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Feedback for Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Scoping Review

Division of Practice Advancement and Clinical Education, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7475, USA
Health Sciences Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7585, USA
Division of Pharmacotherapy and Experiential Therapeutics, UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7569, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jeffrey Atkinson
Pharmacy 2021, 9(2), 91;
Received: 2 March 2021 / Revised: 1 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 23 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student/Practitioner Training)
Feedback is an effective pedagogy aimed to create cognitive dissonance and reinforce learning as a key component of clinical training programs. Pharmacy learners receive constant feedback. However, there is limited understanding of how feedback is utilized in pharmacy education. This scoping review sought to summarize the breadth and depth of the use of feedback within pharmacy education and identify areas for future research. PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for English articles since January 2000 to identify studies related to feedback in pharmacy education. Sixty-four articles were included for analysis, stratified by moderate and major theory talk, where moderate theory talk explicitly included feedback into study design and major theory talk included feedback into both study design and analysis. Feedback was provided in Bachelor (14%), Master (15.6%), Doctor of Pharmacy (67.2%) and post-graduate programs (4.7%) on a variety of curricular objectives including communication and patient work up in didactic, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE), and experiential settings, and career/interview preparation in the co-curriculum. Feedback comments were mostly written in didactic courses, and both written and verbal in OSCE, experiential, and co-curricular settings. The pharmacy education feedback literature lacks depth beyond student perceptions, especially with respect to assessing the effectiveness and quality of feedback for learning. While feedback has been utilized throughout pharmacy education across myriad outcomes, several areas for inquiry exist which can inform the design of faculty and preceptor development programs, ensuring provision of effective, quality feedback to pharmacy learners. View Full-Text
Keywords: feedback; pharmacy education; scoping review feedback; pharmacy education; scoping review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nelson, N.R.; Carlson, R.B.; Corbett, A.H.; Williams, D.M.; Rhoney, D.H. Feedback for Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Scoping Review. Pharmacy 2021, 9, 91.

AMA Style

Nelson NR, Carlson RB, Corbett AH, Williams DM, Rhoney DH. Feedback for Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Scoping Review. Pharmacy. 2021; 9(2):91.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nelson, Nicholas R., Rebecca B. Carlson, Amanda H. Corbett, Dennis M. Williams, and Denise H. Rhoney. 2021. "Feedback for Learning in Pharmacy Education: A Scoping Review" Pharmacy 9, no. 2: 91.

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