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Languages, Volume 7, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 60 articles

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Article
Learning the Lexical Semantics of Mandarin Monomorphemic State-Change Verbs by English-Speaking Learners of Mandarin Chinese
Languages 2022, 7(3), 215; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030215 - 11 Aug 2022
Abstract
Languages vary systematically in how semantic information is “packaged” in verbs and verb-related constructions. Mandarin Chinese contrasts typologically with English in its lexicalization of state change. Most Mandarin monomorphemic verbs are moot about or imply a state change, whereas many English monomorphemic verbs [...] Read more.
Languages vary systematically in how semantic information is “packaged” in verbs and verb-related constructions. Mandarin Chinese contrasts typologically with English in its lexicalization of state change. Most Mandarin monomorphemic verbs are moot about or imply a state change, whereas many English monomorphemic verbs (e.g., kill, break) entail the fulfillment of a state change. Recent studies suggest that Mandarin monomorphemic verbs form a continuum in the strength of state-change implicature. State-change verbs have been found difficult for first language (L1) learners. This study reports two experiments that investigate the lexical semantic knowledge of Mandarin monomorphemic implied or moot state-change verbs by intermediate (N = 19, mean age 21) and advanced (N = 12, mean age 21) English-speaking second language (L2) learners of Mandarin Chinese. The results reveal L2 learners’ general preference for the state-change interpretation for the monomorphemic verbs and their limited sensitivity to the nuanced strength of state-change implicature in the Mandarin verbs. Typological differences in the lexicalization of state change are argued to contribute to the difficulties in L2 learning of the lexical semantics in the semantic domain of state change in Mandarin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Research on Chinese Morphology)
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Review
Regulation and Control: What Bimodal Bilingualism Reveals about Learning and Juggling Two Languages
Languages 2022, 7(3), 214; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030214 - 11 Aug 2022
Viewed by 17
Abstract
In individuals who know more than one language, the languages are always active to some degree. This has consequences for language processing, but bilinguals rarely make mistakes in language selection. A prevailing explanation is that bilingualism is supported by strong cognitive control abilities, [...] Read more.
In individuals who know more than one language, the languages are always active to some degree. This has consequences for language processing, but bilinguals rarely make mistakes in language selection. A prevailing explanation is that bilingualism is supported by strong cognitive control abilities, developed through long-term practice with managing multiple languages and spilling over into more general executive functions. However, not all bilinguals are the same, and not all contexts for bilingualism provide the same support for control and regulation abilities. This paper reviews research on hearing sign–speech bimodal bilinguals who have a unique ability to use and comprehend their two languages at the same time. We discuss the role of this research in re-examining the role of cognitive control in bilingual language regulation, focusing on how results from bimodal bilingualism research relate to recent findings emphasizing the correlation of control abilities with a bilingual’s contexts of language use. Most bimodal bilingualism research has involved individuals in highly English-dominant language contexts. We offer a critical examination of how existing bimodal bilingualism findings have been interpreted, discuss the value of broadening the scope of this research and identify long-standing questions about bilingualism and L2 learning which might benefit from this perspective. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
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Article
Lexical Crosslinguistic Influence in L3 Spanish by Tagalog–English Bilinguals
Languages 2022, 7(3), 213; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030213 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 135
Abstract
Crosslinguistic influence (CLI) has emerged as a topic of interest in the field of third language acquisition (L3A) due to the increasing focus on multilingual learners. Research has considered many different issues, such as the roles of typology/psychotypology, the influence of the L2, [...] Read more.
Crosslinguistic influence (CLI) has emerged as a topic of interest in the field of third language acquisition (L3A) due to the increasing focus on multilingual learners. Research has considered many different issues, such as the roles of typology/psychotypology, the influence of the L2, and L2 proficiency. Thus, the present study focuses on two less-studied factors, language dominance and L3 proficiency, in the lexical CLI in the oral and written output by 52 Tagalog–English early bilinguals with Spanish as their L3. They were grouped according to their language dominance based on the findings from the Bilingual Language Profile, and according to their Spanish proficiency. The experimental tasks included a written and an oral picture description task, followed by an exit questionnaire, wherein they expressed their perception about the similarities and differences between the languages in question. Instances of lexical CLI were identified according to the classifications used in previous studies. The results suggest that language dominance is not a significant predictor of the source language of the participants’ lexical CLI production. However, the results do indicate that proficiency plays a significant role in the number and type of lexical CLI production. In other words, the number of lexical CLI produced decreased as L3 proficiency increased. Full article
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Article
The Role of Teacher-Generated, Learner-Generated, and Creative Content in Chinese EFL Students’ Narrative Writing: A Contextual Perspective
Languages 2022, 7(3), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030212 - 10 Aug 2022
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Task complexity has long been posited as an influential task feature inspiring much research. However, task complexity frameworks might be in need of adjustment, as they tend to emphasize the role of cognitive factors and neglect affective ones despite the fact that learner [...] Read more.
Task complexity has long been posited as an influential task feature inspiring much research. However, task complexity frameworks might be in need of adjustment, as they tend to emphasize the role of cognitive factors and neglect affective ones despite the fact that learner agency and potential for creativity have been linked to certain aspects of task performance, possibly exerting their influence through learners’ affects. Thus, to investigate the role of agency and creativity in task-based L2 writing, this study aimed to explore the relationship between task conditions conceptualized as the levels of learner agency and the potential for creativity in Chinese students’ English written performances on the one hand, and the possible role that the study contexts might play in the written performances in each task condition on the other. Participants of the study were two groups of Chinese intermediate learners of English studying in Hungary and China (n = 40), producing 120 narratives altogether. In our study, different aspects of task performance, i.e., syntactic and lexical complexity and accuracy, were associated with learner agency and potential for creativity. Moreover, differences were found in fluency between Chinese students studying in the different contexts, indicating the possible role of study contexts in this regard. Full article
Article
Reading Comprehension in French L2/L3 Learners: Does Syntactic Awareness Matter?
Languages 2022, 7(3), 211; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030211 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 152
Abstract
This study examines the contributions of syntactic awareness to reading comprehension, both within and across languages, in third-grade children learning French as a second (L2) or third language (L3). Participants were 72 non-francophone children enrolled in a Canadian French immersion program in which [...] Read more.
This study examines the contributions of syntactic awareness to reading comprehension, both within and across languages, in third-grade children learning French as a second (L2) or third language (L3). Participants were 72 non-francophone children enrolled in a Canadian French immersion program in which all academic instruction is in French. Children completed measures of reading comprehension, syntactic awareness, word reading, vocabulary, and reading-related control variables in both English and French. Regression analyses examining within-language relations revealed that French syntactic awareness made a significant unique contribution to French reading comprehension after controlling for nonverbal reasoning, language status (French as either L2 or L3), word reading, and vocabulary. Furthermore, French syntactic awareness contributed across languages to English reading comprehension, after accounting for English controls (word reading, vocabulary, syntactic awareness) in addition to nonverbal reasoning and language status. In sharp contrast, measures of English syntactic awareness made no unique contribution to reading comprehension in either English or French after the aforementioned controls. These findings add to theoretical models of reading comprehension by highlighting the importance of syntactic awareness in the language of instruction in supporting bilingual children’s reading comprehension. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multilingualism: Consequences for the Brain and Mind)
Article
Change across Time in L2 Intonation vs. Segments: A Longitudinal Study of the English of Ole Gunnar Solskjaer
Languages 2022, 7(3), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030210 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 172
Abstract
Research on L1 to L2 transfer has mainly focused on segments, while less work has examined transfer in intonation patterns. Particularly, little research has investigated transfer patterns when the L1 has a lexical pitch contrast, such as tone or lexical pitch accent, and [...] Read more.
Research on L1 to L2 transfer has mainly focused on segments, while less work has examined transfer in intonation patterns. Particularly, little research has investigated transfer patterns when the L1 has a lexical pitch contrast, such as tone or lexical pitch accent, and the L2 does not. The current investigation is a longitudinal study of the L2 English of an L1 Norwegian speaker, comparing two timeframes. One suprasegmental feature and one segmental feature are examined: rise–fall pitch accents and /z/, because Norwegian and English have different patterns for these features. The results showed that the speaker actually produced more pitch movements in the later timeframe, contrary to the hypothesis, and suggesting that he was hypercorrecting in the earlier timeframe. In the early timeframe, virtually no /z/ was produced with voicing, while in the later timeframe, about 50% of /z/ segments were voiced. This suggests that the speaker had created a new category for this sound over time. Implications for theories of L2 learning are discussed. Full article
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Article
Linear Lengthening in Iwaidja: An Event-Quantifying Intonation at the Phonology to Semantics/Pragmatics Interface
Languages 2022, 7(3), 209; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030209 - 08 Aug 2022
Viewed by 180
Abstract
This paper investigates the meaning of a specific intonation contour called linear lengthening intonation (LLI), which is found in the northern Australian language Iwaidja. Using an experimental field work approach, we analysed approximately 4000 utterances. We demonstrate that the semantics of LLI is [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the meaning of a specific intonation contour called linear lengthening intonation (LLI), which is found in the northern Australian language Iwaidja. Using an experimental field work approach, we analysed approximately 4000 utterances. We demonstrate that the semantics of LLI is broadly event-quantificational as well as temporally scalar. LLI imposes aspectual selectional restrictions on the verbs it combines with (they must be durative, i.e., cannot describe ‘punctual’, atomic events), and requires the event description effected by said verbs to exceed a contextually determined relative scalar meaning. Iwaidja differs from other northern Australian languages with similar intonation patterns in that it does not seem to have any argument NP-related incremental or event scalar meaning. This suggests that LLI is a decidedly grammatical, language-specific device and not a purely iconic kind of expression (even though it also possibly has an iconic dimension). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tense and Aspect Across Languages)
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Article
Teacher Language Awareness in Initial Teacher Education Policy: A Comparative Analysis of ITE Documents in Norway and New Zealand
Languages 2022, 7(3), 208; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030208 - 04 Aug 2022
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Dramatically increased population flows since at least the 1980s, primarily through economic migration and refugee resettlement, have brought considerable ethnic and linguistic diversity to classrooms around the world. This diversity has been amplified by the rising recognition of in-country indigenous and minority languages. [...] Read more.
Dramatically increased population flows since at least the 1980s, primarily through economic migration and refugee resettlement, have brought considerable ethnic and linguistic diversity to classrooms around the world. This diversity has been amplified by the rising recognition of in-country indigenous and minority languages. In such plurilingual learning environments, teachers require sophisticated language education skills. They need to be able to teach the dominant language/s across the curriculum, support plurilingual learners, and often teach foreign or additional languages. One conceptual lens through which to analyse the presence of these competencies in current teacher education policy is that of language awareness. While this term originally referred to the raising of student awareness of features and functions of language, it now incorporates knowledge about flexible languaging practices. Through a comparative analysis of the two key teacher education policy documents in Norway and New Zealand, we have investigated how the concept of teacher language awareness is incorporated in high-level policy documents pertaining to ITE in these two countries and how these converge and diverge in their treatment of language awareness. Our in-depth comparison of these important educational policies urges both jurisdictions, as well as others, to be aware of local particularities and broader patterns in meeting the needs of teachers to be plurilingually aware and equipped for 21st-century classrooms. Full article
Article
Challenging Authority with Argumentation: The Pragmatics of Arguments from and to Authority
Languages 2022, 7(3), 207; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030207 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 266
Abstract
Authority is both a pragmatic condition of much public discourse and a form of argumentative appeal routinely used in it. The goal of this contribution is to propose a new account of challenging authority in argumentative discourse that benefits from the interplay of [...] Read more.
Authority is both a pragmatic condition of much public discourse and a form of argumentative appeal routinely used in it. The goal of this contribution is to propose a new account of challenging authority in argumentative discourse that benefits from the interplay of the resources of recent speech act theory and argumentation theory. Going beyond standard approaches of the two disciplines, the paper analyzes nuanced forms of establishing and, especially, challenging discourse-related authority. Can Donald Trump advise his own scientific advisors on potential COVID-19 treatments? Addressing questions like this, the paper identifies various paradoxes of authority and the forms of authority discussed in the literature. It then distinguishes between argument from authority (or expert opinion) and argument to authority (or expert opinion) and argues that this rearranged structure mutually benefits the pragmatic account of speech act theory and the schematic account of argumentation theory in the task of better understanding and critiquing discourses such as Trump’s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pragmatics and Argumentation)
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Article
The Influence of Case and Word Order in Child and Adult Processing of Relative Clauses in Greek
Languages 2022, 7(3), 206; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030206 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Previous cross-linguistic studies have shown that object relative clauses (ORCs) are typically harder to parse than subject relative clauses (SRCs). The cause of difficulty, however, is still under debate, both in the adult and in the developmental literature. The present study investigates the [...] Read more.
Previous cross-linguistic studies have shown that object relative clauses (ORCs) are typically harder to parse than subject relative clauses (SRCs). The cause of difficulty, however, is still under debate, both in the adult and in the developmental literature. The present study investigates the on-line processing of SRCs and ORCs in Greek-speaking 11- to 12-year-old children and adults, and provides evidence on relative clause processing in Greek—a free word order language. We conducted a self-paced listening task in which we manipulated the type of relative clause (SRC vs. ORC), the RC internal word order (canonical vs. scrambled), and the type of relativizer (relative pronoun vs. complementizer). The results showed that SRCs were overall processed faster than ORCs, providing evidence that children follow similar processing strategies to adults. In addition, accusative case marking facilitated the processing of non-canonical structures in adults but less so in children. Children showed heavy reliance on word order, as they processed nominative and accusative pre-verbal NPs in exactly the same way, while they were strongly garden-pathed in ORCs with post-verbal nominative NPs. We argue that these results are compatible with the Competition Model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Glances at the Morphosyntax of Greek)
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Article
How to Argue with Questions and Answers: Argumentation Strategies in Parliamentary Deliberation
Languages 2022, 7(3), 205; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030205 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
While apparently designed to request information, parliamentary questions are the most challenging and face-threatening acts, used argumentatively by opposition members of parliament (MPs) to confront and attack government MPs, and especially the Prime Minister (PM) in the notoriously adversarial Prime Minister’s Questions (PMQs). [...] Read more.
While apparently designed to request information, parliamentary questions are the most challenging and face-threatening acts, used argumentatively by opposition members of parliament (MPs) to confront and attack government MPs, and especially the Prime Minister (PM) in the notoriously adversarial Prime Minister’s Questions (PMQs). By contextually, discursively and rhetorically articulating varying degrees of relevance and persuasiveness, questioning and answering practices serve as basic debating tools for MPs, whose main parliamentary role and responsibility consist of holding the government and the PM accountable. The aim of this paper is to explore how argumentation/counter-argumentation strategies and persuasive/dissuasive techniques are shaped through the co-performance of MPs’ questioning and the PM’s answering practices in PMQs. To better capture the effects of the shifting dynamics of polemical question-answer exchanges between political adversaries, the present analysis is based on the cross-fertilization of pragma-rhetoric and argumentation theory. The commonalities and complementarities of these approaches have been used to identify and problematize the higher or lower degrees of argumentation at the question-answer interface in terms of valid or fallacious reasoning patterns in three categories of strategic questions: yes/no questions, wh-questions and disjunctive questions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pragmatics and Argumentation)
Article
Non-Word Repetition and Vocabulary in Arabic-Swedish-Speaking 4–7-Year-Olds with and without Developmental Language Disorder
Languages 2022, 7(3), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030204 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 197
Abstract
The Arabic-speaking community in Sweden is large and diverse, yet linguistic reference data are lacking for Arabic-Swedish-speaking children. This study presents reference data from 99 TD children aged 4;0–7;11 on receptive and expressive vocabulary in the minority and the majority language, as well [...] Read more.
The Arabic-speaking community in Sweden is large and diverse, yet linguistic reference data are lacking for Arabic-Swedish-speaking children. This study presents reference data from 99 TD children aged 4;0–7;11 on receptive and expressive vocabulary in the minority and the majority language, as well as for three types of non-word repetition (NWR) tasks. Vocabulary scores were investigated in relation to age, language exposure, and socio-economic status (SES). NWR performance was explored in relation to age, type of task, item properties, language exposure, and vocabulary. Eleven children with DLD were compared to the TD group. Age and language exposure were important predictors of vocabulary scores in both languages, but SES did not affect vocabulary scores in any language. Age and vocabulary size had a positive effect on NWR accuracy, whilst increasing item length and presence of clusters had an adverse effect. There was substantial overlap between the TD and DLD children for both vocabulary and NWR performance. Diagnostic accuracy was at best suggestive for NWR; no task or type of item was better at separating the two groups. Reports from parents and teachers on developmental history, language exposure, and functional language skills emerged as important factors for correctly identifying DLD in bilinguals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bilingualism and Language Impairment)
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Article
An Analysis of Colloquial Singapore English lah and Its Interpretation across Speech Acts
Languages 2022, 7(3), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030203 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
Previous research has observed that the Colloquial Singapore English particle lah conveys many different, and sometimes contradictory, pragmatic effects. In this paper, I focus specifically on how lah, pronounced in a low falling tone, behaves differently with assertions and directives—although it emphasizes the [...] Read more.
Previous research has observed that the Colloquial Singapore English particle lah conveys many different, and sometimes contradictory, pragmatic effects. In this paper, I focus specifically on how lah, pronounced in a low falling tone, behaves differently with assertions and directives—although it emphasizes the truth of assertions, it weakens the authoritative force of directives. In addition, it can be used in a non-emphatic way with confirmation-seeking statements. I propose that the particle conveys the not-at-issue or side comment that the lah-marked proposition directly follows from the evidence it is based on, which is interpreted by the addressee as an attempt by the speaker to justify her utterance. The different pragmatic effects of the particle then result from how this not-at-issue comment is interpreted in relation to the speech act of the utterances they mark. Full article
Article
Variation in the Occurrence and Interpretation of Articles in Malagasy: A Comparison with Italian
Languages 2022, 7(3), 202; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030202 - 02 Aug 2022
Viewed by 237
Abstract
In languages that have a definite article but no indefinite article, the definite article typically maps to definites, and the bare noun maps to indefinites. We investigate this mapping in Malagasy, which imposes an additional restriction: bare nouns cannot be subjects. We ask [...] Read more.
In languages that have a definite article but no indefinite article, the definite article typically maps to definites, and the bare noun maps to indefinites. We investigate this mapping in Malagasy, which imposes an additional restriction: bare nouns cannot be subjects. We ask whether the subject can be interpreted as indefinite, given the obligatory nature of the article. We also look at DPs in other positions (direct object, clefted subjects) to determine whether the mapping between form and meaning is one-to-one. To answer these questions, we administered an on-line questionnaire that presented participants with the choice of the article or the bare noun in the different positions (subject, object, cleft) in contexts that favoured an indefinite/novel interpretation. As predicted, the article was obligatory in subject position, but disfavoured in the object and cleft position. These results confirm current descriptions in the literature. We compare these results with a similar case of definite article in indefinite nominals found in Italian and propose that the article does not carry definiteness features (at least in these cases) but overtly marks (abstract) Case assignment on subjects, while it can remain silent on objects. Full article
Article
Demonstrative Systems Are Not Affected by Contact: Evidence from Heritage Southern Italo-Romance
Languages 2022, 7(3), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030201 - 01 Aug 2022
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Deictic information is present in every language; yet, there are significant differences as to how exactly such information is encoded, yielding different indexical systems across languages. The availability of cross-linguistic variation in indexical systems provides a window into the role of contact in [...] Read more.
Deictic information is present in every language; yet, there are significant differences as to how exactly such information is encoded, yielding different indexical systems across languages. The availability of cross-linguistic variation in indexical systems provides a window into the role of contact in shaping grammars: this work contributes to the discussion by investigating whether contact plays any role in determining the grammar of indexicality in heritage varieties. This study has a two-fold aim. Empirically, it investigates ternary demonstrative systems in heritage southern Italo-Romance varieties: on the basis of comprehension and production data, these systems are shown to be in the process of undergoing change. Theoretically, it underscores the insights that the combined microcontact and diachronic perspective provides for the understanding of variation and change in heritage languages: while, at face value, the elicited heritage data seem to indicate that demonstratives are affected by contact, pairwise comparisons across heritage varieties and diachronic observations lead to rejecting a plain contact-induced explanation and to conclude, instead, that deictic elements are largely unaffected by contact and that their change in heritage varieties is, rather, endogenous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Syntactic Variation and Change of Heritage Languages)
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Article
The Acquisition of French Determiners by Bilingual Children: A Prosodic Account
Languages 2022, 7(3), 200; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030200 - 31 Jul 2022
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The present longitudinal study investigates the acquisition of determiners (articles) in two simultaneously bilingual French-Italian children aged 1;6,12 until 3;5,17, one of them being French-dominant and the other one being Italian-dominant. Although French and Italian determiners and determiner phrases share some syntactic aspects, [...] Read more.
The present longitudinal study investigates the acquisition of determiners (articles) in two simultaneously bilingual French-Italian children aged 1;6,12 until 3;5,17, one of them being French-dominant and the other one being Italian-dominant. Although French and Italian determiners and determiner phrases share some syntactic aspects, they largely differ with respect to noun length and lexical stress in the nominal domain. Prosody is expected to be a decisive factor in the early prosodification of determiners by French-Italian bilinguals. The analysis of more than 4500 noun phrases yields different acquisition paths and cross-linguistic transfer, which can neither be explained by linguistic structure nor by language balance alone. The results are analyzed within the generative framework. The proposed account integrates language-internal and external factors for determiner acquisition in French by bilingual children. Full article
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Article
Interactions between Clitic Subjects and Objects in Piedmont and North Liguria Dialects
Languages 2022, 7(3), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030199 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 195
Abstract
This contribution addresses a set of phenomena attested in the dialects spoken in Piedmont, including Franco-Provençal and Occitan varieties, and in West Liguria, concerning the interaction between subject and object clitics. Complementarily to these phenomena, we find the interplay between the realization of [...] Read more.
This contribution addresses a set of phenomena attested in the dialects spoken in Piedmont, including Franco-Provençal and Occitan varieties, and in West Liguria, concerning the interaction between subject and object clitics. Complementarily to these phenomena, we find the interplay between the realization of the 3rd person clitic and the auxiliary. More specifically, we will investigate the object-for-subject mechanism in the Piedmontese and Franco-Provençal dialects, the one of subject-with-object in some Franco-Provençal dialects and their possible interaction with the auxiliary. In some Piedmontese dialects, the alternation between be and have affects the distribution of subject and object clitics; in particular, the 3rd person clitic can occur in all persons, where it can be ambiguous between the subject or the object reading. The relation between the verb and the realization of its argumental clitics, and the interaction between auxiliaries and clitics are the main topics of this work. Our approach relies on the idea that clitics are the realization of φ-features associated with v and T and that auxiliaries are not functional elements but verbs with lexical properties. The theoretical frame we follow is the formulation recently proposed by Chomsky, based on the operation Merge and the Labeling Algorithm, leading to a more appropriate conceptualization of morpho-syntactic structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Perspectives on Italian Dialects)
Article
Bilingual Prefabs: No Switching Cost Was Found in Cantonese–English Habitual Code-Switching in Hong Kong
Languages 2022, 7(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030198 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 197
Abstract
Previous studies on the comprehension of code-switched sentences often neglected the code-switching habit of the specific community, so that the processing difficulty might not have resulted from the change in language but from unnatural switching. This study explores the processing cost of habitual [...] Read more.
Previous studies on the comprehension of code-switched sentences often neglected the code-switching habit of the specific community, so that the processing difficulty might not have resulted from the change in language but from unnatural switching. This study explores the processing cost of habitual and nonhabitual code-switching. Thirty-one young adults participated in the sentence-reading task with their eye movement tracked. A two-by-two factorial design was used, with Habit (habitual/nonhabitual) and Language (unilingual/code-switched) as the factors. The main effect of Language was observed only in First Fixation Duration, suggesting that the language membership was already identified in an early processing stage. However, for habitual switches, no switching cost in overall processing effort was found, as reflected by Total Fixation Duration and Visit Counts. Our results indicate that the cognitive load was only larger when the switch occurred nonhabitually, regardless of the language membership. In light of this finding, we propose that habitual code-switching might promote the formation of bilingual collocations, or prefabs, which are then integrated into the mental lexicon of the dominant language. Despite a conscious language tag of a foreign origin, these bilingual prefabs are not processed as a language switch in the lexicon. Full article
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Article
Comparing Island Effects for Different Dependency Types in Norwegian
Languages 2022, 7(3), 197; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030197 - 29 Jul 2022
Viewed by 323
Abstract
Recent research suggests that island effects may vary as a function of dependency type, potentially challenging accounts that treat island effects as reflecting uniform constraints on all filler-gap dependency formation. Some authors argue that cross-dependency variation is more readily accounted for by discourse-functional [...] Read more.
Recent research suggests that island effects may vary as a function of dependency type, potentially challenging accounts that treat island effects as reflecting uniform constraints on all filler-gap dependency formation. Some authors argue that cross-dependency variation is more readily accounted for by discourse-functional constraints that take into account the discourse status of both the filler and the constituent containing the gap. We ran a judgment study that tested the acceptability of wh-extraction and relativization from nominal subjects, embedded questions (EQs), conditional adjuncts, and existential relative clauses (RCs) in Norwegian. The study had two goals: (i) to systematically investigate cross-dependency variation from various constituent types and (ii) to evaluate the results against the predictions of the Focus Background Conflict constraint (FBCC). Overall we find some evidence for cross-dependency differences across extraction environments. Most notably wh-extraction from EQs and conditional adjuncts yields small but statistically significant island effects, but relativization does not. The differential island effects are potentially consistent with the predictions of the FBCC, but we discuss challenges the FBCC faces in explaining finer-grained judgment patterns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Research on Island Phenomena)
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Article
The Impact of Teacher Education on English Teachers’ Views about Using Mother Tongues: A Teachers’ Perspective
Languages 2022, 7(3), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030196 - 28 Jul 2022
Viewed by 202
Abstract
After decades of persistent dominance of monolingual approaches in language teaching, we are now witnessing a shift to pluralist pedagogical practices that recognize learners’ mother tongues (MTs) as a valuable resource. This paper examines data from 44 questionnaire respondents and 4 interviewees to [...] Read more.
After decades of persistent dominance of monolingual approaches in language teaching, we are now witnessing a shift to pluralist pedagogical practices that recognize learners’ mother tongues (MTs) as a valuable resource. This paper examines data from 44 questionnaire respondents and 4 interviewees to investigate teacher perspectives on using learners’ MTs in the classroom and the extent to which teacher education shaped their beliefs. The results suggest that while most of the participants stressed the importance of maximizing target language (TL) use, some of them also recognized the value of employing MTs for specific purposes, such as anchoring new learning, providing grammar explanations and task instructions, decreasing student and teacher anxiety, sustaining motivation, and supporting learner identity. Most participants agreed that their teacher education program exerted some influence on their beliefs and practices, but their personal experiences as learners and teachers were also named as influential sources. The most notable change in views related to an increased use of the TL, which contradicts recent findings relative to the value of using learners’ existing resources. The paper concludes by stressing the need to examine the curricula and objectives of teacher education programs in the light of the current research on multilingualism in education. Full article
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Article
Pen-and-Paper versus Computer-Mediated Writing Modality as a New Dimension of Task Complexity
Languages 2022, 7(3), 195; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030195 - 27 Jul 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
In this paper we make a proposal that writing modality (pen-and-paper versus computer-based writing can be conceptualized as a cognitive task complexity factor. To lay ground for this theoretical proposal, we first review previous adaptations of cognitive task-based models to second language (L2) [...] Read more.
In this paper we make a proposal that writing modality (pen-and-paper versus computer-based writing can be conceptualized as a cognitive task complexity factor. To lay ground for this theoretical proposal, we first review previous adaptations of cognitive task-based models to second language (L2) writing. We then compare pen-and-paper and computer-based writing modalities in terms of their general characteristics, outline the main tenets of multidisciplinary theoretical models which attribute learning and performance-related importance to writing modality, and review the available empirical evidence. From this we draw theoretical and empirical justification for our conceptualization of writing modality as a task complexity dimension. After outlining our conceptual view, we proceed with the review of the methods which could be used to independently assess cognitive load in paper and computer-written L2 tasks. In the conclusion, implications and suggestions for future research are provided. Full article
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Article
Teacher and SHL Student Beliefs about Oral Corrective Feedback: Unmasking Its Underlying Values and Beliefs
Languages 2022, 7(3), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030194 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 274
Abstract
This study provides a critical discussion on oral corrective feedback (CF) in the Spanish heritage language context by analyzing the language ideologies of both teachers and students relating to this everyday pedagogical practice. Despite the undeniable relevance of oral CF within the SHL [...] Read more.
This study provides a critical discussion on oral corrective feedback (CF) in the Spanish heritage language context by analyzing the language ideologies of both teachers and students relating to this everyday pedagogical practice. Despite the undeniable relevance of oral CF within the SHL language classroom, it is an area mainly studied within the field of SLA and, thus, primarily grounded in cognitive perspectives of the individual L2 learner and their subsequent language development. Drawing on scholarship that has long contested the discrimination that U.S. Latinxs face at the macro, meso, and micro-levels of society, this study interrogates and presents the core beliefs and values that legitimize the underlying asymmetrical power relationships propagated by oral CF. As critical paradigms continue to gain currency in the field of SHL education (e.g., critical language awareness), unmasking the various ways by which monolingual ideologies operate within language education is key to developing pedagogy that promotes Spanish language maintenance and, ultimately, dismantling such structures of domination. This study focuses on exploring the ideologies about oral CF by asking: (1) What language ideologies are prevalent in relation to participants’ conceptualization of oral CF? and (2) What are the instructor’s goals for oral CF? To answer these questions, this study analyzes interview data of a language instructor (n = 1) and SHL learners (n = 4) in an elementary-level, mixed Spanish course at a Hispanic-serving community college. The results show how the instructor utilized oral CF as a mechanism to enact dominant ideologies regarding SHL learners’ non-prestige varieties, while simultaneously advocating for an approach to learners’ varieties based on appropriateness. The instructor grounded her corrective practices in beliefs and values regarding the “deficiency” of SHL learners’ cultures and social categories that she considered to be the root causes of the “problem” that SHL learners spoke non-prestige varieties of Spanish. This study sheds light on the need to reexamine current L2-based oral CF taxonomies and teaching principles that do not account for the wide-ranging ways that corrective feedback becomes entrenched in educators’ culturally shared ideologies of language, learning and the learners themselves, and as normalized by the programmatic context wherein such practices are embedded. Finally, the study concludes by proposing several guiding considerations based on CLA to develop reflective practices for pedagogues to promote a consciousness of the ideologically charged nature of CF within the SHL learning context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developing Heritage Language Learners’ Critical Language Awareness)
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Article
Perception and Production of Sentence Types by Inuktitut-English Bilinguals
Languages 2022, 7(3), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030193 - 25 Jul 2022
Viewed by 300
Abstract
We explore the perception and production of English statements, absolute yes-no questions, and declarative questions by Inuktitut-English sequential bilinguals. Inuktitut does not mark stress, and intonation is used as a cue for phrasing, while statements and questions are morphologically marked by a suffix [...] Read more.
We explore the perception and production of English statements, absolute yes-no questions, and declarative questions by Inuktitut-English sequential bilinguals. Inuktitut does not mark stress, and intonation is used as a cue for phrasing, while statements and questions are morphologically marked by a suffix added to the verbal root. Conversely, English absolute questions are both prosodically and syntactically marked, whereas the difference between statements and declarative questions is prosodic. To determine the degree of crosslinguistic influence (CLI) and whether CLI is more prevalent in tasks that require access to contextual information, bilinguals and controls performed three perception and two production tasks, with varying degrees of context. Results showed that bilinguals did not differ from controls in their perception of low-pass filtered utterances but diverged in contextualized tasks. In production, bilinguals, as opposed to controls, displayed a reduced use of pitch in the first pitch accent. In a discourse-completion task, they also diverged from controls in the number of non-target-like realizations, particularly in declarative question contexts. These findings demonstrate patterns of prosodic and morphosyntactic CLI and highlight the importance of incorporating contextual information in prosodic studies. Moreover, we show that the absence of tonal variations can be transferred in a stable language contact situation. Finally, the results indicate that comprehension may be hindered for this group of bilinguals when sentence type is not redundantly marked. Full article
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Article
Collaborative Ryukyuan Language Documentation and Reclamation
Languages 2022, 7(3), 192; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030192 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 340
Abstract
Traditional “endangered” approaches in linguistics tend to impose Western epistemologies of languages on marginalized Indigenous language communities such as the Ryukyus. Instead, by using a collaborative approach, we ask for a change of approach from research on the Ryukyus to research with/for the [...] Read more.
Traditional “endangered” approaches in linguistics tend to impose Western epistemologies of languages on marginalized Indigenous language communities such as the Ryukyus. Instead, by using a collaborative approach, we ask for a change of approach from research on the Ryukyus to research with/for the Ryukyus. This article is a reflective study of collaboration in particular cases. We aim to address the issues of relationality between communities and researchers—how can communities initiate work with like-minded linguists to suit their own needs? Thus, we respond to this question to open a conversation on why insider/outsider collaboration is essential. Using our experiences of carrying out our research in different parts of the Ryukyus reflectively, we aim to provide a practical guide for collaboration that is necessary for both the good of communities and the field of linguistics. Through continuous cooperation and collaboration, we can engage in active decolonization of the field of linguistics and language documentation. We suggest that decolonization cannot be achieved without collaborative and ethical research practices based on Indigenous epistemologies. We conclude the paper with ideas of research approaches based on Ryukyuan Indigenous epistemologies, which require a transformation from individual approaches to community-based-relational approaches. Full article
Article
The Genesis of Spanish /θ/: A Revised Model
Languages 2022, 7(3), 191; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030191 - 22 Jul 2022
Viewed by 269
Abstract
This article proposes a revised model of the genesis of Castilian Spanish /θ/, based on (i) precise tracking across the Late Middle Ages of the orthographical dz change in preconsonantal coda position and (ii) the potential for auditory indeterminacy between denti-alveolar [...] Read more.
This article proposes a revised model of the genesis of Castilian Spanish /θ/, based on (i) precise tracking across the Late Middle Ages of the orthographical dz change in preconsonantal coda position and (ii) the potential for auditory indeterminacy between denti-alveolar variants of [s] and the non-sibilant [θ]. According to the findings, two non-sibilant phonemes, /θ/ and /ð/, are likely to have come into existence by the early 1500s, merger at the expense of /ð/ occurring shortly thereafter. This effectively inverts the normally assumed chronology, according to which devoicing preceded and indeed was implicated in the genesis of /θ/. The revised chronology weakens the teleological analysis of /θ/, which treats its genesis in terms of a functionally motivated widening of the articulatory distance between similar-sounding sibilants. Instead, the emergence of Castilian /θ/ is argued to be a natural reflex of the auditory permeability between the denti-alveolar type of [s] and the non-sibilant [θ], with analogous evolutions occurring outside the domain of Castilian Spanish. As part of this overall approach, the article assumes dissibilation (understood as the converse of assibilation) to be the fundamental process in the genesis of /θ/, rather than interdentalization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Language Variation and Change in Spanish)
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Article
Examining the Influence of Spanish Heritage Language Learners’ Critical Language Awareness (CLA) Development on Ethnic Identity Formation
Languages 2022, 7(3), 190; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030190 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 286
Abstract
As critical language pedagogies are being implemented in heritage language (HL) settings, there is an increasing need to examine the impact of critical approaches in Spanish HL speakers. The present study examines how the development of HL learners’ critical language awareness (CLA) influences [...] Read more.
As critical language pedagogies are being implemented in heritage language (HL) settings, there is an increasing need to examine the impact of critical approaches in Spanish HL speakers. The present study examines how the development of HL learners’ critical language awareness (CLA) influences ethnic identity formation in a university-level course that adopts a critical approach to HL instruction. As part of the curricular content, a CLA instructional intervention, consisting of a 4-week unit (10 h), was implemented. First, to measure ethnic identity, at the beginning (pre) and at the end of the semester (post), students completed the Ethnic Identity Scale (EIS) and provided comments with their answers. Additionally, in order to examine CLA development before and after the intervention, participants completed an existing questionnaire, which addresses topics such as language variation, language ideologies, and bilingualism. Overall, the results show that students’ CLA levels increased from “somewhat high” to “high”. Furthermore, participants reported different ethnic–racial identity statuses, which moved toward ethnic identity achievement. Higher CLA levels were associated with an achieved positive status. These findings can contribute to a better understanding of the link between students’ CLA and ethnic identity in HL educational settings, where a critical language pedagogy is applied. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developing Heritage Language Learners’ Critical Language Awareness)
Article
The Effectiveness of Teaching English-Language Lessons Using Study Strategies by Producing Video Content on Students’ Academic Enthusiasm and Vitality
Languages 2022, 7(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030189 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 268
Abstract
This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of English-language teaching using study strategies by producing video content on students’ academic enthusiasm and academic vitality. The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The statistical [...] Read more.
This study aimed to identify the effectiveness of English-language teaching using study strategies by producing video content on students’ academic enthusiasm and academic vitality. The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test and post-test design with a control group. The statistical population of all the 12th high school male students in Hamedan in the academic year 2020–2021 was 7302 students, of whom 30 were randomly selected in multi-stage cluster sampling and randomly divided into two groups of 15 people. To conduct the research, under the same conditions, both pre-test groups were conducted using Academic Enthusiasm Questionnaire, which were used to determine their validity from content validity, and to achieve reliability, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used, which was 0.71 and 0.82, respectively. Then, a training package of study strategies was prepared for eight sessions, in which the content validity ratio (CVR) and content validity index (CVI) were determined by experts and was concluded to be between 0.9 and 1; while, during this period, the control group did not receive any intervention. At the end of the training sessions on the experimental group, both groups underwent a post-test under the same conditions and, finally, the data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. After the training sessions on the experimental group, both groups underwent a post-test in the same conditions. The results of the analysis of covariance showed that teaching study strategies increase academic motivation in all components of behavioral enthusiasm, emotional enthusiasm and cognitive enthusiasm as well as students’ vitality in English-language courses. In general, the results of this study showed that the use of these teaching study strategies is effective to increase students’ academic enthusiasm and vitality in English-language lessons. Full article
Article
Perfective Marking in the Breton Tense-Aspect System
Languages 2022, 7(3), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030188 - 21 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 230
Abstract
The tense-aspect system of Breton, a continental Celtic language, is largely under-described. This paper has two main goals. First, it gives an overview of the numerous verbal morphosyntactic constructions of Breton, with the aim of evaluating how they carve up the tense-aspect domain. [...] Read more.
The tense-aspect system of Breton, a continental Celtic language, is largely under-described. This paper has two main goals. First, it gives an overview of the numerous verbal morphosyntactic constructions of Breton, with the aim of evaluating how they carve up the tense-aspect domain. The second goal is to zero in on one particular set of constructions, namely, perfect-like constructions. In particular, it investigates the use of the present perfect in narrative and oral discourse, compared to two other competing constructions, the simple past and the past perfect. In the spirit of de Swart and Le Bruyn’s Time in Translation project, we adopt a parallel corpus-based approach from Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone and its Breton translation. We develop an account of the distinction between these temporal forms, in particular the present and past perfects, drawing on the interaction between rhetorical relations and temporal structure. Results show that in written narrative stretches, the simple past is the norm; however, in dialogues, the present perfect is required in cases of ‘weak’ narration, and if the past situation is somehow felt to be currently relevant, even if the situation refers to an explicit past time. However, the past perfect occurs in narrative stretches within the dialogue, in cases of ‘strong’ narration, especially if the situation described is anaphorically tied to a temporal antecedent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tense and Aspect Across Languages)
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Article
Language Ideologies in the Spanish Heritage Language Classroom: (Mis)alignment between Instructor and Students’ Beliefs
Languages 2022, 7(3), 187; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030187 - 21 Jul 2022
Viewed by 250
Abstract
Research on Spanish as a heritage language (SHL) has found that language ideologies have impacted SHL learners in the U.S. There are several ways in which language ideologies have influenced the overall experiences of SHL learners by encompassing power systems that are at [...] Read more.
Research on Spanish as a heritage language (SHL) has found that language ideologies have impacted SHL learners in the U.S. There are several ways in which language ideologies have influenced the overall experiences of SHL learners by encompassing power systems that are at play within personal, societal, academic, and professional contexts. Pedagogical proposals rooted in Critical Language Awareness (CLA) have been crucial in dismantling harmful language ideologies in the classroom, though there is still a lack of research focused on both students and their instructors. To investigate this, we conducted semi-structured interviews with four advanced university-level SHL students and their instructor in a CLA-oriented SHL program. We also examined the writing assignments of each student to triangulate our data and gain a better understanding of how the students’ language ideologies were being maintained and how their instructor engaged, or not, with students’ beliefs about language. Through directed content analysis, our findings indicate that students with more experience in the program deviate from relaying harmful language ideologies. Their instructor, while aware of students’ negative beliefs about language, conveyed mixed messages about these ideologies as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developing Heritage Language Learners’ Critical Language Awareness)
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Article
Teaching English to Linguistically Diverse Students from Migration Backgrounds: From Deficit Perspectives to Pockets of Possibility
Languages 2022, 7(3), 186; https://doi.org/10.3390/languages7030186 - 20 Jul 2022
Viewed by 462
Abstract
This article reports on an interview study with six secondary school LX English teachers working in a part of Austria where there is an above-average number of residents–and thus also students–who are multilingual and come from migration backgrounds. It attempts to extend research [...] Read more.
This article reports on an interview study with six secondary school LX English teachers working in a part of Austria where there is an above-average number of residents–and thus also students–who are multilingual and come from migration backgrounds. It attempts to extend research on deficit perspectives of multilingual learners from migration backgrounds to the area of LX English learning and to provide insights into a language learning context that is underrepresented in international applied linguistics research, which has tended to focus on elite language learning. The article explores teachers’ perceptions of teaching English in this context. We hypothesized that teachers would hold negative beliefs about their students’ multilingual backgrounds and practices. The typological analysis of teachers’ interview data revealed that teachers did hold some dominant deficit perspectives about their students’ multilingualism and language learning; however, it also suggests that teachers are taking on the rudiments of a translanguaging stance that values multilingual practice. The article thus closes by considering how possibility perspectives can be harnessed and extended to foster students’ multilingual and multicultural development, with particular regard to LX English language learning. Full article
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