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Pharmacy, Volume 9, Issue 2 (June 2021) – 46 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The COVID-19 pandemic requires a range of healthcare services to meet the needs of society. The objective of this scoping review was to explore what is known about the roles and services performed by frontline pharmacists during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. It presents a conceptual framework model of the different layers made visible by COVID-19 of pharmacist roles in public health, information, and medication management. It is theorized that there is an invisible layer of change that represents the evolving professional role identity that may influence permanent role change following the pandemic. Thus, the pharmacy profession needs to build upon the lessons and experiences of this global pandemic and not let the momentum of the visible and invisible changes to pharmacists’ roles and identity go to waste. View this paper
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Review
The Danish Network for Community Pharmacy Practice Research and Development
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020114 - 17 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2484
Abstract
The community pharmacy has a number of attributes that makes it an excellent setting for research and development projects, as it is a highly accessible part of the healthcare system and is staffed by highly trained health care professionals. The big turnover in [...] Read more.
The community pharmacy has a number of attributes that makes it an excellent setting for research and development projects, as it is a highly accessible part of the healthcare system and is staffed by highly trained health care professionals. The big turnover in patients in the community pharmacy makes it possible to reach a great number of patients and collect a lot of data in a relatively short time. However, conducting nation-wide research and development projects can be a rather time-consuming process for the individual community pharmacy, and can thus require collaboration with other community pharmacies and researchers. This will help ensure strong results and better implementation. Thus, the Danish Network for Community Pharmacy Practice for Research and Development (NUAP) was established in Denmark by a number of highly committed community pharmacies and researchers. NUAP consists of 102 member pharmacy owners in addition to a number of researchers. The aim of the network is to strengthen pharmacy practice and pharmacy practice research in Denmark by providing a forum where community pharmacy practitioners and researchers meet and work together. The network is led by a steering committee elected by the members in the network. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Prescribing Indicators in a Paediatric Population Seen in an Outpatient Consultation at the Gaspard Kamara Health Centre in 2019 (Senegal)
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020113 - 17 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2083
Abstract
Introduction: Data on drug use in paediatrics are scarce in Senegal. The objective of this study was to assess the prescribing indicators in a paediatric population seen in an outpatient consultation at a Health Centre in Dakar, Senegal. Methods: A retrospective [...] Read more.
Introduction: Data on drug use in paediatrics are scarce in Senegal. The objective of this study was to assess the prescribing indicators in a paediatric population seen in an outpatient consultation at a Health Centre in Dakar, Senegal. Methods: A retrospective and analytical study was conducted. The study population consisted of prescriptions for children aged 0 to 14 years who were seen in ambulatory consultation between 1 June and 30 November 2019. The sample size was 600 prescriptions. The systematic survey was then conducted. Five prescription indicators recommended by the World Health Organization were calculated. The R software was used for descriptive analysis, bivariate analysis and binomial logistic regression. Results: The average number of drugs per prescription was 2.56. The proportion of drugs prescribed under the International Nonproprietary Name (INN) was 18.9%, while the proportion of drugs on the National Essential Medicines List (NEML) was 41.3%. The proportions of prescriptions with at least one antibiotic and one injectable product were 41.5% and 1.3%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that prescribing habits were inadequate. Thus, it would be necessary to move towards continuing training of prescribers in the wise use of medicines. Full article
Article
Peer Teaching in an Interprofessional Education Activity Focused on Professional Skills Development
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020112 - 16 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2030
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a peer-taught interprofessional education (IPE) activity on pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) student self-assessed confidence and attitudes related to professional skills. First-year pharmacy (n = 210) and PA (n = [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a peer-taught interprofessional education (IPE) activity on pharmacy and physician assistant (PA) student self-assessed confidence and attitudes related to professional skills. First-year pharmacy (n = 210) and PA (n = 45) students participated in a two-hour IPE activity. Forty-five teams consisting of one PA and at least four pharmacy students completed three peer-teaching stations focused on diabetes device education, pulmonary device teaching/case workup, and physical assessment skills. Students completed a pre- and post-activity confidence survey and a post-activity attitudes survey. For pharmacy students, highest confidence gains were noted on the items related to performing a physical exam. For PA students, largest gains were noted on the items related to insulin delivery systems. Eighty-three percent of students either agreed or strongly agreed with the statement “I learned things during this IPE activity that I will implement in clinical practice.” Seventy six percent of students felt that the physical assessment station was “beneficial or very beneficial” to their learning. A vast majority of students noted the IPE activity “somewhat or definitely” enhanced their communication with other health professionals and promoted a climate of mutual respect. In conclusion, peer teaching improved student attitudes and confidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Comparison of an In-Person versus a Virtual Interprofessional Education Activity Focused on Professional Communication
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020111 - 15 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
Early provision of interprofessional education (IPE) is imperative to ensure effective communication between healthcare professionals. However, there are several barriers to offering adequate IPE, including space restrictions and lack of human resources, prompting exploration of alternative modalities. In 2019, an IPE activity was [...] Read more.
Early provision of interprofessional education (IPE) is imperative to ensure effective communication between healthcare professionals. However, there are several barriers to offering adequate IPE, including space restrictions and lack of human resources, prompting exploration of alternative modalities. In 2019, an IPE activity was offered in person with 213 pharmacy and 45 physician assistant (PA) students participating in one-on-one team huddles focusing on managing an acutely ill patient. In 2020, the same IPE activity, including 194 pharmacy and 45 PA students, was offered virtually. Peer evaluations, an attitudes survey, and confidence surveys were administered to evaluate the impact of the IPE activity. A student t-test and descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze the data. On average, PA students in the virtual group rated their peers higher than PA students in the in-person group, with little difference in the pharmacy peer evaluation of their PA partner. Ninety percent of pharmacy students and 91% of PA students in the virtual group felt that “they learned something new regarding therapeutic management” from their partner versus 84% of pharmacy and 81% of PA students in the in-person group. In conclusion, using a virtual modality for a communications-focused IPE was not detrimental to student attitudes and did not adversely affect peer perceptions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Developing a Global Community of Practice for Pharmacy Workforce Resilience—Meet GRiT
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020110 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3431
Abstract
Workforce resilience in pharmacy is required to ensure the practice, education, and administrative systems remain viable and sustainable over time and when facing challenges. Whether it is addressing burnout of pharmacists or students, or the structure and policies/procedures of employment and professional organizations, [...] Read more.
Workforce resilience in pharmacy is required to ensure the practice, education, and administrative systems remain viable and sustainable over time and when facing challenges. Whether it is addressing burnout of pharmacists or students, or the structure and policies/procedures of employment and professional organizations, working to increase resilience across all individuals and sectors is essential to relieve pressure and promote better well-being, especially during the recent pandemic. The purpose of this article is to describe the development of a community of practice global group focused on development of resilience within the pharmacy workforce that is inclusive of students, pharmacy interns/preregistration and registered pharmacists. The steering group meets monthly and has representation of 24 members across eight countries. Members meet to discuss pertinent issues they are facing in practice, as well as to share and progress ideas on education, research, and practice initiatives. To date, members have collectively implemented resilience training in pharmacy education, researched burnout and resilience in both students and pharmacists, and facilitated international collaborations both within and outside core group members. Future activities will focus on strengthening the community of practice in order to harness the power of the collective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivation, Grit, and Resilience in Pharmacy Education and Practice)
Communication
Developing Grit, Motivation, and Resilience: To Give Up on Giving In
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020109 - 09 Jun 2021
Viewed by 2893
Abstract
Developing grit, motivation, and resilience within the pharmacy workforce has become a topic of increasing interest, heightened by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Even prior to the global pandemic, the health care field has been associated with a rapidly changing, challenging, and pressured work [...] Read more.
Developing grit, motivation, and resilience within the pharmacy workforce has become a topic of increasing interest, heightened by the recent COVID-19 pandemic. Even prior to the global pandemic, the health care field has been associated with a rapidly changing, challenging, and pressured work environment that can often lead to stress and burnout. Developing resilience in health care workers has been identified as a strategy to combat burnout by improving their ability to thrive in stressful situations, thus enhancing physical and mental well-being. In this commentary, we consider the use of a resilience framework that encompasses the overlapping attributes of emotional balance and physical and mental strength to develop resilience. The importance of finding purpose and meaning is also explored within the framework, as well as the association between grit, motivation, autonomy, mastery, and connection. Practical strategies and reflections are outlined to challenge, inspire, and motivate the development of grit and resilience, in order to combat the challenges faced by pharmacists in a constantly changing health care system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motivation, Grit, and Resilience in Pharmacy Education and Practice)
Article
Assessing the Effects of Basic Medical Science Courses on the Knowledge and Attitude towards Antibiotic Usage among Pre-Professional Students in Saudi Arabia
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020108 - 30 May 2021
Viewed by 2504
Abstract
The curriculum of medical schools includes courses on antibiotics. Therefore, it is worth exploring information related to the knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics. In this cross-sectional study the questionnaire was administered to the undergraduates in two phases, before and after attending the basic [...] Read more.
The curriculum of medical schools includes courses on antibiotics. Therefore, it is worth exploring information related to the knowledge and attitudes about antibiotics. In this cross-sectional study the questionnaire was administered to the undergraduates in two phases, before and after attending the basic medical science courses. The data were collected on demographic variables, source of antibiotics, level of knowledge, and changes in attitude statements. Data analysis was implemented using SPSS. The mean age of participants was 19.87 and 20.15 in phases I and II, respectively. Most of the participants’ parents had education at the university level and a monthly income above 15,000 SAR. Generally, students had good knowledge and attitude about antibiotics. A significant improvement in students’ knowledge in phase-II was noticed in “level of knowledge” (p-value = 0.044), “paracetamol is considered an antibiotic” (p-value < 0.001) and “overuse of antibiotics can cause antibiotics resistance” (p-value = 0.003). The overall knowledge and attitude of pre-professional students were good in both phases, but their attitude did not improve at a significant level in phase-II. There is a need to put more focus on antimicrobial therapy in their training. Full article
Article
A De Novo Pharmacist-Family Physician Collaboration Model in a Family Medicine Clinic in Alberta, Canada
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020107 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 2478
Abstract
Collaborative practice in health-care has proven to be an effective and efficient method for the management of chronic diseases. This study describes a de novo collaborative practice between a pharmacist and a family physician. The primary objective of the study is to describe [...] Read more.
Collaborative practice in health-care has proven to be an effective and efficient method for the management of chronic diseases. This study describes a de novo collaborative practice between a pharmacist and a family physician. The primary objective of the study is to describe the collaboration model between a pharmacist and family physician. The secondary objective is to describe the pharmacist workload. A list of patients who had at least one interaction with the pharmacist was generated and printed from the electronic medical record. There were 389 patients on the patient panel. The pharmacist had at least one encounter with 159 patients. There were 83 females. The most common medical condition seen by the pharmacist was hypertension. A total of 583 patient consultations were made by the pharmacist and 219 of those were independent visits. The pharmacist wrote 1361 prescriptions. The expanded scope of practice for pharmacists in Alberta includes additional prescribing authority. The pharmacists’ education and clinical experience gained trust from the family physician. These, coupled with the family physician’s previous positive experience working with pharmacists made the collaboration achievable. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacists as Providers of Care)
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Article
Nonmedical Prescription Opioid Use among a Sample of College Students: Prevalence and Predictors
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020106 - 28 May 2021
Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Nonmedical use of prescription opioid medication (NMPO) in the United States is a public health crisis, resulting in high rates of emergency room visits, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore prevalence estimates and correlates of NMPO among a [...] Read more.
Nonmedical use of prescription opioid medication (NMPO) in the United States is a public health crisis, resulting in high rates of emergency room visits, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this study was to explore prevalence estimates and correlates of NMPO among a convenience sample of college students in the northeast and southeast regions of the US to help generate directions for future research. Motivations for misuse, age of onset, access, concomitant substance use, and individual factors were investigated among a sample of undergraduate students from two universities. Participants (N = 847) completed a battery of various self-report measures. Findings revealed that 7.7% (Southeastern University) and 12.8% of students (Northeastern University) reported lifetime NMPO, whereas past-month NMPO was reported by 0.8% and 0.9% of participants, respectively. Lifetime history of regularly using alcohol, nonmedical use of benzodiazepine medication, nonmedical use of prescription stimulants, symptoms of depression and anxiety, and executive functioning (i.e., metacognition and behavioral regulation) were significantly related to lifetime history of NMPO in this college sample. These findings offer several potential subsequent lines of investigation regarding the associations between various demographic and psychological factors and NMPO. Future research is needed to help identify college students who are at risk of NMPO. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Experiences II)
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Article
Implementation of a Real-Time Medication Intake Monitoring Technology Intervention in Community Pharmacy Settings: A Mixed-Method Pilot Study
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020105 - 25 May 2021
Viewed by 2920
Abstract
Innovative dispensing products offering real-time medication intake monitoring are being developed to address medication non-adherence. However, implementation of these interventions within the workflow of a community pharmacy is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting implementation of a real-time [...] Read more.
Innovative dispensing products offering real-time medication intake monitoring are being developed to address medication non-adherence. However, implementation of these interventions within the workflow of a community pharmacy is unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore factors affecting implementation of a real-time adherence-monitoring, multidose-dispensing system in community pharmacies. A mixed-method study was conducted with pharmacy staff, who packaged and dispensed medications in smart multidose packages and monitored real-time medication intake via web-portal. Pharmacy staff participated in semi-structured interviews. The Technology Acceptance Model, Theory of Planned Behaviour and Capability, Opportunity, Motivation, Behaviour Model informed the interview guide. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically and findings were mapped back to the frameworks. The usability was assessed by the System Usability Scale (SUS). Three pharmacists and one pharmacy assistant with a mean of 19 years of practice were interviewed. Three themes and 12 subthemes were generated. Themes included: pharmacy workflow factors, integration factors, and pharmacist-perceived patient factors. The mean SUS was found to be 80.63. Products with real-time adherence monitoring capabilities are valued by pharmacists. A careful assessment of infrastructure—including pharmacy workload, manpower and financial resources—is imperative for successful implementation of such interventions in a community pharmacy setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Role of Community Pharmacists in Public Health II)
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Article
Revisiting the Food- and Nutrition-Related Curriculum in Healthcare Education: An Example for Pharmacy Education
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020104 - 22 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2716
Abstract
Objective: This study aimed to obtain an objective overview of nutritional topics discussed in community pharmacies to adapt the nutrition-related course content in pharmacy education. Methods: We performed an observational study between July 2014 and April 2015 in 136 community pharmacies [...] Read more.
Objective: This study aimed to obtain an objective overview of nutritional topics discussed in community pharmacies to adapt the nutrition-related course content in pharmacy education. Methods: We performed an observational study between July 2014 and April 2015 in 136 community pharmacies in Belgium. During four months, each pharmacy intern recorded the first two food- and nutrition-related cases with which they were confronted. Each case was classified into one of 18 categories. Results: 1004 cases were included by 135 pharmacy interns. The most often discussed subjects include “food supplements” (38%), “baby food” (19%), and “healthy food and nutritional recommendations” (11%). In 45% (447/1004) of all cases, pharmacy interns were able to immediately discuss the cases without searching for additional information. Eventually, after looking up extra information, 95% (958/1004) of cases could be answered. Conclusions: Food- and nutrition-related cases are discussed in primary healthcare. We recommend food- and nutrition-related courses in the curriculum of every healthcare profession. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Education Development)
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Article
Disposal Practices of Unused and Leftover Medicines in the Households of Dhaka Metropolis
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020103 - 20 May 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3561
Abstract
Background: This fact-finding study aimed to attain an overall idea and knowledge about medicine disposal practices in Dhaka Metropolitan households. Methods: This mixed study (both quantitative and qualitative) was orchestrated to inspect the household leftover medicine disposal pattern’s governing status. A cross-sectional survey [...] Read more.
Background: This fact-finding study aimed to attain an overall idea and knowledge about medicine disposal practices in Dhaka Metropolitan households. Methods: This mixed study (both quantitative and qualitative) was orchestrated to inspect the household leftover medicine disposal pattern’s governing status. A cross-sectional survey was conducted following a structured questionnaire and key informant interview with a household person and in-depth interviews with the top pharmaceutical and government officials. Results: Findings disclose that, for most of the key informants, the terms “drug disposal” and “drug pollution” were unknown; more precisely, 67% and 74% of key informants even did not hear these two terms. Almost all (87%) households faced undesired incidents due to the insecure storage of medicines. People disposed of excess and expired medication in regular dustbins (47%), threw out of the window (19%), flushed within commode (4%), burnt in fire (2%), and reused (4%). A good percentage of people (21%) returned unexpired drugs to the pharmacy and bought other medicines on a need basis. A total of 72% wanted a medicine take-back program, and 100% agreed on mass education on this issue. Officials of pharmaceuticals conferred mixed opinion: top-ranked pharmaceuticals will adopt leftover medicine disposal practices; middle and low-ranked pharmaceutical companies are reluctant, merely denied mentioning the less important issue. Conclusions: The absence of mass awareness and standard laws and policies may explain these existing aberrant practices. Full article
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Article
Community Pharmacy Minor Ailment Service (PMAS): An Untapped Resource for Children and Their Carers
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020102 - 17 May 2021
Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Background: The Pharmacy Minor Ailment Service (PMAS) was introduced in the UK over 15 years ago for use in treating minor ailments and has been shown to be effective and acceptable by the public in reducing the burden on high-cost healthcare settings (such [...] Read more.
Background: The Pharmacy Minor Ailment Service (PMAS) was introduced in the UK over 15 years ago for use in treating minor ailments and has been shown to be effective and acceptable by the public in reducing the burden on high-cost healthcare settings (such as general practice and emergency departments). This paper aims to review the use of a PMAS in the paediatric population. Methods: PMAS was established in a London Borough in 2013. Data were collected from 33 pharmacists and 38 GPs on demographics, service utilization and costs. Results: In total, 6974 face-to-face consultations by 4174 patients were provided by pharmacies as part of the PMAS over a 12-month period. Moreover, 57% of patients were children with fever, hay fever and sore throat, accounting for 58% of consultations. Only 2% were signposted to other services. Sixty-nine percent of patients reported being seen within 5 min and 96% of patients were seen within 10 min with high levels of satisfaction. Cost savings of over GBP 192,000 were made during the scheme. Conclusions: PMAS is a highly cost effective, accessible and acceptable service for children with minor illnesses. Full article
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Review
Opioid-Induced In-Hospital Deaths: A 10-Year Review of Australian Coroners’ Cases Exploring Similarities and Lessons Learnt
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020101 - 07 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2667
Abstract
Although opioids are the cornerstone of moderate-to-severe acute pain management they are appropriately recognised as high-risk medicines. Patient and health service delivery factors can contribute to an increased risk of death associated with excessive sedation and respiratory impairment. Despite increasing awareness of opioid-induced [...] Read more.
Although opioids are the cornerstone of moderate-to-severe acute pain management they are appropriately recognised as high-risk medicines. Patient and health service delivery factors can contribute to an increased risk of death associated with excessive sedation and respiratory impairment. Despite increasing awareness of opioid-induced ventilation impairment (OIVI), no reliable method consistently identifies individual characteristics and factors that increase mortality risk due to respiratory depression events. This study assessed similarities in available coronial inquest cases reviewing opioid-related deaths in Australian hospitals from 2010 to 2020. Cases included for review were in-hospital deaths that identified patient factors, clinical errors and service delivery factors that resulted in opioid therapy contributing to the death. Of the 2879 coroner’s inquest reports reviewed across six Australian states, 15 met the criteria for inclusion. Coroner’s inquest reports were analysed qualitatively to identify common themes, contributing patient and service delivery factors and recommendations. Descriptive statistics were used to summarise shared features between cases. All cases included had at least one, but often more, service delivery factors contributing to the death, including insufficient observations, prescribing/administration error, poor escalation and reduced communication. Wider awareness of the individual characteristics that pose increased risk of OIVI, greater uptake of formal, evidence-based pain management guidelines and improved documentation and observations may reduce OIVI mortality rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Responsible Use of Opioids)
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Article
A 15-Year Ecological Comparison for the Hiring Dynamics of Minnesota Pharmacies between 2006 and 2020
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020100 - 06 May 2021
Viewed by 2125
Abstract
Labor market forces in pharmacy are affected by frictional unemployment (job turnover), structural employment forces that require new skill sets for employees, and hiring practices that integrate technology or less costly labor such as pharmacy technicians. The objectives of this study were to [...] Read more.
Labor market forces in pharmacy are affected by frictional unemployment (job turnover), structural employment forces that require new skill sets for employees, and hiring practices that integrate technology or less costly labor such as pharmacy technicians. The objectives of this study were to describe hiring trends for both the pharmacist and technician workforces in licensed pharmacies on a biennial basis from 2006 through 2020 using data collected in Minnesota. Ecological comparisons were made between the survey years using descriptive statistics. For open-ended questions added to the 2020 survey, content analysis was applied. Demand for technicians increased which might be due to the expansion of their roles into activities that had been reserved for the pharmacist. Pharmacies reportedly would like to hire pharmacists to meet the demand for new services that pharmacists can provide. However, respondents articulated that this is not feasible under current economic pressures. This represents a lost opportunity for transformation in pharmacy that would establish pharmacists’ roles in the rapidly transforming health care value chain. We conclude that hiring dynamics in pharmacies are being driven more by economic and organizational shifts than meeting the demand for services that pharmacists can provide. Full article
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Review
COVID the Catalyst for Evolving Professional Role Identity? A Scoping Review of Global Pharmacists’ Roles and Services as a Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020099 - 04 May 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4174
Abstract
The COVID-19 pandemic requires a range of healthcare services to meet the needs of society. The objective was to explore what is known about the roles and services performed by frontline pharmacists during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. A scoping review [...] Read more.
The COVID-19 pandemic requires a range of healthcare services to meet the needs of society. The objective was to explore what is known about the roles and services performed by frontline pharmacists during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. A scoping review was conducted of frontline pharmacists’ roles and services during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. A medical librarian conducted comprehensive searches in five bibliographic databases—MEDLINE (via Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL, Scopus, and Web of Science Core Collection for articles published between December 2019 and December 2020. The initial search retrieved 3269 articles. After removing duplicates, 1196 articles titles and abstracts were screened, 281 full texts were reviewed for eligibility, and 63 articles were included. This scoping review presents a conceptual framework model of the different layers made visible by COVID-19 of pharmacist roles in public health, information, and medication management. It is theorized that there is an invisible layer of change representing evolving professional role identity that may influence permanent role change following the pandemic. Thus, the pharmacy profession needs to build upon the lessons and experiences of this global pandemic and not let the momentum of the visible and invisible changes go to waste. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Services Ⅱ)
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Article
Cross-Sectional Survey among General Population Regarding Knowledge and Attitude toward Antibiotic Usage in Western Saudi Arabia
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020098 - 01 May 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2359
Abstract
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a threatening issue to human wellbeing and an obstacle in the treatment process of many life-threating illnesses. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic usage among the general population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A [...] Read more.
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a threatening issue to human wellbeing and an obstacle in the treatment process of many life-threating illnesses. This study aims to assess the knowledge and attitudes toward antibiotic usage among the general population in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A self-administered cross-sectional survey of 460 participants was distributed among the general population in Jeddah in the form of a validated questionnaire. Sample size was calculated to be 460 adults of either gender. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences. Results: the age of more than half of participants (55.6%) was 18–30 years old, followed by the age group 31–40 years old (26.6%), with the smallest age group >60 years old (1.9%). More than two thirds of participants were male (69.5%), while 131 were female, accounting for 30.5%. Almost one third of participants had poor knowledge about antibiotics (30.5%), 51.0% had used antibiotics without any prescriptions, 54.6% of participants thought antibiotics could be used to treat viral infections, and 55.1% thought it was acceptable to stop taking antibiotics if symptoms start to improve. In addition, 49% believed that taking antibiotics would help them get better more rapidly when suffering from the common cold. Some personal characteristics were significantly associated with the public’s knowledge (e.g., age, education, and monthly income) and their attitudes (e.g., monthly income). Conclusion: Findings revealed a low level of knowledge on the use of antibiotics among the general public in Jeddah. This study signifies the need for improvement in the public’s knowledge and enhancement of their attitudes toward proper utilization of antibiotics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
Article
A Methodological Assessment of Pharmacist Therapeutic Intervention Documentation (TID) in a Single Tertiary Care Hospital in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020097 - 28 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2205
Abstract
Pharmacist intervention has valuable input to the healthcare system by reducing medication errors, costs of treatment and improving therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to analyze pharmacists’ interventions during the verification of computerized physician order entry and to determine the association between prescribers’ level [...] Read more.
Pharmacist intervention has valuable input to the healthcare system by reducing medication errors, costs of treatment and improving therapeutic outcomes. This study aimed to analyze pharmacists’ interventions during the verification of computerized physician order entry and to determine the association between prescribers’ level and type of prescribing errors. In this cross-sectional, observational study, data collection was carried out over three months starting from 1 January 2020 to 31 March 2020. Included were 2405 interventions documented by 52 different pharmacists. The prevalence of prescribing order entry errors was 9.1%. The most identifiable type of intervention was incorrect dilution (40.2%) followed by dose substitution (27.7%). The drug category associated with a high percentage of interventions was perfusion solutions (41%), followed by antibacterial (35%). The number of junior physician orders that required pharmacist intervention was higher than other prescribers (45.2%), followed by specialist and senior physicians, (31.4% and 15.5%, respectively). Prescriber ordering time and types of prescribing errors were shown to have a significant (p < 0.05) association. Internal medicine physicians entered the highest percentage of prescribing errors, representing 22.7%. The current study concluded that TID has significant potential to reduce drug-related problems; TID fatigue is a real problem that might be under-reported and addressing this point in future studies would be of great value. Full article
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Communication
Pharmacist Prescribing for Minor Ailments Service Development: The Experience in Ontario
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020096 - 27 Apr 2021
Viewed by 3519
Abstract
To date, eight of ten Canadian provinces have authorized pharmacists to prescribe for minor ailments. Prompted by a request by the Ontario Minister of Health, draft regulations were submitted to enable this pharmacy service in Ontario. Differences exist in how jurisdictions have approached [...] Read more.
To date, eight of ten Canadian provinces have authorized pharmacists to prescribe for minor ailments. Prompted by a request by the Ontario Minister of Health, draft regulations were submitted to enable this pharmacy service in Ontario. Differences exist in how jurisdictions have approached development and delivery of these programs. This paper will summarize key differences and similarities among existing programs while highlighting the multi-pronged approach utilized by Ontario. Such an approach involved broad stakeholder engagement, implementation science, and an evaluations framework to guide an assessment of the impact of this new service. These insights can be leveraged by other jurisdictions planning to initiate or evolve their minor ailment prescribing services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Pharmacy Minor Ailment Services)
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Article
Australian Community Pharmacy Harm-Minimisation Services: Scope for Service Expansion to Improve Healthcare Access
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020095 - 26 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Community pharmacies are well positioned to participate in harm-minimisation services to reduce harms caused by both licit and illicit substances. Considering developments in pharmacist practices and the introduction of new professional pharmacy services, we identified a need to explore the contemporary role of [...] Read more.
Community pharmacies are well positioned to participate in harm-minimisation services to reduce harms caused by both licit and illicit substances. Considering developments in pharmacist practices and the introduction of new professional pharmacy services, we identified a need to explore the contemporary role of community pharmacy in harm minimisation. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken to explore the opinions of stakeholders, pharmacy staff, and clients about the role of community pharmacy in harm minimisation, including provision of current services, experiences, and expectations. Participants (n = 28) included 5 stakeholders, 9 consumers, and 14 staff members from seven community pharmacies. Three over-arching themes were identified across the three participants groups: (i) scope and provision, (ii) complexity, and (iii) importance of person-centred advice and support in relation to community pharmacy harm minimisation services. Community pharmacies are valuable healthcare destinations for delivery of harm minimisation services, with scope for service expansion. Further education, support, and remuneration are needed, as well as linkage to other sector providers, in order to ensure that pharmacists and pharmacy staff are well equipped to provide a range of harm minimisation services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Addiction and Mental Health in Pharmacy)
Article
Distributing Publicly-Funded Influenza Vaccine—Community Pharmacies’ Perspectives on Acquiring Vaccines from Public Health and from Private Distributors in Ontario, Canada
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020094 - 24 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2293
Abstract
Objectives: To explore community pharmacies’ experience with two models of distribution for publicly-funded influenza vaccines in Ontario, Canada—one being publicly-managed (2015–2016 influenza season) and one involving private pharmaceutical distributors (2016–2017 season). Methods: Online surveys were distributed to community pharmacies across Ontario during the [...] Read more.
Objectives: To explore community pharmacies’ experience with two models of distribution for publicly-funded influenza vaccines in Ontario, Canada—one being publicly-managed (2015–2016 influenza season) and one involving private pharmaceutical distributors (2016–2017 season). Methods: Online surveys were distributed to community pharmacies across Ontario during the 2015–2016 and 2016–2017 influenza seasons with sampling proportional to Ontario Public Health Unit catchment populations. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and inferentially and qualitative data were summarized for additional context. Results: Order fulfillment appeared more responsive with the addition of private distributors in 2016–2017, as more pharmacies reported shorter order fulfillment times (p < 0.01); however, pharmacies reported significantly more days with zero on-hand inventory in 2016–2017 (p < 0.01), as well as more instances of patients being turned away due to vaccine unavailability (p < 0.05). In both seasons, a similar proportion of pharmacies reported slower order fulfillment and limited order quantities early in the season. Improved availability early in the season when patient demand is highest, more vaccines in a pre-filled syringe format, and better communication from distributors on product availability dates were recommended in qualitative responses. Conclusions: Introducing private distributors for the management and fulfillment of pharmacies’ orders for the publicly funded influenza vaccine appeared to have mixed results. While key concerns surrounding the frequency, responsiveness, and method of delivery were addressed by this change, challenges remain—in particular, acquiring sufficient vaccine early in the season to meet patient demand. As pharmacies become more prominent as vaccination sites, there are several opportunities to ensure that patient demand is met in this setting. Full article
Article
Use of Visual Dashboards to Enhance Pharmacy Teaching
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020093 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2577
Abstract
Teaching large cohorts of pharmacy students with a team of multiple tutors in a feedback intensive course poses challenges in relation the amount of data generated, data integrity, interpretation of the data and importantly application of the insights gained from the data. The [...] Read more.
Teaching large cohorts of pharmacy students with a team of multiple tutors in a feedback intensive course poses challenges in relation the amount of data generated, data integrity, interpretation of the data and importantly application of the insights gained from the data. The dispensing and counselling course in the third year BPharm at the University of Sydney has implemented the USyd Pharmacy Dashboard, developed to address these challenges following the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Framework (TPACK) to integrate technology into teaching. The dashboard was designed to improve the student experience through more consistent feedback, gain insights to improve teaching delivery and provide efficiencies in maintaining data integrity. The tool has been developed using an action-based research approach whereby ideas are put into practice as the means to further develop the idea and improve practice. Refinement of the USyd Pharmacy Dashboard over three years has shown improvements in teaching delivery as teachers can respond to emerging trends. Student performance and satisfaction scores have increased, mainly due to improved consistency between tutors and improved delivery of feedback. Time involved with administrative tasks such as data maintenance is reduced. Opportunities for further refinements such as real time benchmarking and developing an open learner model have become apparent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Technology-Enhanced Pharmacy Teaching and Learning Strategies)
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Article
Perceptions of Independent Pharmacist Prescribing among Health Authority- and Community-Based Pharmacists in Northern British Columbia
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020092 - 23 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2136
Abstract
Pharmacists across Canada have varying degrees of ability to prescribe medications depending on their jurisdiction of licensure. The purpose of this study was to the evaluate attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of independent pharmacist prescribing among health authority- and community-based pharmacists. This prospective, cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Pharmacists across Canada have varying degrees of ability to prescribe medications depending on their jurisdiction of licensure. The purpose of this study was to the evaluate attitudes, beliefs, and perceptions of independent pharmacist prescribing among health authority- and community-based pharmacists. This prospective, cross-sectional online survey assessed the perceptions of independent pharmacist prescribing of health authority and community pharmacists practising in northern British Columbia (BC), which was defined as within the geographical boundaries of Northern Health. Responses were analysed using descriptive statistics and a regression analysis. There were 45 respondents to the survey: 22 community pharmacists and 23 health authority pharmacists. Both community and health authority pharmacists held positive perceptions of independent pharmacist prescribing and did not identify any barriers to incorporating independent pharmacist prescribing into their practice. Respondents were highly likely to apply for independent pharmacist prescribing authority, if available. Pharmacists in BC are currently not able to independently prescribe schedule I medications. The provincial regulatory body has proposed a framework for a Certified Pharmacist Prescriber designation, which if approved would allow pharmacists to prescribe in collaborative practice settings. This study provides some insight into the perception of pharmacists in northern BC in pursuing this designation, which may be valuable for planning purposes in case of adoption of the framework. These results are also likely applicable to other non-urban practice settings in Canada. Pharmacists in northern BC perceived independent pharmacist prescribing positively and a high proportion were likely to apply for this authority if it were permitted via legislation. Full article
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Review
Feedback for Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Scoping Review
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020091 - 23 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2514
Abstract
Feedback is an effective pedagogy aimed to create cognitive dissonance and reinforce learning as a key component of clinical training programs. Pharmacy learners receive constant feedback. However, there is limited understanding of how feedback is utilized in pharmacy education. This scoping review sought [...] Read more.
Feedback is an effective pedagogy aimed to create cognitive dissonance and reinforce learning as a key component of clinical training programs. Pharmacy learners receive constant feedback. However, there is limited understanding of how feedback is utilized in pharmacy education. This scoping review sought to summarize the breadth and depth of the use of feedback within pharmacy education and identify areas for future research. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for English articles since January 2000 to identify studies related to feedback in pharmacy education. Sixty-four articles were included for analysis, stratified by moderate and major theory talk, where moderate theory talk explicitly included feedback into study design and major theory talk included feedback into both study design and analysis. Feedback was provided in Bachelor (14%), Master (15.6%), Doctor of Pharmacy (67.2%) and post-graduate programs (4.7%) on a variety of curricular objectives including communication and patient work up in didactic, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and experiential settings, and career/interview preparation in the co-curriculum. Feedback comments were mostly written in didactic courses, and both written and verbal in OSCE, experiential, and co-curricular settings. The pharmacy education feedback literature lacks depth beyond student perceptions, especially with respect to assessing the effectiveness and quality of feedback for learning. While feedback has been utilized throughout pharmacy education across myriad outcomes, several areas for inquiry exist which can inform the design of faculty and preceptor development programs, ensuring provision of effective, quality feedback to pharmacy learners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
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Article
Factors Associated with Medication Non-Adherence among Patients with Lifestyle-Related Non-Communicable Diseases
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020090 - 22 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2190
Abstract
This cross-sectional study explored the association between medication non-adherence and its factors in patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) using an online structured questionnaire emailed to 30,000 people (aged over 20 years who lived in Japan at the time of the survey). The questions [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional study explored the association between medication non-adherence and its factors in patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs) using an online structured questionnaire emailed to 30,000 people (aged over 20 years who lived in Japan at the time of the survey). The questions concerned respondents’ characteristics, medication non-adherence, health beliefs, lifestyles, and trouble taking medication. Factors related to non-adherence were analyzed among patients with lifestyle-related NCDs categorized into two age groups: 20–59, and >60 years. Unintentional (p < 0.001) and intentional (p < 0.001) non-adherence were more common among patients aged 20–59 than in older adults. NCD patients aged 20–59 experienced significantly more trouble taking medication than older adults. Multiple regression analysis showed that for patients aged 20–59 with NCDs, unintentional non-adherence was significantly and positively associated with current smoking habits (β = 0.280, p < 0.001), while intentional non-adherence was significantly and positively associated with alcohol consumption (β = 0.147, p = 0.020) and current smoking habits (β = 0.172, p = 0.007). In patients aged 20–59, unhealthy eating habits (β = −0.136, p = 0.034) and lack of exercise (β = −0.151, p = 0.020) were negatively associated with intentional non-adherence. In conclusion, factors affecting medication non-adherence in patients with lifestyle-related diseases are related to health awareness, lifestyle, and medication barriers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Patient Adherence)
Commentary
Adapting a National Framework to Inform Curricular Redesign Focused on Enhancing Student Clinical Competency
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020089 - 22 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2024
Abstract
Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs continually engage in curricular redesign to ensure practice readiness of graduates. With ever-increasing demands on clinical competency and curricular time, it is important to be intentional when determining curricular priorities and prioritize contemporary pharmacist practice. This paper describes [...] Read more.
Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) programs continually engage in curricular redesign to ensure practice readiness of graduates. With ever-increasing demands on clinical competency and curricular time, it is important to be intentional when determining curricular priorities and prioritize contemporary pharmacist practice. This paper describes how to adapt a national framework for pharmacotherapy curricula to emphasize the pharmacist’s role within a given topic area in order to facilitate conversations about allotting curricular time during a curricular redesign. Customized Tier descriptions based on various factors expected of student pharmacists during Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs) were developed (e.g., relative autonomy of the pharmacist in managing the topic, emphasis on licensing exams, frequency with which students can expect to encounter the topic at school-specific experiential placements, and condition-specific information). Topics were also reprioritized to address regional variations in practice and ideologies. Customizing a national framework to determine program-specific considerations for prioritizing topics within the pre-APPE curriculum can help faculty and students alike maintain focus on highly critical and foundational concepts, while also making sure not to completely disregard topics of lower priority. We have proposed such a framework for programs to utilize when facilitating conversations surrounding curricular reforms and topic prioritization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue An International Professional Mandate: Pharmacy Clinical Competency)
Article
Medicines as Common Commodities or Powerful Potions? What Makes Medicines Reusable in People’s Eyes
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020088 - 20 Apr 2021
Viewed by 2482
Abstract
Background: Medicines reuse involves dispensing quality-checked, unused medication returned by one patient for another, instead of disposal as waste. This is prohibited in UK community pharmacy because storage conditions in a patient’s home could potentially impact on the quality, safety and efficacy of [...] Read more.
Background: Medicines reuse involves dispensing quality-checked, unused medication returned by one patient for another, instead of disposal as waste. This is prohibited in UK community pharmacy because storage conditions in a patient’s home could potentially impact on the quality, safety and efficacy of returned medicines. Our 2017 survey examining patients’ intentions to reuse medicines found many favoured medicines reuse. Our aim was to analyse the qualitative comments to explore people’s interpretations of what makes medicines (non-)reusable. Methods: Thematic analysis was used to scrutinize 210 valid qualitative responses to the survey to delineate the themes and super-ordinate categories. Results: Two categories were “medicines as common commodities” versus “medicines as powerful potions”. People’s ideas about medicines aligned closely with other common commodities, exchanged from manufacturers to consumers, with many seeing medicines as commercial goods with economic value sanctioning their reuse. Fewer of the comments aligned with the biomedical notion of medicines as powerful potions, regulated and with legal and ethical boundaries limiting their (re)use. Conclusion: People’s pro-medicines-reuse beliefs align with perceptions of medicines as common commodities. This helps explain why patients returning their medicines to community pharmacies want these to be recycled. It could also explain why governments permit medicines reuse in emergencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicines Reuse)
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Article
Enhancing Student Knowledge of Diabetes through Virtual Choose Your Own Adventure Patient Case Format
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020087 - 20 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2370
Abstract
Educational strategies to teach pharmacy students about diabetes are necessary to prepare future pharmacists to manage complex patients. The Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA) patient case format is an innovative activity that presents a patient case in an engaging way. The objectives of [...] Read more.
Educational strategies to teach pharmacy students about diabetes are necessary to prepare future pharmacists to manage complex patients. The Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA) patient case format is an innovative activity that presents a patient case in an engaging way. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the development of the innovative teaching activity and (2) to assess its effect on student knowledge and confidence in outpatient management of diabetes. The CYOA patient case activity was designed by transforming a traditional paper patient case involving outpatient diabetes management into an interactive format utilizing an online platform. The activity was conducted with 186 second-year pharmacy students in a skills-based course. This activity was administered virtually through a combination of small group work and large group discussion. After completion of the activity, students completed an online self-assessment questionnaire. Of 178 completed questionnaires, there was a statistically significant difference in students’ self-ratings after versus before the activity for all survey items (p < 0.001). The CYOA activity improved self-reported knowledge of outpatient diabetes management and increased self-reported confidence in clinical decision-making skills. This format shows promise as an educational tool that may be adapted for other disease states to enhance clinical decision-making skills. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Education Development)
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Article
The Effect of Javanese Language Videos with a Community Based Interactive Approach Method as an Educational Instrument for Knowledge, Perception, and Adherence amongst Tuberculosis Patients
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020086 - 18 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2681
Abstract
The long period of tuberculosis treatment causes patients to have a high risk of forgetting or stopping the medication altogether, which increases the risk of oral anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. The patient’s knowledge and perception of the disease affect the patient’s adherence to treatment. [...] Read more.
The long period of tuberculosis treatment causes patients to have a high risk of forgetting or stopping the medication altogether, which increases the risk of oral anti-tuberculosis drug resistance. The patient’s knowledge and perception of the disease affect the patient’s adherence to treatment. This research objective was to determine the impact of educational videos in the local language on the level of knowledge, perception, and adherence of tuberculosis patients in the Regional General Hospital (RSUD) Bangil. This quasi-experimental study design with a one-month follow-up allocated 62 respondents in the intervention group and 60 in the control group. The pre- and post-experiment levels of knowledge and perception were measured with a validated set of questions. Adherence was measured by pill counts. The results showed that the intervention increases the level of knowledge of the intervention group higher than that of the control group (p-value < 0.05) and remained high after one month of follow-up. The perceptions domains that changed after education using Javanese (Ngoko) language videos with the Community Based Interactive Approach (CBIA) method were the timeline, personal control, illness coherence, and emotional representations (p-value < 0.05). More than 95% of respondents in the intervention group take 95% of their pill compared to 58% of respondents in the control group (p-value < 0.05). Utilization of the local languages for design a community-based interactive approach to educate and communicate is important and effective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist-Led Antimicrobial Stewardship)
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Commentary
Stakeholder Views on the Idea of Medicines Reuse in the UK
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9020085 - 16 Apr 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2459
Abstract
People’s views about medicines reuse are being examined in a handful of qualitative studies and this commentary adds to that work by drawing on our own discussions with groups of stakeholders in the UK in the past two years. The reuse of medicines [...] Read more.
People’s views about medicines reuse are being examined in a handful of qualitative studies and this commentary adds to that work by drawing on our own discussions with groups of stakeholders in the UK in the past two years. The reuse of medicines within the community pharmacy setting is not permitted in the UK but our multidisciplinary team anticipates that this position will change in the coming years as medication shortages and worries about environmental waste and financial losses from the destruction of unused medicines are brought to the fore. Indeed, for many stakeholders, the issue of waste is a strong feature of conversations about medicines reuse. In addition to this, stakeholders identify the numerous barriers to medicines reuse in the UK. This includes the current uncertainty about the quality of unused medicines returned to pharmacies, which could otherwise be reused. However, stakeholders have also been very willing to propose solutions to a range of existing barriers. Our commentary draws on stakeholder meetings to elaborate the range of views about medicines reuse within a UK context. The challenge is to move forward from these views to advance the technologies that will facilitate medicines reuse practically as well as legally. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicines Reuse)
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