception of social reality and on the construction of historical and social knowledge. Next, we focused on the implications that emotions have had on the teaching of history and on the results of an international exploratory selection of particularly relevant research. Finally, as a conclusion, we suggest some ideas for the search of a balance that considers the weight of reason and emotion in the teaching and learning of history. Full article
Open AccessArticle
The Interaction between Higher Education Institutions and Professional Bodies in the Context of Digital Transformation: The Case of Brazilian Accountants
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110321 - 05 Nov 2020
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Abstract
The business economy experienced major changes during the last three decades. The social and economic globalization associated with the fourth revolution put the accounting profession under great pressure toward harmonization and convergence. Still, the route to become a qualified professional accountant varies from [...] Read more.
The business economy experienced major changes during the last three decades. The social and economic globalization associated with the fourth revolution put the accounting profession under great pressure toward harmonization and convergence. Still, the route to become a qualified professional accountant varies from country to country all over the world. This paper seeks to understand the evolution of the accounting profession in Brazil and focus on the interaction between higher education institutions (HEIs) and professional bodies, in the context of digital transformation. It is an exploratory study. A survey questionnaire was used to collect data about the perception of the directors of first-degree programs regarding the autonomy of HEIs in defining the curricular contents intended to qualify accounting professionals. The findings show that HEIs are highly influenced by the professional order and Ministry of Education. The limitation associated with this research is that it focusses on one particular professional group in one country. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
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Open AccessArticle
“Am I Doing Enough?” Special Educators’ Experiences with Emergency Remote Teaching in Spring 2020
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110320 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 472
Abstract
While the COVID-19 pandemic radically changed all aspects of everyone’s life, the closure of schools was one of the most impactful, significantly altering daily life for school personnel, students, and families. The shift to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) presented particular challenges to special [...] Read more.
While the COVID-19 pandemic radically changed all aspects of everyone’s life, the closure of schools was one of the most impactful, significantly altering daily life for school personnel, students, and families. The shift to Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) presented particular challenges to special educators of students with significant support needs who often benefit from strong interpersonal connections, modeling, and the use of physical manipulatives. This paper details the experiences of two elementary special education teachers as they navigated the transition to ERT. The teachers reported three distinct stages of ERT: making contact, establishing routines, and transitioning to academics. They also discussed the challenges they faced during this period, such as the inequity in resources amongst their students, needing to rely on at-home support in order to meaningfully teach students, and changes in what it meant to be a teacher while having to teach online. While clearly not in favor of online learning, the teachers do present glimmers of hope, for example, with regards to increased communication between teachers and parents. The challenges and strategies used to overcome these challenges will be of use to educators in the coming months, with implications for distance learning in this population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Online and Distance Learning during Lockdown Times: COVID-19 Stories)
Open AccessArticle
“A Little Flip Goes a Long Way”—The Impact of a Flipped Classroom Design on Student Performance and Engagement in a First-Year Undergraduate Economics Classroom
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110319 - 04 Nov 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
The flipped classroom is gaining prominence as an active learning pedagogy to engage a new generation of students. However, all courses do not lend themselves to a fully flipped design and instructors are often reluctant to flip lectures due to the additional time [...] Read more.
The flipped classroom is gaining prominence as an active learning pedagogy to engage a new generation of students. However, all courses do not lend themselves to a fully flipped design and instructors are often reluctant to flip lectures due to the additional time and effort involved, especially so in case of technical subjects such as economics. This study experiments with a flipped classroom design in a first-year undergraduate economics course. The research was motivated by the fact that many undergraduate economics students do not engage with traditional lectures. They fail to acquire critical thinking, data handling and reasoning skills, which are thought to be at the core of the economics curriculum. In this flipped classroom format, traditional lectures were substituted with micro-lectures and the remaining class time was devoted to active learning pedagogies including quizzes, group work and student presentations. The full lectures were panopto recorded and put up on the e-learning site, Blackboard. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the flipped classroom format, I compared the final exam scores of students in the flipped classroom with those in the control group, which followed a traditional lecture-based approach. The key results from the analysis revealed that students in the flipped classroom performed better in the final exams vis-à-vis students in the traditional classroom format. Furthermore, students in the flipped classroom format were 1.61 times less likely to fail in the module as compared to students in a traditional classroom format. This format also resulted in better student engagement, more flexibility and enhanced student–tutor interactions within the classroom. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Unpacking Systems of Privilege: The Opportunity of Critical Reflection in Outdoor Adventure Education
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110318 - 04 Nov 2020
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Abstract
Outdoor adventure education has an extensive history of considering how its students should wrestle with privilege. Recent events have brought issues of privilege to the forefront, which raises the question of whether outdoor adventure education can play a role in learning to see [...] Read more.
Outdoor adventure education has an extensive history of considering how its students should wrestle with privilege. Recent events have brought issues of privilege to the forefront, which raises the question of whether outdoor adventure education can play a role in learning to see and affect systems of privilege. This paper examines several elements of outdoor adventure education that make it an ideal environment for teaching about systems of privilege, and makes the argument that Jack Mezirow’s critical reflection, wherein people question the principles that underlie their ideas, should be a key element of outdoor adventure education curriculum in the 21st century. The authors’ perspectives are grounded in critical theory and the assumption that power dynamics need to be examined in order to be changed. By combining critical reflection with the unique characteristics of outdoor adventure education, outdoor adventure educators may be able to successfully teach participants to recognize and impact systems that operate around them. Full article
Open AccessArticle
A Learning Analytics Theoretical Framework for STEM Education Virtual Reality Applications
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110317 - 03 Nov 2020
Viewed by 326
Abstract
While virtual reality has attracted educators’ interest by providing new opportunities to the learning process and assessment in different science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects, the results from previous studies indicate that there is still much work to be done when large [...] Read more.
While virtual reality has attracted educators’ interest by providing new opportunities to the learning process and assessment in different science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subjects, the results from previous studies indicate that there is still much work to be done when large data collection and analysis is considered. At the same time, learning analytics emerged with the promise to revolutionise the traditional practices by introducing new ways to systematically assess and improve the effectiveness of instruction. However, the collection of ‘big’ educational data is mostly associated with web-based platforms (i.e., learning management systems) as they offer direct access to students’ data with minimal effort. Thence, in the context of this work, we present a four-dimensional theoretical framework for virtual reality-supported instruction and propose a set of structural elements that can be utilised in conjunction with a learning analytics prototype system. The outcomes of this work are expected to support practitioners on how to maximise the potential of their interventions and provide further inspiration for the development of new ones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Research and Trends in Higher Education)
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