Special Issue "Cooperative/Collaborative Learning"

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2021) | Viewed by 35885

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A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Robyn M. Gillies
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
School of Education, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072, Australia
Interests: cooperative/collaborative learning; inquiry-based learning; discourse; co-regulation in small groups; learning processes

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues,

Collaborative learning is well recognised as a pedagogical practice that promotes socialisation and learning for students from kindergarten to college level and beyond. The term collaborative learning is used very broadly in this Special Issue and includes cooperative learning, peer learning, and peer collaboration. These pedagogical approaches have been used successfully in both formal and informal settings in schools and the wider community to promote not only learning but also a greater understanding of others with diverse social, personal, and academic competencies.

The purpose of this Special Issue is to bring together a diverse range of international scholars to highlight recent developments in research on collaborative learning across different contexts, including subject areas and student populations to illustrate how this research has been translated into practice. The emphasis in this Special Issue is on research that has a strong evidence base for the work that is presented and includes empirical studies, best evidence synthesis of the relevant research, case studies, and theoretical papers. It also highlights how different technologies have been used to facilitate group interaction, dialogue, and learning. I believe there is much to be gained by sharing and learning about what happens in different disciplines and contexts and how different collaborative pedagogies can be implemented when needed to promote understanding and learning.

References:

Chen, H., Park, H.W., Breazeal, C. (2020), Teaching and learning with children: Impact of reciprocal peer learning with a social robot on children's learning and emotive engagement. Computers and Education, 150,103836.

Veldman, M.A., Doolaard, S., Bosker, R.J., Snijders, T.A.B.(2020), Young children working together. Cooperative learning effects on group work of children in Grade 1 of primary education,  Learning and Instruction, 67,101308.

Bores-García, D., Hortigüela-Alcalá, D., Fernandez-Rio, F.J., González-Calvo, G., Barba-Martín, R.(2020), Research on Cooperative Learning in Physical Education. Systematic Review of the Last Five Years, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. DOI: 10.1080/02701367.2020.1719276.

Johnson, D.W., Johnson, R.T. (2017). The use of cooperative procedures in teacher education and professional development, Journal of Education for Teaching, 43(3), pp. 284-295.

Roseth, C.J., Lee, Y.-K., Saltarelli, W.A. (2019). Reconsidering Jigsaw social psychology: Longitudinal effects on social interdependence, sociocognitive conflict regulation, motivation, and achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(1), pp. 149-169.

Nishina, A., Lewis, J.A., Bellmore, A., Witkow, M.R. (2019). Ethnic Diversity and Inclusive School Environments. Educational Psychologist, 54(4), pp. 306-321.

Buchs, C., Gilles, I., Dutrévis, M., Butera, F. (2011). Pressure to cooperate: Is positive reward interdependence really needed in cooperative learning? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 81 (1), 135-46.

Saad, A. (2020). Students' computational thinking skill through cooperative learning based on hands-on, inquiry-based, and student-centric learning approaches. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 8(1), 290-296.

Prof. Dr. Robyn M. Gillies
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • cooperative/collaborative learning
  • small group learning
  • peer learning
  • peer collaboration
  • formal and informal collaboration
  • inquiry learning
  • pedagogical practice
  • communication
  • technology supported collaborative learning
  • best evidence synthesis
  • empirical study
  • case study
  • theoretical review

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Research

Article
Exploring Teachers’ Lived Experiences of Cooperative Learning in Ethiopian Higher Education Classrooms: A Phenomenological-Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11070332 - 03 Jul 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1875
Abstract
A growing body of research indicates that teaching is the most important determinant of student learning in higher education (HE). However, HE teachers have a persistent challenge to transform pedagogical practices from a teacher-centered to a student-centered approach. In this study, the authors [...] Read more.
A growing body of research indicates that teaching is the most important determinant of student learning in higher education (HE). However, HE teachers have a persistent challenge to transform pedagogical practices from a teacher-centered to a student-centered approach. In this study, the authors employed a phenomenological-case study design to examine the teachers’ lived experiences with cooperative learning (CL) pedagogies as applied in the undergraduates’ classrooms in a large public university in Ethiopia. The authors collected the relevant data from two teacher participants through both reflection and a semi-structured interview, along with document analysis of course-related material. The teacher participants felt that their involvement in the CL lessons gave them insight to understand strategies used to implement CL and practical learning opportunities on how to use it as one variant of student-centered teaching methods. As the teacher interviewees suggested, the CL lessons helped them change their mindset from traditional lecture-based teaching to a student-centered approach and transform their pedagogical practices. The results of this study suggest that CL pedagogies offer teachers with professional development opportunities for a meaningful transformation of their roles in HE classrooms. Additionally, the results have important practical implications for many HE institutions (HEIs) and their teachers who work with undergraduate students. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Enablers and Barriers to Successful Implementation of Cooperative Learning through Professional Development
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11070312 - 23 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1751
Abstract
Literature shows cooperative learning has positive benefits for students’ learning and social outcomes. Even though cooperative learning studies have been conducted in all areas of the curriculum, few studies have investigated whether there are similar effects for students across several curriculum areas or [...] Read more.
Literature shows cooperative learning has positive benefits for students’ learning and social outcomes. Even though cooperative learning studies have been conducted in all areas of the curriculum, few studies have investigated whether there are similar effects for students across several curriculum areas or age groups. Moreover, less attention has been given to how professional learning and development (PLD) opportunities can contribute to changes in instructional practice. We illustrate how research on cooperative learning can be translated into practice, through a one-year University-School partnership. The current study is focused on our PLD work in one large private school based in New Zealand. Analysis of school data (quantitative student data and qualitative teacher data) indicated that, by the end of the school year, students reported experiencing more cooperative learning opportunities in their classes. Teachers believed that the PLD supported change in their practice and noted positive changes in student engagement. Analysis of student data also revealed differential outcomes by subject and age group. Overall, our study showed that PLD opportunities can contribute to the successful implementation of cooperative learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Learning from Problem-Based Projects in Cross-Disciplinary Student Teams
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(6), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11060259 - 26 May 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1912
Abstract
This paper explores how Engineering students and Work and Welfare students reflect upon their own engagement in a one-week cross-disciplinary project. To develop a better understanding of what unfolds during these activities we collected data through anonymous surveys two consecutive years. Data from [...] Read more.
This paper explores how Engineering students and Work and Welfare students reflect upon their own engagement in a one-week cross-disciplinary project. To develop a better understanding of what unfolds during these activities we collected data through anonymous surveys two consecutive years. Data from these 141 respondents were analysed using a learning history approach and are presented as narratives. Results show major disruptions and conflicts driving the student projects, exposing inviting confrontations, social identity threats, managing diversity, and friction of ideas. Whereas this in many cases led to new and better project solutions, these real-world experiences raise awareness of the need for tools and methods for training students. The aim of the paper is to learn from students’ experiences through narrative distance, and fill a gap in the literature between problem-based learning (PBL) and the learning history method. Discussing different experiences of cross-disciplinary teamwork through the explanations of these theories, we also lay out potential questions for future research on the topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Article
Student Perceptions of a Synchronous Online Cooperative Learning Course in a Japanese Women’s University during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050231 - 13 May 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3939
Abstract
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic expanded worldwide, most Japanese universities launched online learning as an emergent measure; hence, securing the quality of online learning remains a challenge. This study aimed to understand reasons behind students’ preferred mode of online learning during [...] Read more.
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic expanded worldwide, most Japanese universities launched online learning as an emergent measure; hence, securing the quality of online learning remains a challenge. This study aimed to understand reasons behind students’ preferred mode of online learning during the pandemic and to explore the impact of online cooperative learning on students’ class participation by analyzing their voluntary comments. A qualitative content analysis identified three factors that are related to students’ decisions and motivation about participating in synchronous online classes: mutuality resulting from interaction, the impact of COVID-19 on their life and learning, and individual circumstances. This small-scale study was conducted under the unusual circumstance of the pandemic, and the quality of student interaction was excluded from the analysis. However, their enjoyment arising from interaction encouraged their participation in a synchronous class and discussion. They expressed themselves and listened to others attentively, creating a favorable climate for learning. Students’ positive interdependence observed in this study suggests that cooperative learning cultivates a classroom culture where students are willing to contribute without the fear of losing face. This study indicated that participation, cooperation, and active engagement create a positive feedback loop, promoting each aspect even in an online setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Article
Teacher Implementation of Cooperative Learning in Indonesia: A Multiple Case Study
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 218; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050218 - 05 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2378
Abstract
The current study, a part of a bigger study, explored how teachers in Indonesia implemented cooperative learning (CL) in their distinct contexts. This multiple case study design used a qualitative interpretative approach. Following semi-structured interviews with 18 teachers who had attended CL professional [...] Read more.
The current study, a part of a bigger study, explored how teachers in Indonesia implemented cooperative learning (CL) in their distinct contexts. This multiple case study design used a qualitative interpretative approach. Following semi-structured interviews with 18 teachers who had attended CL professional development and used CL in their classrooms, four were purposefully selected as cases of teachers. Classroom observations, post classroom observation interviews, and field notes were employed to investigate the implementation of CL. The data were analysed using Miles, Huberman and Saldaña’s framework. Five themes were generated from cross-case analysis: implementation of CL principles, a lack of CL structures, a greater need of group orientation, group composition, and informal CL. The findings indicate that when an innovative pedagogical practice such as CL is implemented in a culture different from the one in which it was constructed, unique contexts both enable and disrupt the successful implementation of CL. This study proposes that further research attention must be given to understanding the challenges faced by teachers shifting away from direct teaching to student-centred pedagogies such as CL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Article
Is There a Right Way? Productive Patterns of Interaction during Collaborative Problem Solving
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050214 - 03 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1431
Abstract
Compelling research evidence shows benefits for student learning from explaining one’s ideas and engaging with the ideas of others. However, whether certain patterns of group interaction may engender this productive student participation is unknown. Using data from two third grade mathematics classrooms, and [...] Read more.
Compelling research evidence shows benefits for student learning from explaining one’s ideas and engaging with the ideas of others. However, whether certain patterns of group interaction may engender this productive student participation is unknown. Using data from two third grade mathematics classrooms, and over the course of six days during a five-month span, we investigated how students interacted with each other to solve problems when the teacher was not driving the interaction. We identified multiple profiles of group interaction that yielded highly-detailed participation for some or all students in the group. These profiles varied in terms of whether students interacted in an ongoing, sustained manner or interacted periodically but not continually, whether one or multiple students initiated problem-solving strategies, and whether group members worked jointly or largely separately on their strategies. No single profile of group interaction was either necessary or sufficient to lead to highly-detailed participation for all students in the group. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Article
Dual Effects of Partner’s Competence: Resource Interdependence in Cooperative Learning at Elementary School
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050210 - 29 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1713
Abstract
A partner’s competence should logically favor cooperative learning. However, research in cooperative learning has shown that a partner’s competence may or may not activate a threatening social comparison and yields dual effects: It is beneficial when students work on complementary information while it [...] Read more.
A partner’s competence should logically favor cooperative learning. However, research in cooperative learning has shown that a partner’s competence may or may not activate a threatening social comparison and yields dual effects: It is beneficial when students work on complementary information while it is detrimental when students work on identical information. Two studies conducted at elementary school (study 1 with 24 fourth graders working on encyclopedic texts, and study 2 with 28 fifth graders working on argumentative texts) replicated that interaction: Information distribution (complementary vs. identical information) moderated the relationship between partner’s competence and pupils’ learning outcomes. The relation between partner’s competence and students’ performances was positive when working on complementary information, but negative when working on identical information. A third study confirmed that working on identical information led to a competitive social comparison whereas complementary information reinforced the pupils’ cooperation perception. Contributions to cooperative learning research are discussed in terms of the competitive comparisons that may arise during cooperative learning at elementary school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
The Transformative Role of Peer Learning Projects in 21st Century Schools—Achievements from Five Portuguese Educational Institutions
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050196 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2375
Abstract
Rethinking the role of education in the 21st century implies acknowledging the power of learning and the urgency of making learning provision more meaningful, inclusive, and student-centred, which assumes particular importance when learner disengagement is still a global issue in elementary and secondary [...] Read more.
Rethinking the role of education in the 21st century implies acknowledging the power of learning and the urgency of making learning provision more meaningful, inclusive, and student-centred, which assumes particular importance when learner disengagement is still a global issue in elementary and secondary education. Rooted in social constructivism principles, peer learning is a learner-centred approach that facilitates the development of soft and technical skills, with evidence-based contributions to learners’ academic performance under the cognitive, affective, and social dimensions. This study aims to find evidence of the transformative role of peer learning projects in four Portuguese secondary schools and a higher education institution through teachers and peer teacher students’ (PTS) perceptions of these projects’ purpose, implementation, and impact on the educational community, particularly on PTS. Data were collected by means of a semi-structured in-depth interview and a survey by questionnaire, and content analysis and descriptive statistics were the techniques used. Results show cooperation and interpersonal skills’ improvement as major strengths of these projects, whereas the challenges are mostly organisational, e.g., reduced teacher service time and coordination of learners’ schedules. Conclusions highlight the potential of peer learning projects to promote pedagogical transformation and innovation in 21st century schools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Becoming a Socially Responsive Co-Learner: Primary School Pupils’ Practices of Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction in Cooperative Learning Groups
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11050195 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2002
Abstract
Promoting pupils’ face-to-face promotive interaction (FtFPI) is crucial for effective cooperative learning (CL) in group work. This article provides insight into interpersonal behaviour and supportive communication as two important aspects of FtFPI. Sixteen pupils 9–10 years of age were videotaped in four structured [...] Read more.
Promoting pupils’ face-to-face promotive interaction (FtFPI) is crucial for effective cooperative learning (CL) in group work. This article provides insight into interpersonal behaviour and supportive communication as two important aspects of FtFPI. Sixteen pupils 9–10 years of age were videotaped in four structured mixed-ability groups during CL sessions at two primary schools in post-war Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The features of FtFPI that pupils use for peer support in small CL groups and on interfering factors that pupils encounter during FtFPI were analysed using a thematic hybrid approach. The study found that pupils used verbal and non-verbal features for co-learners’ responsive actions during FtFPI. However, the findings also revealed some factors that interfere with the pupils’ FtFPI, such as having insufficient knowledge and personal skills about peer attention, encouragement and praising. The study recommends that future studies should implement the intervention necessary to foster both teachers’ and pupils’ understanding and functional knowledge of FtFPI for successful small CL groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Assessing the Differential Effects of Peer Tutoring for Tutors and Tutees
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030097 - 02 Mar 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2897
Abstract
There is strong evidence that peer tutoring, as a form of cooperative learning, has a positive impact on tutor and tutee outcomes. However, little previous research has been reported as to the differential effects of engaging in cooperative learning in dyads for peer [...] Read more.
There is strong evidence that peer tutoring, as a form of cooperative learning, has a positive impact on tutor and tutee outcomes. However, little previous research has been reported as to the differential effects of engaging in cooperative learning in dyads for peer tutors and peer tutees, respectively. A randomised controlled experimental study was undertaken involving 295, 11- to 13-year-old students, drawn from 12 classrooms, across three secondary/high schools situated in areas of low-socio-economic status, in the north east of England. In total, 146 students engaged in cooperative learning for a period of 12 weeks, and 149 students served as a comparison group. Gains were significantly greater on independent standardised reading comprehension tests for those engaged in cooperative learning than those in comparison classes, and greater for tutors than tutees. The results are explored by critically reflecting on the underlying theories of education that may be at play in classrooms using this form of cooperative learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Article
Peer Assessment: Channels of Operation
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(3), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11030091 - 25 Feb 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1635
Abstract
The present paper offers a definition of peer assessment and then reviews the major syntheses on its effectiveness. However, the main part of this paper is preoccupied with how to do PA successfully. A typology of 44 elements explains the differences between the [...] Read more.
The present paper offers a definition of peer assessment and then reviews the major syntheses on its effectiveness. However, the main part of this paper is preoccupied with how to do PA successfully. A typology of 44 elements explains the differences between the many types of peer assessment. Then a theoretical model outlines some of the processes which may occur during PA. Initially, only a few of these will be used, but as those engaged in PA become more experienced, an increasing number of elements will feature. However, these may not appear in the linear order set out here, and indeed may be recursive. The implications for the design and organisation of PA are outlined, as well as the implications for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Integrated STEM for Teacher Professional Learning and Development: “I Need Time for Practice”
Educ. Sci. 2021, 11(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci11010021 - 05 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2916
Abstract
This study compares three pre-collegiate teacher professional learning and development (PLD) integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences framed in astronomy. The study is set in the western United States (USA) and involves 60 pre-collegiate teachers (in the USA these are K-12 [...] Read more.
This study compares three pre-collegiate teacher professional learning and development (PLD) integrated science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) experiences framed in astronomy. The study is set in the western United States (USA) and involves 60 pre-collegiate teachers (in the USA these are K-12 teachers) over the course of three years (June 2014–May 2017). During the PLDs, astronomy acted as a vehicle for pre-collegiate STEM teachers to increase their STEM content knowledge as well as create and implement integrated STEM classroom lessons. The authors collected quantitative and qualitative data to address five research questions and embraced social constructionism as the theoretical framework. Findings show that STEM pre-collegiate teachers are largely engaged with integrated STEM PLD content and embrace astronomy content and authentic science. Importantly, they need time to practice, interpret, translate, and use the integrated STEM content in classroom lessons. Recommendations for PLD STEM teacher support are provided. Implications of this study are vast, as gaps in authentic science, utilizing astronomy, PLD structure, and STEM integration are ripe for exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Dialogic Teaching during Cooperative Inquiry-Based Science: A Case Study of a Year 6 Classroom
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110328 - 12 Nov 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2436
Abstract
Teachers play a critical role in promoting dialogic interaction in their students. The purpose of this case study was to investigate how one very effective teacher taught two, cooperative, inquiry-based science units to her Year 6 class. In particular, the case study focused [...] Read more.
Teachers play a critical role in promoting dialogic interaction in their students. The purpose of this case study was to investigate how one very effective teacher taught two, cooperative, inquiry-based science units to her Year 6 class. In particular, the case study focused on how she used different discourses to capture students’ curiosity in the inquiry-based tasks, provided hands-on activities to enable them to test out their hypotheses and develop explanations for what they found in order to help them become more scientifically literate and have a broader understanding of the role of science in the world in which they live. The results showed that the students engaged constructively with their peers on the inquiry group tasks; they used the correct scientific language to discuss phenomena, make claims, and compared findings. Furthermore, they became more adept at expressing their opinions and providing explanations and justifications for the ‘scientific’ positions they had adopted across the six inquiry-based science lessons; core cognitive practices that support learning. This case study highlights the importance of utilizing both authoritative and dialogic discourse to challenge and scaffold students’ thinking to support enhanced understandings and reasoned argumentation during inquiry-based science. This case study fills a gap in the literature on how teachers can utilize different communicative approaches during inquiry-based science units to promote student engagement and learning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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Article
Cooperative Learning in Swedish Classrooms: Engagement and Relationships as a Focus for Culturally Diverse Students
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(11), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10110312 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3105
Abstract
The ongoing refugee crisis makes intercultural competence and culturally responsive education crucial issues in schools. At the same time, increased migration poses new challenges for social cohesion in countries around the world. How schools and classrooms can be fair and inclusive in terms [...] Read more.
The ongoing refugee crisis makes intercultural competence and culturally responsive education crucial issues in schools. At the same time, increased migration poses new challenges for social cohesion in countries around the world. How schools and classrooms can be fair and inclusive in terms of experiences and outcomes for migrant and refugee students is therefore a key question. This paper will explore the increase in migration of newly arrived students in Sweden, and how teachers in this country are catering for diverse students through cooperative learning. I explore cooperative learning as an inclusive and culturally responsive pedagogy that can be effectively used in schools to support all students and especially ‘refugee’ or newly arrived students. Using theory from cooperative learning and Stembridge (2020) as a theoretical framework, I particularly focus on analysis using two of Stembridge’s themes of Culturally Responsive Education: Engagement and Relationships to analyze Swedish primary school classroom observations and teacher interviews and find commonalities between these two themes and the key ideas in cooperative learning. This research is built on the premise that there is more need in education research for up to date observations into the classroom factors that support or hinder learning and the way that within-class groupings can support diversity and inclusivity. Cooperative learning allows participants to develop a commitment to fairness, social responsibility and a concern for others and this particularly caters for our diverse student populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
Article
Bringing Out-of-School Learning into the Classroom: Self- versus Peer-Monitoring of Learning Behaviour
Educ. Sci. 2020, 10(10), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci10100284 - 16 Oct 2020
Viewed by 1822
Abstract
Based on classroom management fostering autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, this study examines effects of reciprocal peer-monitoring of learning behaviours on cognitive and affective outcomes. Within our study, 470 German secondary school students between 13 and 16 years of age participated in a [...] Read more.
Based on classroom management fostering autonomy support and intrinsic motivation, this study examines effects of reciprocal peer-monitoring of learning behaviours on cognitive and affective outcomes. Within our study, 470 German secondary school students between 13 and 16 years of age participated in a multimodal hands- and minds-on exhibition focusing on renewable resources. Three groups were separated and monitored via a pre-post-follow up questionnaire: the first conducted peer-monitoring with the performance of specific roles to manage students’ learning behaviours, the second accomplished a self-monitoring strategy, while the third group did not visit the exhibition. In contrast to the latter control group, both treatment groups produced a high increase in short- and long-term knowledge achievement. The peer-monitored group scored higher in cognitive learning outcomes than the self-monitored group did. Interestingly, the perceived level of choice did not differ between both treatment groups, whereas peer-monitoring increased students’ perceived competence and simultaneously reduced the perceived level of anxiety and boredom. Peer-monitoring realised with the performance of specific roles seems to keep students “on task” without lowering indicators for students’ intrinsic motivation. Herewith, we are amongst the first to suggest peer-monitoring as a semi-formal learning approach to balance between teacher-controlled instruction and free-choice exploration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cooperative/Collaborative Learning)
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