Special Issue "Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy"

A special issue of Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 15 June 2020.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Zubin Austin

Guest Editor
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada M5S 3M2
Interests: Pharmacy education; pharmacy practice; health services research

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Around the world, the profession of pharmacy is evolving rapidly. New scopes of practice, interprofessional collaboration, integration of regulated pharmacy technicians, and the proliferation of information technologies and artificial intelligence in health care are all transforming the work of pharmacists and the practice of pharmacy. Continuing professional development (CPD) is crucial to support workforce evolution and to ensure pharmacists—and the profession—continue to be relevant in the rapidly changing health care system.

Educators, regulators, health services researchers, professional associations, all have important roles to play in helping to support this workforce evolution.  Frequently, those involved in CPD may be too busy delivering transformational education to consider the importance of disseminating their work within the broader professional community. This Special Issue will consolidate best practices, emerging models, and educational theories focused on CPD in Pharmacy and serve as a repository of information and ideas for those interested in supporting practice evolution and change. We are seeking submissions from those involved in needs assessment research, program development and delivery, program evaluation, regulatory affairs, or other relevant areas of educational scholarship and practice focused on CPD in pharmacy. Our objective is to consolidate current promising and best practices in the field to provide the pharmacy community worldwide with leading-edge tools, models, and resources to help unleash the potential of pharmacists to transform patient care and sustain health care systems.

Prof. Dr. Zubin Austin
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Pharmacy is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Continuing Professional Development
  • Continuing Education
  • Pharmacy Education
  • Pharmacy Workforce Development
  • Pharmacy Practice Change Management

Published Papers (12 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Measuring the Development of Therapeutic-Decision-Making Skills by Practicing Pharmacists Undertaking a University-Based Postgraduate Clinical Qualification at Distance
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020083 - 11 May 2020
Abstract
(1) Background: The processes and skills required to make decisions about drug therapy have been termed “therapeutic decision-making” in pharmacy practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a tool constructed to measure the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills by practicing pharmacists undertaking [...] Read more.
(1) Background: The processes and skills required to make decisions about drug therapy have been termed “therapeutic decision-making” in pharmacy practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate a tool constructed to measure the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills by practicing pharmacists undertaking a university-based continuing professional development program. (2) Methods: A pre- and post-intervention crossover study design was used to investigate the qualitative and quantitative features of practicing pharmacists’ responses to two clinical vignettes designed to measure the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills. The vignettes were assigned a score using a five-point scale and compared pre- and post-intervention. (3) Results: There was a median increase in score of 2 units on the five-point scale in the post-intervention scores compared to pre-intervention (p < 0.0001). (4) Conclusions: The results were interpreted to suggest that the participants’ responses to the vignettes are a reasonable measure of student learning. Therefore, we infer that the teaching and learning intervention successfully enabled the development of therapeutic-decision-making skills by practicing pharmacists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
Implementing an Online Longitudinal Leadership Development Program Using a Leadership-Specific Continuing Professional Development (CPD) Tool
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020079 - 06 May 2020
Abstract
As the roles of a pharmacist continue to evolve, leadership is an imperative skill for pharmacists to advance in their profession. To advance leadership behaviors, a number of tools, programs, and services have been developed worldwide to encourage the use of these behaviors [...] Read more.
As the roles of a pharmacist continue to evolve, leadership is an imperative skill for pharmacists to advance in their profession. To advance leadership behaviors, a number of tools, programs, and services have been developed worldwide to encourage the use of these behaviors in practice. A brief summary of different leadership opportunities around the globe are provided. A continuing professional development process and tool for developing and mentoring leaders that are ready to take the next step in their growth journey is introduced. This tool can be used in a live or online setting and is amenable to a longitudinal environment for leadership development and mentoring. A detailed process for implementing an online leadership development program and opportunities for future development are also described. While leadership skills can be developed in many ways, it is still unclear which methods and tools are the most effective in training pharmacists to maximize their leadership abilities. Additional research on effectiveness and impact of tools and processes for development are needed. Individuals and organizations are encouraged to consider implementing easily accessible leadership development and mentoring programs to advance the leadership skills of interested individuals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
The Development of an Accreditation Framework for Continuing Education Activities for Pharmacists
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020075 - 28 Apr 2020
Abstract
Accreditation is the recognition that an educational activity meets certain standards. The processes for accreditation vary considerably depending on the type of activity, and currently there are differing accreditation systems in place for pharmacy continuing education (CE) across different countries. Research was carried [...] Read more.
Accreditation is the recognition that an educational activity meets certain standards. The processes for accreditation vary considerably depending on the type of activity, and currently there are differing accreditation systems in place for pharmacy continuing education (CE) across different countries. Research was carried out on a selection of these systems with the aim of developing a catalogue of accreditation approaches, and exploring the possibility of developing a common framework for the accreditation of pharmacy CE activities. Accreditation processes from the countries represented by the Global Forum on Quality Assurance of Continuing Education and Continuing Professional Development (GFQACE) were reviewed to explore the themes and patterns in them. This informed the development of a proposed accreditation framework for CE activities for pharmacists. A Delphi method over four rounds involving seven participants from each GFQACE organisation was used as a consensus building technique. Agreement was achieved on including 15 items in the framework within four stages (Input, Process, Output, and Quality Improvement). The GFQACE steering group indicated their intention to use the resultant framework as the basis for the exploration of mutual recognition of accreditation between member countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
A Continuing Professional Development Program for Pharmacists Implementing Pharmacogenomics into Practice
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020055 - 28 Mar 2020
Abstract
A continuing professional development (CPD) program for pharmacists practicing in community and team-based primary care settings was developed and evaluated using Moore’s framework for the assessment of continuing medical education. The program had three components: online lectures, a two-day training workshop, and patient [...] Read more.
A continuing professional development (CPD) program for pharmacists practicing in community and team-based primary care settings was developed and evaluated using Moore’s framework for the assessment of continuing medical education. The program had three components: online lectures, a two-day training workshop, and patient case studies. Knowledge (pre-post multiple choice test); attitudes, readiness, and comfort with applying pharmacogenomics in their practices (pre-post surveys); and experiences of implementing pharmacogenomics in practice (semi-structured interviews) were assessed. Twenty-one of 26 enrolled pharmacists successfully completed the program, and were satisfied with their experience. Almost all achieved a score of 80% or higher on the post-training multiple choice test, with significantly improved scores compared to the pre-training test. Pre- and post-training surveys demonstrated that participants felt that their knowledge and competence increased upon completion of the training. In the follow-up, 15 pharmacists incorporated pharmacogenomics testing into care for 117 patients. Ten pharmacists participated in semi-structured interviews, reporting strong performance in the program, but some difficulty implementing new knowledge in their practices. This multi-component CPD program successfully increased pharmacists’ knowledge, readiness, and comfort in applying pharmacogenomics to patient care in the short-term, yet some pharmacists struggled to integrate this new service into their practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Assessing Performance and Engagement on a Computer-Based Education Platform for Pharmacy Practice
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010026 - 24 Feb 2020
Abstract
A computer-based education platform was developed using a theory-based approach to help Canadian pharmacy professionals adopt their full scope of practice. Data from the platform were used to identify factors that impacted user performance and engagement. A de-identified dataset included response data for [...] Read more.
A computer-based education platform was developed using a theory-based approach to help Canadian pharmacy professionals adopt their full scope of practice. Data from the platform were used to identify factors that impacted user performance and engagement. A de-identified dataset included response data for 21 unique modules, including quiz responses and self-reflection questions. Outcome measures included user performance (mean quiz score) and engagement (completion rate for attempted modules). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), multivariate regression modelling, and machine learning cluster analysis were used to analyze the data. Of the 5290 users, 68% were pharmacists, 11% were technicians, 13% were pharmacy students, and 8% were pharmacy technician students. Four clusters were identified separately for pharmacists and technicians. Clusters with the higher performance and engagement tended to have more users practicing in community pharmacies while the lower performing clusters tended have more internationally trained users. In the regression modelling, pharmacists performed better than technicians and students while students were more engaged (p < 0.0001). Further, internationally trained pharmacists had slightly lower scores but similar engagement compared to domestically trained pharmacists (p < 0.0001). Users demonstrated higher performance on modules related to scope of practice than on clinical topics, and were most engaged with topics directly impacting daily practice such as influenza vaccinations and new and emerging subjects such as cannabis. The cluster analysis suggests that performance and engagement with a computer-based educational platform in pharmacy may be more related to place of practice than to personal demographic factors such as age or gender. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Learning Needs of Pharmacists for an Evolving Scope of Practice
Pharmacy 2019, 7(4), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7040140 - 25 Sep 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Around the world, changes in scope of practice regulations for pharmacists have been used as a tool to advance practice and promote change. Regulatory change does not automatically trigger practice change; the extent and speed of uptake of new roles and responsibilities has [...] Read more.
Around the world, changes in scope of practice regulations for pharmacists have been used as a tool to advance practice and promote change. Regulatory change does not automatically trigger practice change; the extent and speed of uptake of new roles and responsibilities has been slower than anticipated. A recent study identified 9 pre-requisites to practice change (the 9Ps of Practice Change). The objective of this study was to describe how educationalists could best apply these 9Ps to the design and delivery of continuing professional development for pharmacists. Twenty community pharmacists participated in semi-structured interviews designed to elicit their learning needs for scope of practice change. Seven supportive educational techniques were identified as being most helpful to promote practice change: (i) a coaching/mentoring approach; (ii) practice-based experiential learning; (iii) a longitudinal approach to instructional design; (iv) active demonstration of how to implement practice change; v) increased focus on soft-skills development; (vi) opportunities for practice/rehearsal of new skills; and (vii) use of a 360-degree feedback model. Further work is required to determine how these techniques can be best applied and implemented to support practice change in pharmacy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Open AccessArticle
Topic Analysis of UK Fitness to Practise Cases: What Lessons Can Be Learnt?
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 130; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030130 - 04 Sep 2019
Abstract
Background: Fitness to practise (FtP) impairment (failure of a healthcare professional to demonstrate skills, knowledge, character and/or health required for their job) can compromise patient safety, the profession’s reputation, and an individual’s career. In the United Kingdom (UK), various healthcare professionals’ FtP [...] Read more.
Background: Fitness to practise (FtP) impairment (failure of a healthcare professional to demonstrate skills, knowledge, character and/or health required for their job) can compromise patient safety, the profession’s reputation, and an individual’s career. In the United Kingdom (UK), various healthcare professionals’ FtP cases (documents about the panel hearing(s) and outcome(s) relating to the alleged FtP impairment) are publicly available, yet reviewing these to learn lessons may be time-consuming given the number of cases across the professions and amount of text in each. We aimed to demonstrate how machine learning facilitated the examination of such cases (at uni- and multi-professional level), involving UK dental, medical, nursing and pharmacy professionals. Methods: Cases dating from August 2017 to June 2019 were downloaded (577 dental, 481 medical, 2199 nursing and 63 pharmacy) and converted to text files. A topic analysis method (non-negative matrix factorization; machine learning) was employed for data analysis. Results: Identified topics were criminal offences; dishonesty (fraud and theft); drug possession/supply; English language; indemnity insurance; patient care (including incompetence) and personal behavior (aggression, sexual conduct and substance misuse). The most frequently identified topic for dental, medical and nursing professions was patient care whereas for pharmacy, it was criminal offences. Conclusions: While commonalities exist, each has different priorities which professional and educational organizations should strive to address. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Pharmacists’ Utilization of Information Sources Related to Community and Population Needs in the Upper Midwest and Associations with Continuing Professional Education
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 125; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030125 - 29 Aug 2019
Abstract
Background: To investigate information sources utilized in pharmacists’ assessment of population-based health needs and/or community changes; and the association between information sources utilized and reported completion of continuing professional education topics. Methods: In 2017; licensed pharmacists (n = 1124) in North Dakota; South [...] Read more.
Background: To investigate information sources utilized in pharmacists’ assessment of population-based health needs and/or community changes; and the association between information sources utilized and reported completion of continuing professional education topics. Methods: In 2017; licensed pharmacists (n = 1124) in North Dakota; South Dakota; Minnesota; Iowa; and Nebraska completed a questionnaire on continuing professional education and information sources on population-based health needs and community changes. Data were entered; cleaned and imported into Stata 11.1. Census Bureau county-level population density data were used to classify local area characteristics. Descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Most sources of primary; county-level data on population-based health needs or community changes were minimally utilized. Pharmacists in more rural areas were statistically more likely to use local health professionals; local non-health professionals; and/or the state health department compared to pharmacists in less rural areas. Pharmacists reporting higher use of population-based information sources were more likely to have completed continuing education in the past 12 months for all 21 surveyed topics; 13 significantly so. Conclusions: There is a reliance of pharmacists on information from local health and non-health professionals for information on population-based health needs and/or community changes. Utilization of health departments and other primary information sources was associated with increased rates of completion of an array of continuing professional education topics. Expanding utilization of evidence-driven information sources would improve pharmacists’ ability to better identify and respond to population-based health needs and/or community changes through programs and services offered; and tailor continuing professional education to population-based health needs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
A Narrative Review of Continuing Professional Development Needs for Pharmacists with Respect to Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020084 - 11 May 2020
Abstract
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in use worldwide, with many countries now publicly funding use for high risk populations. Pharmacists, as front-line care providers, must have the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to effectively provide care [...] Read more.
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is rapidly increasing in use worldwide, with many countries now publicly funding use for high risk populations. Pharmacists, as front-line care providers, must have the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes to effectively provide care to PrEP patients. The aim of this review was to identify priority areas and key gaps for continuing professional development (CPD) needs relating to PrEP for practicing pharmacists. An electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts and CPD-related journals was supplemented with a manual search of references to identify articles describing pharmacists’ knowledge, perceptions and experience with PrEP. A total of eight articles were identified across four countries. Pharmacists were consistently found to lack knowledge and awareness of PrEP, express low confidence/comfort with patient care practices, report a lack of experience and/or intentions to provide patient care, but overall had positive perceptions of PrEP therapy. Older pharmacists with more experience commonly reported greater knowledge gaps than recently trained pharmacists. CPD should therefore aim to increase pharmacists’ baseline knowledge and awareness of PrEP and treatment guidelines, as well as be directed towards older pharmacists with more experience. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCommentary
Rethinking Competence: A Nexus of Educational Models in the Context of Lifelong Learning
Pharmacy 2020, 8(2), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8020081 - 08 May 2020
Abstract
Competency-based education (CBE) “derives a curriculum from an analysis of a prospective or actual role in modern society and attempts to certify students’ progress on the basis of demonstrated performance in some or all aspects of that role”. This paper summarizes pertinent aspects [...] Read more.
Competency-based education (CBE) “derives a curriculum from an analysis of a prospective or actual role in modern society and attempts to certify students’ progress on the basis of demonstrated performance in some or all aspects of that role”. This paper summarizes pertinent aspects of existing CBE models in health professions education; pharmacy education presented as an example. It presents a synthesis of these models to propose a new diagrammatic representation. A conceptual model for competency-based health professions education with a focus on learning and assessment is discussed. It is argued that various elements of CBE converge to holistically portray competency-based learning and assessment as essential in initial education and relevant to practitioners’ continuing professional development, especially in the context and importance of pursing lifelong learning practices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessCase Report
Adaptive Expertise in Continuing Pharmacy Professional Development
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010021 - 18 Feb 2020
Abstract
Pharmacists are facing rapid changes and increasing complexity in the workplace. The astounding rate of both the evolution and the development of knowledge in pharmacy practice requires that we develop continuing professional development (CPD) to foster and support innovation, creativity, and flexibility, alongside [...] Read more.
Pharmacists are facing rapid changes and increasing complexity in the workplace. The astounding rate of both the evolution and the development of knowledge in pharmacy practice requires that we develop continuing professional development (CPD) to foster and support innovation, creativity, and flexibility, alongside procedural expertise. Adaptive expertise provides a conceptual framework for developing experts who can both perform professional tasks efficiently as well as creatively handle new and difficult-to-anticipate problems. This article approaches knowledge production in daily pharmacy practice and CPD through a cognitive psychology lens, and highlights three educational approaches to support the development of adaptive expertise in the workplace: (1) explaining not just what to do, but why you are doing it, (2) allowing and encouraging struggle, and (3) asking “what if” questions to encourage meaningful variation and reveal underlying core concepts. These three evidence-based strategies will cultivate long-term learning and will support pharmacists as we move into more complicated and ambiguous roles. Pharmacy CPD can be transformed to support the development of both procedural and conceptual knowledge in a local environment to support learning and innovation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Open AccessCase Report
An Authentic, Practice-Based Assessment as a Catalyst for Continuous Professional Development
Pharmacy 2020, 8(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8010015 - 04 Feb 2020
Abstract
Over the last ten years, pharmacy practice has changed significantly in Canada. It is more important than ever to ensure that the profession engages in continuing professional development in order to keep up with changing practice and changing public demand and scrutiny. The [...] Read more.
Over the last ten years, pharmacy practice has changed significantly in Canada. It is more important than ever to ensure that the profession engages in continuing professional development in order to keep up with changing practice and changing public demand and scrutiny. The question is, how do we ensure that the required continual professional development occurs and is applied to practice? One Canadian regulator, the Ontario College of Pharmacists, has attempted to address this question by assessing the success of a number of quality assurance options in terms of addressing the competence of pharmacists, and by extension their ability to learn and apply their learning in an ongoing manner. This case study presents three policy options; an analysis of those options; and finally, an evaluation of the best option for this regulator. The policy alternatives considered include a continuing education/professional development requirement, standardized simulated assessment (i.e., observed structured clinical examination) and authentic practice-based assessment. For the Ontario College of Pharmacists, an authentic practice-based assessment approach seems effective at stimulating quality improvements in pharmacists’ practice, likely because the assessment acts as a catalyst for pharmacists to engage in continuing professional development in order to maintain competence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Continuing Professional Development in Pharmacy)
Back to TopTop