Next Article in Journal
Training Community Pharmacy Staff How to Help Manage Urgent Mental Health Crises
Next Article in Special Issue
Macrolide Allergic Reactions
Previous Article in Journal
Improving Recruitment and Retention of Pharmacists in a Practice-Based Research Network
Previous Article in Special Issue
Aminoglycoside Allergic Reactions

Sulfonamide Allergies

Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, 307 N. Broad St., Clinton, SC 29325, USA
Janssen Scientific Affairs, LLC., 1125 Trenton Harbourton Rd., Titusville, NJ 08560, USA
Edward Via College of Osteopathic Medicine Carolinas Campus, 350 Howard St., Spartanburg, SC 29303, USA
Spartanburg Regional Healthcare System, 101 E. Wood St., Spartanburg, SC 29303, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pharmacy 2019, 7(3), 132;
Received: 3 July 2019 / Revised: 2 August 2019 / Accepted: 5 August 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antibiotic Allergies)
As one of the earliest developed antimicrobial classes, sulfonamides remain important therapeutic options for the empiric and definitive treatment of various infectious diseases. In the general population, approximately 3–8% of patients are reported to experience a sulfonamide allergy. Sulfonamide allergies can result in various physical manifestations; however, rash is reported as the most frequently observed. In patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), dermatologic reactions to sulfonamide antimicrobial agents occur 10 to 20 times more frequently compared to immunocompetent patients. This article describes the incidence, manifestations, and risk factors associated with sulfonamide allergies. The potential for cross-reactivity of allergies to sulfonamide antimicrobials with nonantimicrobial sulfonamide medications is also reviewed. Data suggest that substitutions at the N1 and N4 positions are the primary determinants of drug allergy instead of the common sulfonamide moiety. For patients with an indication for a sulfonamide antimicrobial with a listed allergy, it is important for healthcare practitioners to adequately assess the allergic reaction to determine appropriate management. Rechallenge and desensitization strategies may be appropriate for patients with delayed maculopapular eruptions, while alternative treatment options may be prudent for more severe reactions. Available data suggests a low risk of cross-allergenicity between sulfonamide antimicrobial and nonantimicrobial agents. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobials; allergy; hypersensitivity; cross-reaction; sulfonamide; sulfa antimicrobials; allergy; hypersensitivity; cross-reaction; sulfonamide; sulfa
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Giles, A.; Foushee, J.; Lantz, E.; Gumina, G. Sulfonamide Allergies. Pharmacy 2019, 7, 132.

AMA Style

Giles A, Foushee J, Lantz E, Gumina G. Sulfonamide Allergies. Pharmacy. 2019; 7(3):132.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giles, Amber, Jaime Foushee, Evan Lantz, and Giuseppe Gumina. 2019. "Sulfonamide Allergies" Pharmacy 7, no. 3: 132.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop