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Pharmacy, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2019) – 64 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Pharmacist-provided medication therapy management services (MTMS) have been shown to improve health [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommentary
Examining the Pharmacist Labor Supply in the United States: Increasing Medication Use, Aging Society, and Evolution of Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 137; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030137 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1907
Abstract
The increasing number of pharmacists in the US has generated concern regarding potential oversupply. A 2018 analysis from the National Center for Health Workforce Analysis (NCHWA) in the US projected a best case scenario of an oversupply of more than 18,000 pharmacists in [...] Read more.
The increasing number of pharmacists in the US has generated concern regarding potential oversupply. A 2018 analysis from the National Center for Health Workforce Analysis (NCHWA) in the US projected a best case scenario of an oversupply of more than 18,000 pharmacists in the year 2030. In this commentary, the limitations of this general health labor force analysis by the NCHWA are described. The goal of this work was to provide a more nuanced examination of the pharmacist labor demand in the US. Data from the US Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) and the US Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) were utilized to examine, annually over a ten year period ending in 2017, the number of pharmacists, the ratio of pharmacists to persons living in the US, the ratio of pharmacists to older adults living in the US, and the ratio of medications to pharmacists. The number of pharmacists grew from 266,410 in 2008 to 309,330 in 2017. As anticipated, despite a growing US population, the ratio of people living in the US per pharmacist dropped unabated from 1141 to 1053 from 2008 to 2017, respectively. However, the reverse trend was observed for the ratio of persons 65 years or older per pharmacist. This ratio increased from 146.1 older adults to each pharmacist in 2008 to 164.3 in 2017. The accelerating demographic shift to an older population is also reversing an overall trend in the number of medications to pharmacist that will continue for the foreseeable future. While the ratio of medications to pharmacist dropped overall from 2008 to 2016, it has begun to rise again from 2016 to 2017. Beyond the increasing number of medications attributable to a rapidly aging population, there is a growing demand for clinical care from pharmacists due to the maturing environment of complex, costly medications for chronic disease treatment. As the portion of total health expenditure is increasingly devoted to medications and the US health delivery system continues its movement to community-based care, the demand for pharmacist care will require a larger number of pharmacists trained for advanced-practice care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Labor Market for Pharmacists)
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Open AccessArticle
Penicillin Allergy Assessment and Skin Testing in the Outpatient Setting
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030136 - 19 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1070
Abstract
Penicillin allergies are among of the most commonly reported allergies, yet only 10% of these patients are truly allergic. This leads to potential inadvertent negative consequences for patients and makes treatment decisions challenging for clinicians. Thus, allergy assessment and penicillin skin testing (PST) [...] Read more.
Penicillin allergies are among of the most commonly reported allergies, yet only 10% of these patients are truly allergic. This leads to potential inadvertent negative consequences for patients and makes treatment decisions challenging for clinicians. Thus, allergy assessment and penicillin skin testing (PST) are important management strategies to reconcile and clarify labeled penicillin allergies. While PST is more common in the inpatient setting where the results will immediately impact antibiotic management, this process is becoming of increasing importance in the outpatient setting. PST in the outpatient setting allows clinicians to proactively de-label and educate patients accordingly so beta-lactam antibiotics may be appropriately prescribed when necessary for future infections. While allergists have primarily been responsible for PST in the outpatient setting, there is an increasing role for pharmacist involvement in the process. This review highlights the importance of penicillin allergy assessments, considerations for PST in the outpatient setting, education and advocacy for patients and clinicians, and the pharmacist’s role in outpatient PST. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
Open AccessReview
Macrolide Allergic Reactions
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030135 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1337
Abstract
Macrolides are antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat a variety of infections. Allergic reactions to macrolides occur infrequently but can include minor to severe cutaneous reactions as well as systemic life-threatening reactions such as anaphylaxis. Most reports of allergic reactions occurred [...] Read more.
Macrolides are antimicrobial agents that can be used to treat a variety of infections. Allergic reactions to macrolides occur infrequently but can include minor to severe cutaneous reactions as well as systemic life-threatening reactions such as anaphylaxis. Most reports of allergic reactions occurred in patients without prior exposure to a macrolide. Cross-reactivity among macrolides may occur due to the similarities in their chemical structures; however, some published literature indicates that some patients can tolerate a different macrolide. Most published reports detailed an allergic reaction to erythromycin. Desensitization protocols to clarithromycin and azithromycin have been described in the literature. The purpose of this article is to summarize macrolide-associated allergic reactions reported in published literature. An extensive literature search was conducted to identify publications linking macrolides to hypersensitivity reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
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Open AccessArticle
The Use of Primary Care Electronic Health Records for Research: Lipid Medications and Mortality in Elderly Patients
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030134 - 18 Sep 2019
Viewed by 830
Abstract
General practice electronic health record (EHR) data have significant potential for clinical research. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilising longitudinal EHR data analysis to address clinically relevant outcomes and uses the relationship between lipid medication prescription and all-cause mortality in the elderly [...] Read more.
General practice electronic health record (EHR) data have significant potential for clinical research. This study demonstrates the feasibility of utilising longitudinal EHR data analysis to address clinically relevant outcomes and uses the relationship between lipid medication prescription and all-cause mortality in the elderly as an exemplar for the validity of this methodology. EHR data were analysed to describe the association of lipid medication use, non-use or cessation with all-cause mortality in patients aged ≥75 years. Survival analysis with Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios, which were adjusted for confounders. There was no significant difference in all-cause mortality among patients according to their use, non-use, or cessation of lipid medications. The outcomes of this study correlate well with the results of other research works. This single-practice study demonstrates the feasibility and potential of analysing EHR data to address important clinical issues such as the relationship between all-cause mortality and lipid medication prescription in the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing of Problematic Polypharmacy)
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Open AccessConcept Paper
Training Community Pharmacy Staff How to Help Manage Urgent Mental Health Crises
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 133; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030133 - 16 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 972
Abstract
Nearly 44 million Americans are affected by mental illness every year. Many individuals, however, are not diagnosed and/or do not receive treatment. The present manuscript reviews the incidence of mental illness, the continuum from mental wellness to mental illness, and the role of [...] Read more.
Nearly 44 million Americans are affected by mental illness every year. Many individuals, however, are not diagnosed and/or do not receive treatment. The present manuscript reviews the incidence of mental illness, the continuum from mental wellness to mental illness, and the role of the pharmacy staff in helping individuals manage different mental health needs. In particular, there is discussion of stigma of mental illness that those with mental health needs experience by those around them including health professionals such as pharmacy staff. One way to resolve such stigma is through training such as Mental Health First Aid (MHFA). The paper reviews key aspects of MHFA, the evidence supporting MHFA, and how MHFA relates specifically to pharmacy practice and services. A conceptual framework for MHFA and its relationship to individual factors, attitudes, behaviors, and outcomes. Lastly, a discussion is presented that briefly compares MHFA to other similar approaches to helping those in mental health crises, the limits of what is known about MHFA, and what future research might explore to better understand the outcomes of pharmacy staff providing mental health education, support, and referral to care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Services) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessReview
Sulfonamide Allergies
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 132; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030132 - 11 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1552
Abstract
As one of the earliest developed antimicrobial classes, sulfonamides remain important therapeutic options for the empiric and definitive treatment of various infectious diseases. In the general population, approximately 3–8% of patients are reported to experience a sulfonamide allergy. Sulfonamide allergies can result in [...] Read more.
As one of the earliest developed antimicrobial classes, sulfonamides remain important therapeutic options for the empiric and definitive treatment of various infectious diseases. In the general population, approximately 3–8% of patients are reported to experience a sulfonamide allergy. Sulfonamide allergies can result in various physical manifestations; however, rash is reported as the most frequently observed. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dermatologic reactions to sulfonamide antimicrobial agents occur 10 to 20 times more frequently compared to immunocompetent patients. This article describes the incidence, manifestations, and risk factors associated with sulfonamide allergies. The potential for cross-reactivity of allergies to sulfonamide antimicrobials with nonantimicrobial sulfonamide medications is also reviewed. Data suggest that substitutions at the N1 and N4 positions are the primary determinants of drug allergy instead of the common sulfonamide moiety. For patients with an indication for a sulfonamide antimicrobial with a listed allergy, it is important for healthcare practitioners to adequately assess the allergic reaction to determine appropriate management. Rechallenge and desensitization strategies may be appropriate for patients with delayed maculopapular eruptions, while alternative treatment options may be prudent for more severe reactions. Available data suggests a low risk of cross-allergenicity between sulfonamide antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial agents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
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Open AccessReview
Improving Recruitment and Retention of Pharmacists in a Practice-Based Research Network
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 131; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030131 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 872
Abstract
Pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are relatively new compared to their primary care forebears, representing a unique set of research challenges. Recruitment and retention of network members are essential to maintaining the integrity of the network and achieving its research goals. Many studies [...] Read more.
Pharmacy practice-based research networks (PBRNs) are relatively new compared to their primary care forebears, representing a unique set of research challenges. Recruitment and retention of network members are essential to maintaining the integrity of the network and achieving its research goals. Many studies have evaluated recruitment and retention of practitioners to individual studies, while far fewer have reported on recruitment and retention to the network itself. This literature review summarizes current practices for PBRN member recruitment and retention from a pharmacy perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks)
Open AccessArticle
Topic Analysis of UK Fitness to Practise Cases: What Lessons Can Be Learnt?
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030130 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1078
Abstract
Background: Fitness to practise (FtP) impairment (failure of a healthcare professional to demonstrate skills, knowledge, character and/or health required for their job) can compromise patient safety, the profession’s reputation, and an individual’s career. In the United Kingdom (UK), various healthcare professionals’ FtP [...] Read more.
Background: Fitness to practise (FtP) impairment (failure of a healthcare professional to demonstrate skills, knowledge, character and/or health required for their job) can compromise patient safety, the profession’s reputation, and an individual’s career. In the United Kingdom (UK), various healthcare professionals’ FtP cases (documents about the panel hearing(s) and outcome(s) relating to the alleged FtP impairment) are publicly available, yet reviewing these to learn lessons may be time-consuming given the number of cases across the professions and amount of text in each. We aimed to demonstrate how machine learning facilitated the examination of such cases (at uni- and multi-professional level), involving UK dental, medical, nursing and pharmacy professionals. Methods: Cases dating from August 2017 to June 2019 were downloaded (577 dental, 481 medical, 2199 nursing and 63 pharmacy) and converted to text files. A topic analysis method (non-negative matrix factorization; machine learning) was employed for data analysis. Results: Identified topics were criminal offences; dishonesty (fraud and theft); drug possession/supply; English language; indemnity insurance; patient care (including incompetence) and personal behavior (aggression, sexual conduct and substance misuse). The most frequently identified topic for dental, medical and nursing professions was patient care whereas for pharmacy, it was criminal offences. Conclusions: While commonalities exist, each has different priorities which professional and educational organizations should strive to address. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Open AccessArticle
Deprescribing: Practical Ways to Support Person-Centred, Evidence-Based Deprescribing
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 129; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030129 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1167
Abstract
Deprescribing is complex and multifactorial with multiple approaches described in the literature. Internationally, there are guidelines and tools available to aid clinicians and patients to identify and safely withdraw inappropriate medications, post a shared decision-making medicines optimisation review. The increase in available treatments [...] Read more.
Deprescribing is complex and multifactorial with multiple approaches described in the literature. Internationally, there are guidelines and tools available to aid clinicians and patients to identify and safely withdraw inappropriate medications, post a shared decision-making medicines optimisation review. The increase in available treatments and use of single disease model guidelines have led to a healthcare system geared towards prescribing, with deprescribing often seen as a separate activity. Deprescribing should be seen as part of prescribing, and is a key element in ensuring patients remain on the most appropriate medications at the correct doses for them. Due to the complex nature of polypharmacy, every patient experience and relationship with medications is unique. The individual’s history must be incorporated into a patient-centred medication review, in order for medicines to remain optimal through changes in circumstance and health. Knowledge of the law and appropriate recording is important to ensure consent is adequately gained and recorded in line with processes followed when initiating a medication. In recent years, with the increase in interested clinicians globally, a number of prominent networks have grown, creating crucial links for both research and sharing of good practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing of Problematic Polypharmacy)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of a Pharmacy-Led Transition of Care Service on Post-Discharge Medication Adherence
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030128 - 31 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
This study assesses the effectiveness of a pharmacy-led transition of care (TOC) service on increasing patients’ understanding of, and reported adherence to, medication post hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey was administered to patients who were discharged from the hospital with at least one [...] Read more.
This study assesses the effectiveness of a pharmacy-led transition of care (TOC) service on increasing patients’ understanding of, and reported adherence to, medication post hospital discharge. A cross-sectional survey was administered to patients who were discharged from the hospital with at least one medication received via bedside delivery from the TOC service. Adherence was assessed by asking the patient if they had taken their discharge medications as instructed by the prescriber. Satisfaction with the discharge medication counseling service was assessed through a five-point Likert scale. Descriptive statistics were conducted for all questionnaire items and qualitative data was examined using content analysis. The majority of patients (73%) were counseled on their medication(s) before leaving the hospital. Among those who received counseling, 76 patients had a better understanding of their medication(s). Ninety-five percent of the patients reported adherence, and all six of the patients reporting non-adherence claimed they were not counseled on their medications prior to discharge. Many patients had questions regarding their medication during the follow-up phone call, substantiating the need for further follow-up with patients once they have left the hospital environment. The implementation of medication bedside delivery and counseling services, followed by outpatient adherence monitoring via a transitional care management service, can result in higher levels of reported medication adherence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medication Management in Care Transitions)
Open AccessArticle
The Experiences of People Living with Peripheral Neuropathy in Kuwait—A Process Map of the Patient Journey
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 127; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030127 - 30 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1111
Abstract
Peripheral neuropathy is a neurological disease characterised by pain, numbness, tingling, swelling or muscle weakness due to nerve damage, caused by multiple factors such as trauma, infections and metabolic diseases such as diabetes. In Kuwait 54% of the diabetic population, has peripheral neuropathy. [...] Read more.
Peripheral neuropathy is a neurological disease characterised by pain, numbness, tingling, swelling or muscle weakness due to nerve damage, caused by multiple factors such as trauma, infections and metabolic diseases such as diabetes. In Kuwait 54% of the diabetic population, has peripheral neuropathy. In this exploratory, qualitative study conducted in Kuwait, 25 subjects with peripheral neuropathy took part in one-on-one, semi-structured interviews lasting 45–60 min. Interviews were transcribed, translated into English and coded using NVivo 12. Four individual patient journeys were mapped out in detail, then compared and condensed into a single process map. The remaining 21 interviews were then reviewed to ensure the final map represented all patient journeys. Participants reported similar healthcare pathways for their peripheral neuropathy and faced various difficulties including lack of psychological support, administrative issues (long waiting referral periods, loss of medical documents, shortage of specialists and lack of centralized electronic medical records) and inadequate medical care (shortage of new treatments and deficient follow-ups). Mapping the patient journey in Kuwait showed similar pharmacological treatment to UK guidelines, except that some medicines were unavailable. The map also indicated the need for an integrated referral approach, the use of technology for electronic medical recording and report transmission, alongside education on self-management, coping mechanisms and treatment options for people living with peripheral neuropathy. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Polypharmacy Definitions for Multimorbid Older Adults Need Stronger Foundations to Guide Research, Clinical Practice and Public Health
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030126 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1461
Abstract
There are numerous definitions of polypharmacy to describe the use of many medications among older adults, but there is a need to clarify if they are purposive and meaningful. By means of a systematic review, we identified definitions of polypharmacy used in multimorbid [...] Read more.
There are numerous definitions of polypharmacy to describe the use of many medications among older adults, but there is a need to clarify if they are purposive and meaningful. By means of a systematic review, we identified definitions of polypharmacy used in multimorbid older adults (≥65 years). We evaluated if the definitions align among the domains of research, clinical practice, and public health and appraised whether concepts of polypharmacy are based on strong foundations. More than 46 definitions of polypharmacy were retrieved from 348 publications (research: n = 243; clinical practice: n = 88; public health: n = 17). Several thresholds based on the number of medications were mentioned. The majority of the publications (n = 202, 58%) used a minimal threshold of five medications. Heterogeneous qualitative definitions were identified, mostly stating that polypharmacy is “more drugs than needed”. There was no significant divergence between domains as to the type of definitions used, although qualitative definitions were more common in clinical practice. Nearly half (n = 156, 47%) of the publications provided no justification for the polypharmacy definition used. The wide variety of definitions for polypharmacy precludes comparisons, appropriate identification and management of polypharmacy in multimorbid older adults. Standardized definitions would allow more coherent judgments regarding the individual and collective stakes of polypharmacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deprescribing of Problematic Polypharmacy)
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Open AccessArticle
Pharmacists’ Utilization of Information Sources Related to Community and Population Needs in the Upper Midwest and Associations with Continuing Professional Education
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030125 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 859
Abstract
Background: To investigate information sources utilized in pharmacists’ assessment of population-based health needs and/or community changes; and the association between information sources utilized and reported completion of continuing professional education topics. Methods: In 2017; licensed pharmacists (n = 1124) in North Dakota; South [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate information sources utilized in pharmacists’ assessment of population-based health needs and/or community changes; and the association between information sources utilized and reported completion of continuing professional education topics. Methods: In 2017; licensed pharmacists (n = 1124) in North Dakota; South Dakota; Minnesota; Iowa; and Nebraska completed a questionnaire on continuing professional education and information sources on population-based health needs and community changes. Data were entered; cleaned and imported into Stata 11.1. Census Bureau county-level population density data were used to classify local area characteristics. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Most sources of primary; county-level data on population-based health needs or community changes were minimally utilized. Pharmacists in more rural areas were statistically more likely to use local health professionals; local non-health professionals; and/or the state health department compared to pharmacists in less rural areas. Pharmacists reporting higher use of population-based information sources were more likely to have completed continuing education in the past 12 months for all 21 surveyed topics; 13 significantly so. Conclusions: There is a reliance of pharmacists on information from local health and non-health professionals for information on population-based health needs and/or community changes. Utilization of health departments and other primary information sources was associated with increased rates of completion of an array of continuing professional education topics. Expanding utilization of evidence-driven information sources would improve pharmacists’ ability to better identify and respond to population-based health needs and/or community changes through programs and services offered; and tailor continuing professional education to population-based health needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Open AccessReview
Aminoglycoside Allergic Reactions
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 124; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030124 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1301
Abstract
Aminoglycosides are antimicrobial agents that are primarily used for infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens. The purpose of this article is to review the allergic reactions reported in the published literature to aminoglycoside antibiotics. A thorough PubMed search was conducted and excluded non-allergic adverse [...] Read more.
Aminoglycosides are antimicrobial agents that are primarily used for infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens. The purpose of this article is to review the allergic reactions reported in the published literature to aminoglycoside antibiotics. A thorough PubMed search was conducted and excluded non-allergic adverse reactions to aminoglycosides. Allergic reactions to aminoglycosides occur infrequently, but can include cutaneous reactions as well as systemic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Of the evaluated aminoglycosides, gentamicin had the most reported allergic reactions, including the most reports of anaphylaxis, followed by tobramycin, and then amikacin. Most reports of allergic reactions occurred in patients who had a prior exposure to some dosage form of an aminoglycoside. Cross-reactivity among aminoglycosides is common and occurs due to the similarities in their chemical structures. Desensitization protocols to tobramycin have been described in the literature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
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Open AccessArticle
Valuable Lessons for Pharmacist PBRNs: Insights and Experiences from Physician PBRN Members
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 123; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030123 - 27 Aug 2019
Viewed by 928
Abstract
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) rely on a cadre of engaged members to participate in research projects. As pharmacist PBRNs increase in number, it is helpful to understand how members of other professions view their own participation in PBRNs and potential collaborative research endeavors [...] Read more.
Practice-based research networks (PBRNs) rely on a cadre of engaged members to participate in research projects. As pharmacist PBRNs increase in number, it is helpful to understand how members of other professions view their own participation in PBRNs and potential collaborative research endeavors with pharmacists. Due to their longer history of PBRN experience, physician PBRN members may have helpful advice for the establishment of pharmacy networks. The objectives of this study were to describe perceptions among a group of physician PBRN members about: Advice for developing a pharmacist PBRN, practice aspects that might benefit from collaborating with pharmacists who are part of a PBRN, and benefits and challenges of PBRN member participation. This study employed qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with physician members of the Oklahoma Physicians Resource/Research Network, a primary care PBRN. Advice for establishing a pharmacist PBRN included identifying a champion, recruiting a core group, and conducting a needs assessment. Collaborative areas of interest included medication use management, patient education on chronic disease states, and physician education on new therapies. Participation benefits were categorized as personal satisfaction, improvement in practice quality improvement, advancement of specialty, peer interaction and learning, and real-time information and support. These findings offer insight into strategies for developing and sustaining pharmacist PBRNs and may inform pharmacist PBRN initiatives related to development, member recruitment and retention, and interprofessional project planning with physician PBRNs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks)
Open AccessReview
Antibiotic Hypersensitivity Mechanisms
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 122; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030122 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1511
Abstract
Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat a variety of bacterial infections. As with all medications, hypersensitivity reactions may occur and clinicians should be able to recognize them accurately and recommend appropriate management. Antibiotic related hypersensitivity reactions may be one of four different types: [...] Read more.
Antibiotics are commonly prescribed to treat a variety of bacterial infections. As with all medications, hypersensitivity reactions may occur and clinicians should be able to recognize them accurately and recommend appropriate management. Antibiotic related hypersensitivity reactions may be one of four different types: Type I reactions, which are IgE mediated and may lead to anaphylaxis; Type II reactions that are antibody-mediated and may result in thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, or hemolytic anemia; Type III reaction that involves an immune complex formation such as vasculitis; and Type IV reactions that consist of four subtypes and typically include a rash of varying level of severity with or without systemic signs and symptoms. Herein, we describe the mechanisms of different types of allergic reactions to commonly prescribed antibiotics and offer recommendations for management. Further, we briefly refer to antibiotic reactions that mimic hypersensitivity reactions but are not immune mediated, such as pseudoallergies and serum sickness-like reactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
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Open AccessCase Report
Design and Implementation of an Integrated Competency-Focused Pharmacy Programme: A Case Report
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030121 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1159
Abstract
This paper describes the design and implementation of elements of an integrated competency-focused pharmacy programme in the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SoPPS), Trinity College Dublin (TCD), Ireland. Following a national review of pharmacy education and training in Ireland in 2010, and [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design and implementation of elements of an integrated competency-focused pharmacy programme in the School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SoPPS), Trinity College Dublin (TCD), Ireland. Following a national review of pharmacy education and training in Ireland in 2010, and subsequent publication of legislation in 2014, the School has implemented a five-year integrated programme of pharmacy education and training, leading to the award of a Master’s degree in Pharmacy (M. Pharm.). Curricular integration has been achieved by underpinning the new programme with a national competency framework for pharmacists and through the utilisation of curricular integration themes. Programme integration also encompasses embedded experiential learning placements in Years 2, 4 and 5 of the five-year programme. The new five-year integrated pharmacy programme, which commenced in 2015, replaced the 4 + 1 model of education and training where a four-year Bachelor’s degree was followed by a one-year internship, which was a distinct and separate element of the students’ training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Education; Competency and beyond)
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Open AccessReview
Penicillin Allergy Skin Testing in the Inpatient Setting
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030120 - 27 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1653
Abstract
The consequences of a documented penicillin allergy in the medical record are especially troublesome in acutely ill, hospitalized patients. A penicillin allergy label may lead to alternative or second line therapies resulting in adverse drug events, negative clinical outcomes and increased costs. Reconciling [...] Read more.
The consequences of a documented penicillin allergy in the medical record are especially troublesome in acutely ill, hospitalized patients. A penicillin allergy label may lead to alternative or second line therapies resulting in adverse drug events, negative clinical outcomes and increased costs. Reconciling penicillin allergies is a necessity to facilitate early, optimal therapy and is a shared responsibility among the healthcare team. Penicillin skin testing (PST) has been utilized successfully in hospitalized patients to de-label erroneous penicillin allergies and optimize antibiotic therapy. This targeted review aims to discuss the practical development and implementation of PST in the inpatient setting. This includes a needs assessment checklist with common considerations allowing for customization to one’s institution based on available personnel, time, and technological resources. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
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Open AccessArticle
Development of Pharmacist Independent Prescribing Clinics to Treat Opioid Analgesic Dependence in NHS Lanarkshire
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 119; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030119 - 22 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 843
Abstract
There has been an increase in opioid analgesic prescribing in general practice (GP). This is causing some concern around this contributing to dependency. NHS Lanarkshire have attempted to reduce the prescribing from GP surgeries through the development of specialised Pharmacist Independent Prescriber clinics [...] Read more.
There has been an increase in opioid analgesic prescribing in general practice (GP). This is causing some concern around this contributing to dependency. NHS Lanarkshire have attempted to reduce the prescribing from GP surgeries through the development of specialised Pharmacist Independent Prescriber clinics being delivered from the practices. This article looks at the development of these services with pharmacist independent prescribers and the results from developing the services. The article aims to provide advice and recommendations for the development of other services and strategies to minimise the risks associated with Opioid Analgesic Dependence for patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Misuse and Abuse of Medicines)
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Open AccessArticle
Stakeholder-Guided Formation of a Statewide Community Pharmacy Practice-Based Research Network
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030118 - 17 Aug 2019
Viewed by 753
Abstract
Community pharmacies across the United States are forming clinically integrated networks (CINs) to facilitate the provision of patient-centered care. These networks need to continually innovate and demonstrate how their patient care services positively impact health outcomes. One way to do this is to [...] Read more.
Community pharmacies across the United States are forming clinically integrated networks (CINs) to facilitate the provision of patient-centered care. These networks need to continually innovate and demonstrate how their patient care services positively impact health outcomes. One way to do this is to develop a practice-based research network (PBRN) in partnership with existing CINs to perform robust outcome evaluations. The objective of this study was to learn pharmacists’ opinions on participating in research to facilitate the formation of a community pharmacy PBRN in Pennsylvania. A 20-item survey gathered information on pharmacists’ research interests, perceived benefits of research participation, and preferences on communication and patient engagement. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyze quantitative data. Seventy-three participants completed the survey, with 47% representing independent pharmacies. The majority (96%) were interested in research opportunities and 86% believed improving workflow and patient care was the most valuable benefit. Eighty percent of pharmacists reported it is very important to demonstrate that pharmacists care about making patients’ health better. Connecting pharmacists with other health care providers was reported as very important by 75% of respondents. Pharmacists reported face-to-face communication (76%) as their preferred way to approach patients about research and 72% supported using student pharmacists to assist with patient engagement. The results from this study can inform others who are structuring processes and developing communication strategies for community pharmacy PBRNs, particularly in partnership with CINs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Completion of a Pre-Pharmacy Biochemistry Course and Competency Levels in Pre-Pharmacy Courses on Pharmacy Student Performance
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030117 - 16 Aug 2019
Viewed by 623
Abstract
Poor performance in foundational science courses, which are usually taken during the first or second year of pharmacy school, can have several negative consequences including increases in student drop-out rates and increases in the number of dismissals and remediating students. The primary goal [...] Read more.
Poor performance in foundational science courses, which are usually taken during the first or second year of pharmacy school, can have several negative consequences including increases in student drop-out rates and increases in the number of dismissals and remediating students. The primary goal of the current study was to determine whether completion of a pre-pharmacy biochemistry course and/or performance on a biochemistry competency test (administered at the beginning of the pharmacy program) are associated with pharmacy student performance in foundational science courses and overall academic performance. A secondary goal was to determine whether performance in pre-pharmacy courses and/or student demographics are associated with pharmacy student performance. Prospective univariate analyses (n = 75) determined that completion of a pre-pharmacy biochemistry course is not associated with pharmacy student performance. However, performance on a biochemistry competency test was associated with performance in Biochemistry and Cell&Molecular Biology (p = 0.002). Furthermore, post-hoc analyses determined that pre-pharmacy cumulative chemistry GPA correlates with performance in both the Biochemistry and Cell&Molecular Biology and Medicinal Chemistry foundational science courses (p = 0.002 and p = 0.04, respectively) and can predict first year GPA (p = 0.002). The combined data indicate that further assessment of the impact of pre-pharmacy competency in biochemistry and chemistry on pharmacy student success is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Open AccessConcept Paper
Exploring the Implications of a Needs-Based Pharmacy Education Framework Modelled on Population Health: Perspective from a Developing Country
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030116 - 14 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 841
Abstract
Globally, health education reform is directing efforts to strengthen the health system through collaboration between health education and health services. However, collaborative efforts vary between developed and developing countries as the health needs, economic constraints, and resource availability differs. In developing countries, resource [...] Read more.
Globally, health education reform is directing efforts to strengthen the health system through collaboration between health education and health services. However, collaborative efforts vary between developed and developing countries as the health needs, economic constraints, and resource availability differs. In developing countries, resource allocation is weighed in favor of interventions that will benefit the majority of the population. The question that emerges is: How could health education, service, and research activities be (re-)aligned to optimize return on investment for the health system and society at large? This paper proposes a needs-based pharmacy educational approach by centralizing population health for a developing country like South Africa. Literature on systems-based approaches to health professional education reform and the global pharmacy education framework was reviewed. A needs-based pharmacy educational approach, the population health model which underpins health outcome measurements to gauge an educational institution’s effectiveness, was contextualized. An evaluation framework to determine the pharmacy school’s effectiveness in strengthening the health system could be applied. A needs-based pharmacy educational approach modeled on population health could: Integrate resources from education, service, and research activities; follow a monitoring and evaluation framework that tracks educational outcomes; and engage with external stakeholders in curricular development and assessment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Pharmacy Education and Student / Practitioner Training)
Open AccessArticle
Impact of the 2016 Policy Change on the Delivery of MedsCheck Services in Ontario: An Interrupted Time-Series Analysis
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030115 - 12 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1672
Abstract
MedsCheck (MC) is an annual medication review service delivered by community pharmacists and funded by the government of Ontario since 2007 for residents taking three or more medications for chronic conditions. In 2010, MC was expanded to include patients with diabetes (MCD), home-bound [...] Read more.
MedsCheck (MC) is an annual medication review service delivered by community pharmacists and funded by the government of Ontario since 2007 for residents taking three or more medications for chronic conditions. In 2010, MC was expanded to include patients with diabetes (MCD), home-bound patients (MCH), and residents of long-term care homes (MCLTC). The Ontario government introduced an abrupt policy change effective 1 October 2016 that added several components to all MC services, especially those completed in the community. We used an interrupted time series design to examine the impact of the policy change (24 months pre- and post-intervention) on the monthly number of MedsCheck services delivered. Immediate declines in all services were identified, especially in the community (47%–64% drop MC, 71%–83% drop MCD, 55% drop MCH, and 9%–14% drop MCLTC). Gradual increases were seen over 24 months post-policy change, yet remained 21%–76% lower than predicted for MedsCheck services delivered in the community, especially for MCD. In contrast, MCLTC services were similar or exceeded predicted values by September 2018 (from 5.1% decrease to 3.5% increase). A more effective implementation of health policy changes is needed to ensure the feasibility and sustainability of professional community pharmacy services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Services) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Clinical Care Pharmacists in Urgent Care in North East England: A Qualitative Study of Experiences after Implementation
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030114 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Our objective was to explore the implementation of a novel NHS England (NHSE)-funded pilot project aimed at deploying clinical pharmacists in an integrated urgent care (IUC) setting including the NHS 111 service. Eight integrated urgent care clinical pharmacists (IUCCPs) within the participating North [...] Read more.
Our objective was to explore the implementation of a novel NHS England (NHSE)-funded pilot project aimed at deploying clinical pharmacists in an integrated urgent care (IUC) setting including the NHS 111 service. Eight integrated urgent care clinical pharmacists (IUCCPs) within the participating North East of England Trusts. Individuals participated in semi-structured 1-to-1 interviews by an experienced qualitative researcher, either face-to-face or via the telephone. Each recording was transcribed, and the five stages of framework analysis (familiarisation, identifying a thematic framework, indexing, charting, mapping and interpretation) took place to establish emerging themes. All interviews took place between November 2018–February 2019. Four higher-order themes were identified: 1. Personality Traits, 2. Integration, 3. Benefits, 4. Training. The IUCCP programme is an innovative NHSE initiative. It provides an opportunity to extend the role of clinical pharmacists into the hard-pressed clinical environment of urgent and emergency care. Our evaluation has highlighted the potential for this professional group to contribute clinically in this area. Better communications, standard operating procedures and induction will improve how individuals develop in these novel roles. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Training and Toolkit Resources to Support Implementation of a Community Pharmacy Fall Prevention Service
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030113 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 948
Abstract
Community pharmacies are an ideal setting to manage high-risk medications and screen older adults at risk for falls. Appropriate training and resources are needed to successfully implement services in this setting. The purpose of this paper is to identify the key training, tools, [...] Read more.
Community pharmacies are an ideal setting to manage high-risk medications and screen older adults at risk for falls. Appropriate training and resources are needed to successfully implement services in this setting. The purpose of this paper is to identify the key training, tools, and resources to support implementation of fall prevention services. The service was implemented in a network of community pharmacies located in North Carolina. Pharmacies were provided with onboard and longitudinal training, and a project coach. A toolkit contained resources to collect medication information, identify high-risk medications, develop and share recommendations with prescribers, market the service, and educate patients. Project champions at each pharmacy received a nine-question, web-based survey (Qualtrics) to identify usefulness of the training and resources. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Thirty-one community pharmacies implemented the service. Twenty-three project champions (74%) completed the post-intervention survey. Comprehensive onboard training was rated as more useful than longitudinal training. Resources to identify high-risk medications, develop recommendations, and share recommendations with prescribers were considered most useful. By providing appropriate training and resources to support fall prevention services, community pharmacists can improve patient care as part of their routine workflow. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacist Services in Community Pharmacies)
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Open AccessReview
Antimicrobial Desensitization: A Review of Published Protocols
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030112 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1343
Abstract
Antimicrobial desensitization represents a last-line option for patients with no alternative therapies, where the benefits of this intensive process must outweigh the potential harm from drug exposure. The goal of antimicrobial desensitization procedures is to establish a temporary state of tolerance to drugs [...] Read more.
Antimicrobial desensitization represents a last-line option for patients with no alternative therapies, where the benefits of this intensive process must outweigh the potential harm from drug exposure. The goal of antimicrobial desensitization procedures is to establish a temporary state of tolerance to drugs that may otherwise cause hypersensitivity reactions. While no universal antimicrobial desensitization protocols exist, this review critically analyzes previously published desensitization protocols. The purpose of this review is to provide a greater insight for clinicians and institutions to ensure desensitization procedures are efficacious while minimizing potential for patient harm. With an increasing rate of antimicrobial resistance and the critical need to preserve antimicrobial agents, desensitization may represent another option in our antimicrobial stewardship toolkit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
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Open AccessArticle
A Cross-Sectional Investigation for Verification of Globalization of Falsified Medicines in Cambodia, Indicated by Tablets of Sildenafil Citrate
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030111 - 09 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Medicine falsification is a global issue. Viagra, an erectile dysfunction therapeutic (EDT) medicine consisting primarily of sildenafil citrate, is the most commonly falsified medicine worldwide. Recently falsified EDTs have been reported multiple times in developing countries. The globalization of falsified EDTs has become [...] Read more.
Medicine falsification is a global issue. Viagra, an erectile dysfunction therapeutic (EDT) medicine consisting primarily of sildenafil citrate, is the most commonly falsified medicine worldwide. Recently falsified EDTs have been reported multiple times in developing countries. The globalization of falsified EDTs has become a concern. In the present study, we selected sildenafil citrate tablets as an indicator and examined samples from a developing country, Cambodia, to investigate the availability of falsified sildenafil tablets in Cambodia and verify the current globalization status of falsified medicines from the standpoint of a developing country. Six samples of the originator Viagra, and 68 samples of generic sildenafil products were purchased from private drug outlets and wholesalers in Phnom Penh, Svay Rieng, and Battambang. The samples’ manufacturers were contacted to authenticate the samples. The quantities and dissolution rates of active ingredients were measured by a high-performance liquid chromatography system with photodiode array. Five generic samples were strongly suspected to be falsified medicines because of their extremely low quality; however, there was little distribution and no falsified medicine alleged to be produced by the originator of Viagra, which charges high prices. That finding indicates that falsification reflects local economic circumstances. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Clinical Pharmacy)
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Open AccessReview
Overview and Insights into Carbapenem Allergy
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030110 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1304
Abstract
Understanding antibiotic allergies and the risk of cross-sensitivity between and within antibiotic classes can have a substantial impact on patient care. The purpose of this review article is to provide insight into carbapenem allergies, describing the overall incidence, risk factors, and in-class cross-sensitivity. [...] Read more.
Understanding antibiotic allergies and the risk of cross-sensitivity between and within antibiotic classes can have a substantial impact on patient care. The purpose of this review article is to provide insight into carbapenem allergies, describing the overall incidence, risk factors, and in-class cross-sensitivity. A PubMed search was conducted using the following search terms: carbapenem, allergy, cross-sensitivity, incidence, imipenem/cilastatin, meropenem, ertapenem, and doripenem. Article bibliographies and relevant drug monographs were also reviewed. The overall reported incidence of carbapenem allergy is 0.3%–3.7%. Risk of cross-sensitivity between penicillins and carbapenems is less than 1% in patients with a positive penicillin skin test. Data on cross-sensitivity between cephalosporins and carbapenems are limited; however, the risk appears to also be low. No clinical studies have described cross-sensitivity between the carbapenem agents thus far. The limited data available from case reports demonstrates a lack of cross-sensitivity between the individual carbapenems, suggesting that an alternative carbapenem may cautiously be used in patients with a reported carbapenem allergy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
Open AccessArticle
Financial Incentive Required for Pharmacy Students to Accept a Post-Graduation Position in Rural and Undesirable Pharmacy Settings
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030109 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 727
Abstract
Background: It has been estimated that in 2018, 20% of pharmacy students were unemployed following graduation. However, many pharmacy positions go vacant each year, with the majority of these positions existing in rural areas. Methods: Pharmacy students completed a one-time, anonymous, online questionnaire. [...] Read more.
Background: It has been estimated that in 2018, 20% of pharmacy students were unemployed following graduation. However, many pharmacy positions go vacant each year, with the majority of these positions existing in rural areas. Methods: Pharmacy students completed a one-time, anonymous, online questionnaire. Measures of interest included: subject characteristics and preference in a variety job offers. Discrete Choice Experiment methodology of questionnaire design was used and Conditional Logit models were conducted to analyze the data to determine the financial incentive required for pharmacy students to take a post-graduate job with particular traits. Conclusions: A total of 283 students completed questionnaires from Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba. The majority of subjects were female, P3 students, and from a non-rural hometown. American students would need to be paid an additional $18,738 in salary to practice in a rural area, while Canadian students would require an additional $17,156. Canadian respondents would require an additional $7125 in salary to work in a community pharmacy with a low level of patient interaction compared to a community position with a large amount of patient interaction. Overall, pharmacy student preferences in post-graduation job attributes vary significantly between states and provinces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Education; Competency and beyond)
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Open AccessArticle
The Creation of a Practice-Based Network of Pharmacists Working in Family Medicine Groups (FMG)
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030108 - 05 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1689
Abstract
A needs assessment study of pharmacists working in family medicine groups (FMG) demonstrated the necessity to build a practice-based network. This network would foster a faster integration into FMG and a more efficient collaborative practice. It would also take advantage of an existing [...] Read more.
A needs assessment study of pharmacists working in family medicine groups (FMG) demonstrated the necessity to build a practice-based network. This network would foster a faster integration into FMG and a more efficient collaborative practice. It would also take advantage of an existing practice-based research network (PBRN)—the STAT (Soutien Technologique pour l’Application et le Transfert des pratiques novatrices en pharmacie) network. A working group of nine FMG pharmacists from the different regions of the province of Quebec, Canada, and a committee of partners, including the key pharmacy organizations, were created. Between January 2018 and May 2019, nine meetings took place to discuss the needs assessment results and deploy an action plan. The practice-based network first year activities allowed identifying pharmacists working in FMGs across the province. A directory of these pharmacists was published on the STAT network. The vision, mission, mandate, name («Réseau Québécois des Pharmaciens GMF») and logo were developed. The first few activities include: Bi-monthly newsletters; a mentorship program; short evidence-based therapeutic letters (pharmacotherapeutic capsules) and a start-up kit to facilitate integration of these pharmacists. The Quebec FMG pharmacist practice-based network has been launched. It is planned to evaluate the members’ satisfaction in late Spring 2020 with regards to activities and resources provided. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pharmacy Practice-based Research Networks)
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