Special Issue "Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 August 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zubin Austin
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3M2, Canada
Interests: Pharmacy education; pharmacy practice; health services research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Around the world, the profession of pharmacy is evolving rapidly. New scopes of practice, interprofessional collaboration, integration of regulated pharmacy technicians, and the proliferation of information technologies and artificial intelligence in health care are all transforming the work of pharmacists and the practice of pharmacy. Continuing professional development (CPD) is crucial to support workforce evolution and to ensure pharmacists—and the profession—continue to be relevant in the rapidly changing health care system.

Educators, regulators, health services researchers, professional associations, all have important roles to play in helping to support this workforce evolution.  Frequently, those involved in CPD may be too busy delivering transformational education to consider the importance of disseminating their work within the broader professional community. This Special Issue will consolidate best practices, emerging models, and educational theories focused on CPD in Pharmacy and serve as a repository of information and ideas for those interested in supporting practice evolution and change. We are seeking submissions from those involved in needs assessment research, program development and delivery, program evaluation, regulatory affairs, or other relevant areas of educational scholarship and practice focused on CPD in pharmacy. Our objective is to consolidate current promising and best practices in the field to provide the pharmacy community worldwide with leading-edge tools, models, and resources to help unleash the potential of pharmacists to transform patient care and sustain health care systems.

Prof. Dr. Zubin Austin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Continuing Professional Development
  • Continuing Education
  • Pharmacy Education
  • Pharmacy Workforce Development
  • Pharmacy Practice Change Management

Published Papers (24 papers)

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Research

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Article
A Theoretical Framework for Estimating the Rate of Return to a Pharmacy Education Anywhere
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030162 - 03 Sep 2020
Viewed by 794
Abstract
Undertaking a pharmacy education is an investment in human capital. Candidates trade off present versus future costs and benefits. They make this investment with the expectation of earning enough income throughout their worklives to make their undertaking financially worthwhile. Whether or not this [...] Read more.
Undertaking a pharmacy education is an investment in human capital. Candidates trade off present versus future costs and benefits. They make this investment with the expectation of earning enough income throughout their worklives to make their undertaking financially worthwhile. Whether or not this occurs is determined by the rate of return. The aim of the current study was to construct a theoretical model to estimate the rate of return to a pharmacy education investment. Specifications for model assumptions, inputs, and outputs are discussed. The outputs are the rates of return, the inputs are the costs and benefits of a pharmacy education, and the assumptions illustrate the circumstances of the individual or group for whom the model is built. The rate of return is the annual percentage that equates the streams of benefits and costs over the investment span. The higher the value of the rate of return to a pharmacy education is, the more profitable is the investment. This theoretical model may be used to estimate the financial viability of pharmacy and compare it to the viability of other professions or to the viability of pharmacy among various locations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Article
Learn Today–Apply Tomorrow: The SMART Pharmacist Program
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030139 - 06 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1326
Abstract
The SMART Pharmacist Program was initiated by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) and Pharma Expert in 2014. It was designed to introduce a new continuing education model for pharmacists for the Turkish Pharmacists’ Association, and to support development of competencies for [...] Read more.
The SMART Pharmacist Program was initiated by the Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education (ACPE) and Pharma Expert in 2014. It was designed to introduce a new continuing education model for pharmacists for the Turkish Pharmacists’ Association, and to support development of competencies for future practice. After successful implementation in Turkey, the Program spread to 16 additional countries. To assure quality, globally adopted and validated tools and best practices were used, respecting the national context. National competency frameworks and quality indicators for pharmaceutical care delivery were developed. Pharmacists’ learning portfolios were introduced and patient care modules created. Under the sub-title “Learn Today—Apply Tomorrow,” the changes in practice were introduced under the leadership of national host organizations. The Program showed an impact on the patient level in several countries, especially in areas of patient care in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), Hypertension and Dyslipidemia, Diabetes, and the patient care process in general (e.g., identifying drug-related problems, improving patient safety, collaborating with medical doctors). Changes are visible at the individual (pharmacists) and organizational levels. Barriers and facilitators to the change-management process during Program implementation are identified. In some countries, the Program is recognized as one of the most important initiatives in pharmacy education and practice, with visible support of national medicines agencies, academia, government, and WHO regional offices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Actual vs. Perceived Competency Development—How Can Virtual Patients Impact Pharmacist Pre-Registration Training?
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030138 - 05 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 936
Abstract
Virtual patients are an active learning pedagogical tool that simulate clinical scenarios. There is an established disparity in pre-registration examination pass rates depending on whether individuals complete their training in a community or hospital pharmacy. This study aimed to evaluate virtual patient (VP) [...] Read more.
Virtual patients are an active learning pedagogical tool that simulate clinical scenarios. There is an established disparity in pre-registration examination pass rates depending on whether individuals complete their training in a community or hospital pharmacy. This study aimed to evaluate virtual patient (VP) and non-interactive (NI) case studies, concerning knowledge, skill and confidence development of pre-registration pharmacist trainees. A quasi-experimental evaluation was conducted. Pre-registration pharmacists completed three VP or NI case studies. Each case study was associated with a pre-and post-knowledge quiz. Pre-registration trainees were invited to complete a questionnaire consisting of Likert ranking statements and open-ended questions on the case study features, usability and individual development. Both learning tools significantly improved trainees’ knowledge on the topic areas (except for the NI group in case study 3). Although no significant differences in knowledge improvement were identified between the learning tools, trainees who used the VP reported the development of a wider knowledge base and skill set, an increase in confidence for practice and an opportunity to apply their learning. The sector in which pre-registration pharmacists were completing their training (community or hospital) had a significant impact on knowledge improvement in the three case studies. Future research evaluating VPs with pre-registration and qualified pharmacists should be conducted to explore their benefits and establish their effectiveness as learning tools. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Advancing Pharm. D. Training in Egypt through a Structured Preceptor Development Program
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 135; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030135 - 01 Aug 2020
Viewed by 775
Abstract
The Children’s Cancer Hospital of Egypt (CCHE) and the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) collaborate to offer a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree to international pharmacists holding a bachelor’s degree in pharmacy. The experiential training is provided [...] Read more.
The Children’s Cancer Hospital of Egypt (CCHE) and the University of Colorado Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences (SSPPS) collaborate to offer a Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degree to international pharmacists holding a bachelor’s degree in pharmacy. The experiential training is provided by CCHE’s clinical pharmacist preceptors at CCHE. Clinical pharmacists at CCHE had prior experience precepting baccalaureate pharmacy students, but not Pharm.D. students when this program commenced. Therefore, the SSPPS faculty provided a live preceptor development program for select CCHE clinical pharmacists in 2017. Primary deliverables of the program included the preparation of individual preceptor development plans and experiential syllabi for program participants. Preceptor development plans and experiential syllabi were evaluated by the SSPPS faculty. Program participants were also evaluated on their assessment of learner case scenarios using introductory pharmacy practice experience (IPPE) and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) assessment tools created for the CCHE program. Participant performance on submitted preceptor development plans and experiential syllabi, and performance on the learner cases were all utilized for participant selection as Pharm.D. preceptors in the CCHE Pharm.D. program. This paper describes this preceptor development program, the process utilized to determine selection of Pharm.D. preceptors, and plans for providing continuing preceptor development for preceptors at CCHE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Article
A Research Partnership to Enhance Postgraduate Pharmacy Residency Training Outcomes
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030134 - 31 Jul 2020
Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Pharmacy residents must complete research as part of their program; however, challenges exist in providing experiences that result in successful research dissemination outcomes. A university-based research team, integrated into an ambulatory care pharmacy residency program aimed to improve presentation and publication rates of [...] Read more.
Pharmacy residents must complete research as part of their program; however, challenges exist in providing experiences that result in successful research dissemination outcomes. A university-based research team, integrated into an ambulatory care pharmacy residency program aimed to improve presentation and publication rates of pharmacy resident research projects. Data on the number of postgraduate year-2 (PGY2) residents and their productivity were collected and summarized to assess progress. A total of 13 residents completed their residency over seven years. Each resident produced one regional presentation, and one national presentation beginning in year four. To date, three peer-reviewed papers have been published, with another one in-press. Responses from residents found lack of guidance, lack of data availability for projects and feedback fatigue were barriers to a positive research experience. To address these problems, a university-based research team was integrated to provide research mentor guided support, ensure study feasibility, and provide structured feedback. This program evaluation highlighted the integration of a PGY2 ambulatory care pharmacy residency with a designated, interprofessional university-based research team. Future work is warranted to reduce research-related barriers and formally evaluate resident post-program knowledge, skills, and subsequent dissemination rates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Characteristics of Individuals Who Chose to Participate in a Preceptor Continuing Professional Development Program
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030121 - 20 Jul 2020
Viewed by 604
Abstract
An online program for pharmacy preceptors to improve their clinical teaching using continuing professional development (CPD) was launched in 2017. While 491 preceptors participated in the CPD program, only 35% of potential participants completed this voluntary program. A secondary data analysis was undertaken [...] Read more.
An online program for pharmacy preceptors to improve their clinical teaching using continuing professional development (CPD) was launched in 2017. While 491 preceptors participated in the CPD program, only 35% of potential participants completed this voluntary program. A secondary data analysis was undertaken to determine the characteristics of preceptors who completed the program and identify ways to target program advertising for those who did not complete it. Residency-trained preceptors were more likely to complete the CPD program compared with those without residency training (45% and 37%, respectively; p = 0.011). This may be due to the inclusion of CPD in residency accreditation standards. To improve completion of the CPD program by preceptors without residencies, a brief introduction to CPD, a statement of benefits, and use of a personalized plan should be included in advertisements. Preceptors teaching more experiential students were more likely to complete the CPD program (p < 0.001 for introductory and advanced experiences). To encourage preceptors with less students to participate, the CPD program should be advertised year-round to allow preceptors to complete the training when it is most relevant to their precepting schedule. Future directions include the monitoring of changes in CPD program participation rates following changes in advertisements and exploring other motivations for program completion such as collaborations with employers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Article
Insights from Regulatory Data on Development Needs of Community Pharmacy Professionals
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030111 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 860
Abstract
The aim of this study was to use data available to a Canadian health professions regulator (Ontario College of Pharmacists) to identify areas of opportunity where practitioners (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) could benefit from further development, in order to optimize practice and improve [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to use data available to a Canadian health professions regulator (Ontario College of Pharmacists) to identify areas of opportunity where practitioners (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) could benefit from further development, in order to optimize practice and improve the quality of care. Four de-identified datasets were used to extract themes from areas of jurisprudence (1969 exam records), member practice assessments (2610 records), pharmacy assessments (2024 records) and conduct (640 case records). Outcome measures included performance in examinations and assessments and competency gaps identified in conduct investigations. Thematic analysis of outcomes was done in two stages. First, the four outcomes were derived independently for each dataset. Second, the top five issues were extracted for each dataset. It was hypothesized that common themes in competency gaps across all four datasets would emerge from this top five selection. We found three main common areas of opportunity where practitioners could benefit from further development: patient assessment and safety; documentation; and ethical, legal and professional responsibilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Preparing Pharmacists to Care for Patients Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020100 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 1021
Abstract
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, highly prevalent public health problem associated with poor health outcomes, negative impacts on medication behavior, and increased health care utilization and costs. Pharmacists, the most accessible health care providers, are the only provider group not required [...] Read more.
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious, highly prevalent public health problem associated with poor health outcomes, negative impacts on medication behavior, and increased health care utilization and costs. Pharmacists, the most accessible health care providers, are the only provider group not required to be trained on this topic. Training can prepare pharmacists to safely and appropriately care for patients experiencing IPV. This project evaluated a pharmacy-specific continuing professional development module on IPV utilizing a quasi-experimental pretest–posttest study design. Practicing community pharmacists were recruited from a market research panel to complete the online module. A novel method for managing IPV disclosures, the Care, Assess for safety, Refer, and Document (CARD) method, was included in the training. A total of 36 pharmacists completed the study, including a three-month follow-up assessment. Participants reported increased perceived preparedness and knowledge, workplace and self-efficacy, staff preparation, and legal requirements, but not actual knowledge. Practice changes, including identification of legal reporting requirements (19.4%) and development of protocols for managing IPV disclosures (13.9%), were reported at follow-up. This is the first examination of an educational module on the topic of IPV for pharmacists and it positively impacted pharmacists’ preparedness and practice behaviors related to IPV over an extended follow-up period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Measuring the Development of Therapeutic-Decision-Making Skills by Practicing Pharmacists Undertaking a University-Based Postgraduate Clinical Qualification at Distance
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020083 - 11 May 2020
Viewed by 1004
Abstract
(1) Background: The processes and skills required to make decisions about drug therapy have been termed “therapeutic decision-making” in pharmacy practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a tool constructed to measure the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills by practicing pharmacists undertaking [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The processes and skills required to make decisions about drug therapy have been termed “therapeutic decision-making” in pharmacy practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a tool constructed to measure the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills by practicing pharmacists undertaking a university-based continuing professional development program. (2) Methods: A pre- and post-intervention crossover study design was used to investigate the qualitative and quantitative features of practicing pharmacists’ responses to two clinical vignettes designed to measure the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills. The vignettes were assigned a score using a five-point scale and compared pre- and post-intervention. (3) Results: There was a median increase in score of 2 units on the five-point scale in the post-intervention scores compared to pre-intervention (p < 0.0001). (4) Conclusions: The results were interpreted to suggest that the participants’ responses to the vignettes are a reasonable measure of student learning. Therefore, we infer that the teaching and learning intervention successfully enabled the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills by practicing pharmacists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Implementing an Online Longitudinal Leadership Development Program Using a Leadership-Specific Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Tool
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020079 - 06 May 2020
Viewed by 1153
Abstract
As the roles of a pharmacist continue to evolve, leadership is an imperative skill for pharmacists to advance in their profession. To advance leadership behaviors, a number of tools, programs, and services have been developed worldwide to encourage the use of these behaviors [...] Read more.
As the roles of a pharmacist continue to evolve, leadership is an imperative skill for pharmacists to advance in their profession. To advance leadership behaviors, a number of tools, programs, and services have been developed worldwide to encourage the use of these behaviors in practice. A brief summary of different leadership opportunities around the globe are provided. A continuing professional development process and tool for developing and mentoring leaders that are ready to take the next step in their growth journey is introduced. This tool can be used in a live or online setting and is amenable to a longitudinal environment for leadership development and mentoring. A detailed process for implementing an online leadership development program and opportunities for future development are also described. While leadership skills can be developed in many ways, it is still unclear which methods and tools are the most effective in training pharmacists to maximize their leadership abilities. Additional research on effectiveness and impact of tools and processes for development are needed. Individuals and organizations are encouraged to consider implementing easily accessible leadership development and mentoring programs to advance the leadership skills of interested individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Article
The Development of an Accreditation Framework for Continuing Education Activities for Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020075 - 28 Apr 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
Accreditation is the recognition that an educational activity meets certain standards. The processes for accreditation vary considerably depending on the type of activity, and currently there are differing accreditation systems in place for pharmacy continuing education (CE) across different countries. Research was carried [...] Read more.
Accreditation is the recognition that an educational activity meets certain standards. The processes for accreditation vary considerably depending on the type of activity, and currently there are differing accreditation systems in place for pharmacy continuing education (CE) across different countries. Research was carried out on a selection of these systems with the aim of developing a catalogue of accreditation approaches, and exploring the possibility of developing a common framework for the accreditation of pharmacy CE activities. Accreditation processes from the countries represented by the Global Forum on Quality Assurance of Continuing Education and Continuing Professional Development (GFQACE) were reviewed to explore the themes and patterns in them. This informed the development of a proposed accreditation framework for CE activities for pharmacists. A Delphi method over four rounds involving seven participants from each GFQACE organisation was used as a consensus building technique. Agreement was achieved on including 15 items in the framework within four stages (Input, Process, Output, and Quality Improvement). The GFQACE steering group indicated their intention to use the resultant framework as the basis for the exploration of mutual recognition of accreditation between member countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Article
A Continuing Professional Development Program for Pharmacists Implementing Pharmacogenomics into Practice
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020055 - 28 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1197
Abstract
A continuing professional development (CPD) program for pharmacists practicing in community and team-based primary care settings was developed and evaluated using Moore’s framework for the assessment of continuing medical education. The program had three components: online lectures, a two-day training workshop, and patient [...] Read more.
A continuing professional development (CPD) program for pharmacists practicing in community and team-based primary care settings was developed and evaluated using Moore’s framework for the assessment of continuing medical education. The program had three components: online lectures, a two-day training workshop, and patient case studies. Knowledge (pre-post multiple choice test); attitudes, readiness, and comfort with applying pharmacogenomics in their practices (pre-post surveys); and experiences of implementing pharmacogenomics in practice (semi-structured interviews) were assessed. Twenty-one of 26 enrolled pharmacists successfully completed the program, and were satisfied with their experience. Almost all achieved a score of 80% or higher on the post-training multiple choice test, with significantly improved scores compared to the pre-training test. Pre- and post-training surveys demonstrated that participants felt that their knowledge and competence increased upon completion of the training. In the follow-up, 15 pharmacists incorporated pharmacogenomics testing into care for 117 patients. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured interviews, reporting strong performance in the program, but some difficulty implementing new knowledge in their practices. This multi-component CPD program successfully increased pharmacists’ knowledge, readiness, and comfort in applying pharmacogenomics to patient care in the short-term, yet some pharmacists struggled to integrate this new service into their practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Assessing Performance and Engagement on a Computer-Based Education Platform for Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010026 - 24 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1066
Abstract
A computer-based education platform was developed using a theory-based approach to help Canadian pharmacy professionals adopt their full scope of practice. Data from the platform were used to identify factors that impacted user performance and engagement. A de-identified dataset included response data for [...] Read more.
A computer-based education platform was developed using a theory-based approach to help Canadian pharmacy professionals adopt their full scope of practice. Data from the platform were used to identify factors that impacted user performance and engagement. A de-identified dataset included response data for 21 unique modules, including quiz responses and self-reflection questions. Outcome measures included user performance (mean quiz score) and engagement (completion rate for attempted modules). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate regression modelling, and machine learning cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Of the 5290 users, 68% were pharmacists, 11% were technicians, 13% were pharmacy students, and 8% were pharmacy technician students. Four clusters were identified separately for pharmacists and technicians. Clusters with the higher performance and engagement tended to have more users practicing in community pharmacies while the lower performing clusters tended have more internationally trained users. In the regression modelling, pharmacists performed better than technicians and students while students were more engaged (p < 0.0001). Further, internationally trained pharmacists had slightly lower scores but similar engagement compared to domestically trained pharmacists (p < 0.0001). Users demonstrated higher performance on modules related to scope of practice than on clinical topics, and were most engaged with topics directly impacting daily practice such as influenza vaccinations and new and emerging subjects such as cannabis. The cluster analysis suggests that performance and engagement with a computer-based educational platform in pharmacy may be more related to place of practice than to personal demographic factors such as age or gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Learning Needs of Pharmacists for an Evolving Scope of Practice
Pharmacy 2019, 7(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7040140 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1255
Abstract
Around the world, changes in scope of practice regulations for pharmacists have been used as a tool to advance practice and promote change. Regulatory change does not automatically trigger practice change; the extent and speed of uptake of new roles and responsibilities has [...] Read more.
Around the world, changes in scope of practice regulations for pharmacists have been used as a tool to advance practice and promote change. Regulatory change does not automatically trigger practice change; the extent and speed of uptake of new roles and responsibilities has been slower than anticipated. A recent study identified 9 pre-requisites to practice change (the 9Ps of Practice Change). The objective of this study was to describe how educationalists could best apply these 9Ps to the design and delivery of continuing professional development for pharmacists. Twenty community pharmacists participated in semi-structured interviews designed to elicit their learning needs for scope of practice change. Seven supportive educational techniques were identified as being most helpful to promote practice change: (i) a coaching/mentoring approach; (ii) practice-based experiential learning; (iii) a longitudinal approach to instructional design; (iv) active demonstration of how to implement practice change; v) increased focus on soft-skills development; (vi) opportunities for practice/rehearsal of new skills; and (vii) use of a 360-degree feedback model. Further work is required to determine how these techniques can be best applied and implemented to support practice change in pharmacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Article
Topic Analysis of UK Fitness to Practise Cases: What Lessons Can Be Learnt?
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030130 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1478
Abstract
Background: Fitness to practise (FtP) impairment (failure of a healthcare professional to demonstrate skills, knowledge, character and/or health required for their job) can compromise patient safety, the profession’s reputation, and an individual’s career. In the United Kingdom (UK), various healthcare professionals’ FtP [...] Read more.
Background: Fitness to practise (FtP) impairment (failure of a healthcare professional to demonstrate skills, knowledge, character and/or health required for their job) can compromise patient safety, the profession’s reputation, and an individual’s career. In the United Kingdom (UK), various healthcare professionals’ FtP cases (documents about the panel hearing(s) and outcome(s) relating to the alleged FtP impairment) are publicly available, yet reviewing these to learn lessons may be time-consuming given the number of cases across the professions and amount of text in each. We aimed to demonstrate how machine learning facilitated the examination of such cases (at uni- and multi-professional level), involving UK dental, medical, nursing and pharmacy professionals. Methods: Cases dating from August 2017 to June 2019 were downloaded (577 dental, 481 medical, 2199 nursing and 63 pharmacy) and converted to text files. A topic analysis method (non-negative matrix factorization; machine learning) was employed for data analysis. Results: Identified topics were criminal offences; dishonesty (fraud and theft); drug possession/supply; English language; indemnity insurance; patient care (including incompetence) and personal behavior (aggression, sexual conduct and substance misuse). The most frequently identified topic for dental, medical and nursing professions was patient care whereas for pharmacy, it was criminal offences. Conclusions: While commonalities exist, each has different priorities which professional and educational organizations should strive to address. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Article
Pharmacists’ Utilization of Information Sources Related to Community and Population Needs in the Upper Midwest and Associations with Continuing Professional Education
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030125 - 29 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1102
Abstract
Background: To investigate information sources utilized in pharmacists’ assessment of population-based health needs and/or community changes; and the association between information sources utilized and reported completion of continuing professional education topics. Methods: In 2017; licensed pharmacists (n = 1124) in North Dakota; South [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate information sources utilized in pharmacists’ assessment of population-based health needs and/or community changes; and the association between information sources utilized and reported completion of continuing professional education topics. Methods: In 2017; licensed pharmacists (n = 1124) in North Dakota; South Dakota; Minnesota; Iowa; and Nebraska completed a questionnaire on continuing professional education and information sources on population-based health needs and community changes. Data were entered; cleaned and imported into Stata 11.1. Census Bureau county-level population density data were used to classify local area characteristics. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Most sources of primary; county-level data on population-based health needs or community changes were minimally utilized. Pharmacists in more rural areas were statistically more likely to use local health professionals; local non-health professionals; and/or the state health department compared to pharmacists in less rural areas. Pharmacists reporting higher use of population-based information sources were more likely to have completed continuing education in the past 12 months for all 21 surveyed topics; 13 significantly so. Conclusions: There is a reliance of pharmacists on information from local health and non-health professionals for information on population-based health needs and/or community changes. Utilization of health departments and other primary information sources was associated with increased rates of completion of an array of continuing professional education topics. Expanding utilization of evidence-driven information sources would improve pharmacists’ ability to better identify and respond to population-based health needs and/or community changes through programs and services offered; and tailor continuing professional education to population-based health needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)

Review

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Review
Advancing the Adoption of Continuing Professional Development (CPD) in the United States
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030157 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 1406
Abstract
Over the last four decades, the expanded patient care roles of pharmacists in the United States (U.S.) have increased focus on ensuring the implementation of processes to enhance continuing professional development within the profession. The transition from a model of continuing pharmacy education [...] Read more.
Over the last four decades, the expanded patient care roles of pharmacists in the United States (U.S.) have increased focus on ensuring the implementation of processes to enhance continuing professional development within the profession. The transition from a model of continuing pharmacy education (CPE) to a model of continuing professional development (CPD) is still evolving. As pharmacists assume more complex roles in patient care delivery, particularly in community-based settings, the need to demonstrate and maintain professional competence becomes more critical. In addition, long-held processes for post-graduate education and licensure must also continue to adapt to meet these changing needs. Members of the pharmacy profession in the U.S. must adopt the concept of CPD and implement processes to support the thoughtful completion of professional development plans. Comprehensive, state-of-the-art technology solutions are available to assist pharmacists with understanding, implementing and applying CPD to their professional lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Review
Global Forum on Quality Assurance in CE/CPD: Assuring Quality across Boundaries
Pharmacy 2020, 8(3), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8030114 - 09 Jul 2020
Viewed by 893
Abstract
As a result of the globalization of access and provision of continuing education and continuing professional development (CE/CPD), the national CE/CPD accreditation organizations of Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States formed the Global Forum on Quality Assurance [...] Read more.
As a result of the globalization of access and provision of continuing education and continuing professional development (CE/CPD), the national CE/CPD accreditation organizations of Australia, Canada, Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa, United Kingdom and United States formed the Global Forum on Quality Assurance of Continuing Education and Continuing Professional Development (GFQACE) to investigate and develop means of recognizing CE/CPD across boundaries. Two priorities were identified at their first meeting in 2016: (1) the development of an accreditation framework and (2) the identification of models and approaches to mutual recognition. The GFQACE approved an accreditation framework and facilitated review approach to mutual recognition in 2018 and is currently working on implementation guides. As background to the work of the GFQACE, this article provides a brief history of continuing education (CE) and continuing professional development (CPD) and discusses the value and benefits of CE/CPD to professional development of pharmacy professionals, innovation of pharmacy practice and the provision of quality patient care. Due to the essential role of CE/CPD accreditation in enabling recognition across boundaries, the nature and role of accreditation in defining, assuring and driving quality CE/CPD is described. Four conclusions regarding the broad sharing of perceptions of quality CE/CPD, the potential for expansion of the GFQACE and the benefits to pharmacy professionals, providers and pharmacy practice are discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Review
A Narrative Review of Continuing Professional Development Needs for Pharmacists with Respect to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020084 - 11 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1331
Abstract
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in use worldwide, with many countries now publicly funding use for high risk populations. Pharmacists, as front-line care providers, must have the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to effectively provide care [...] Read more.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in use worldwide, with many countries now publicly funding use for high risk populations. Pharmacists, as front-line care providers, must have the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to effectively provide care to PrEP patients. The aim of this review was to identify priority areas and key gaps for continuing professional development (CPD) needs relating to PrEP for practicing pharmacists. An electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and CPD-related journals was supplemented with a manual search of references to identify articles describing pharmacists’ knowledge, perceptions and experience with PrEP. A total of eight articles were identified across four countries. Pharmacists were consistently found to lack knowledge and awareness of PrEP, express low confidence/comfort with patient care practices, report a lack of experience and/or intentions to provide patient care, but overall had positive perceptions of PrEP therapy. Older pharmacists with more experience commonly reported greater knowledge gaps than recently trained pharmacists. CPD should therefore aim to increase pharmacists’ baseline knowledge and awareness of PrEP and treatment guidelines, as well as be directed towards older pharmacists with more experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Other

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Discussion
Cultural Humility: A Proposed Model for a Continuing Professional Development Program
Pharmacy 2020, 8(4), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040214 - 13 Nov 2020
Viewed by 1162
Abstract
Continuing professional development (CPD) is an essential component of professional practice for registered health practitioners to maintain and enhance knowledge, skills and abilities. There are many topics that practitioners may pursue relevant to their practice environment, and, in recent years, providing culturally safe [...] Read more.
Continuing professional development (CPD) is an essential component of professional practice for registered health practitioners to maintain and enhance knowledge, skills and abilities. There are many topics that practitioners may pursue relevant to their practice environment, and, in recent years, providing culturally safe and respectful practice is an emerging area of need. Unfortunately, many health professionals, whilst willing to offer cultural safe healthcare, may be uncertain of how to enact that practice. The World Health Organisation recognises attainment of the highest possible standard of health as a basic human right, and cultural safety is increasingly becoming an expectation of health professionals. To address this need and the insufficiency of support in the literature, the authors have presented a discussion paper on various aspects of cultural safety and the underlying constructs, such as cultures, that support it. The discussion takes into account core constructs that signpost the path to cultural safety and recognises the role and accountability of all levels of the healthcare system, not merely the practitioner. Finally, we propose a model program for a cultural humility CPD activity incorporating pre-work, online modules, interactive workshop, reflection on professional practice and a post-workshop evaluation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Case Report
Continuous Professional Development for Public Sector Pharmacists in South Africa: A Case Study of Mapping Competencies in a Pharmacists’ Preceptor Programme
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020096 - 03 Jun 2020
Viewed by 947
Abstract
Lifelong learning among healthcare practitioners is crucial to keep abreast of advances in therapeutic and service delivery approaches. In South Africa, continuous professional development (CPD) was mandated (2019) for re-registration of pharmacists to illustrate their learning according to the South African Pharmacy Council’s [...] Read more.
Lifelong learning among healthcare practitioners is crucial to keep abreast of advances in therapeutic and service delivery approaches. In South Africa, continuous professional development (CPD) was mandated (2019) for re-registration of pharmacists to illustrate their learning according to the South African Pharmacy Council’s (SAPC) competency standards. This paper uses a preceptor programme linked to the University of the Western Cape School of Pharmacy’s service learning programme to map the competencies employed by pharmacist preceptors in primary care public healthcare facilities in Cape Town in an attempt to encourage completion of their annual CPDs and strengthening the academic-service partnership. Competencies identified were divided into input competencies related to the preceptor’s role in designing and implementing the educational programme in their facilities and assisting students to complete their prescribed learning activities, and output/outcome competencies that emerged from preceptors identifying the facility needs and employing their input competencies. Input competencies pertained to education, leadership, patient counselling, collaborative practice and human resources management. Output competencies related to pharmaceutical infrastructure, quality assurance, professional and health advocacy, primary healthcare, self-management and patient-centred care. The preceptor programme enabled pharmacist preceptors to employ several competencies that are aligned with the SAPC’s competency framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Commentary
Rethinking Competence: A Nexus of Educational Models in the Context of Lifelong Learning
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020081 - 08 May 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1784
Abstract
Competency-based education (CBE) “derives a curriculum from an analysis of a prospective or actual role in modern society and attempts to certify students’ progress on the basis of demonstrated performance in some or all aspects of that role”. This paper summarizes pertinent aspects [...] Read more.
Competency-based education (CBE) “derives a curriculum from an analysis of a prospective or actual role in modern society and attempts to certify students’ progress on the basis of demonstrated performance in some or all aspects of that role”. This paper summarizes pertinent aspects of existing CBE models in health professions education; pharmacy education presented as an example. It presents a synthesis of these models to propose a new diagrammatic representation. A conceptual model for competency-based health professions education with a focus on learning and assessment is discussed. It is argued that various elements of CBE converge to holistically portray competency-based learning and assessment as essential in initial education and relevant to practitioners’ continuing professional development, especially in the context and importance of pursing lifelong learning practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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Case Report
Adaptive Expertise in Continuing Pharmacy Professional Development
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010021 - 18 Feb 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 889
Abstract
Pharmacists are facing rapid changes and increasing complexity in the workplace. The astounding rate of both the evolution and the development of knowledge in pharmacy practice requires that we develop continuing professional development (CPD) to foster and support innovation, creativity, and flexibility, alongside [...] Read more.
Pharmacists are facing rapid changes and increasing complexity in the workplace. The astounding rate of both the evolution and the development of knowledge in pharmacy practice requires that we develop continuing professional development (CPD) to foster and support innovation, creativity, and flexibility, alongside procedural expertise. Adaptive expertise provides a conceptual framework for developing experts who can both perform professional tasks efficiently as well as creatively handle new and difficult-to-anticipate problems. This article approaches knowledge production in daily pharmacy practice and CPD through a cognitive psychology lens, and highlights three educational approaches to support the development of adaptive expertise in the workplace: (1) explaining not just what to do, but why you are doing it, (2) allowing and encouraging struggle, and (3) asking “what if” questions to encourage meaningful variation and reveal underlying core concepts. These three evidence-based strategies will cultivate long-term learning and will support pharmacists as we move into more complicated and ambiguous roles. Pharmacy CPD can be transformed to support the development of both procedural and conceptual knowledge in a local environment to support learning and innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Case Report
An Authentic, Practice-Based Assessment as a Catalyst for Continuous Professional Development
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010015 - 04 Feb 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 859
Abstract
Over the last ten years, pharmacy practice has changed significantly in Canada. It is more important than ever to ensure that the profession engages in continuing professional development in order to keep up with changing practice and changing public demand and scrutiny. The [...] Read more.
Over the last ten years, pharmacy practice has changed significantly in Canada. It is more important than ever to ensure that the profession engages in continuing professional development in order to keep up with changing practice and changing public demand and scrutiny. The question is, how do we ensure that the required continual professional development occurs and is applied to practice? One Canadian regulator, the Ontario College of Pharmacists, has attempted to address this question by assessing the success of a number of quality assurance options in terms of addressing the competence of pharmacists, and by extension their ability to learn and apply their learning in an ongoing manner. This case study presents three policy options; an analysis of those options; and finally, an evaluation of the best option for this regulator. The policy alternatives considered include a continuing education/professional development requirement, standardized simulated assessment (i.e., observed structured clinical examination) and authentic practice-based assessment. For the Ontario College of Pharmacists, an authentic practice-based assessment approach seems effective at stimulating quality improvements in pharmacists’ practice, likely because the assessment acts as a catalyst for pharmacists to engage in continuing professional development in order to maintain competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
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