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Electronics, Volume 9, Issue 7 (July 2020) – 55 articles

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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Cross-Layer V2V Architecture for Direction-Aware Cooperative Collision Avoidance
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1112; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071112 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 152
Abstract
The death toll due to highway crashes is increasing at an alarming rate across the globe. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have emerged as a promising solution to prevent crashes by enabling collision avoidance applications. However, a robust and stable collision avoidance application [...] Read more.
The death toll due to highway crashes is increasing at an alarming rate across the globe. Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) have emerged as a promising solution to prevent crashes by enabling collision avoidance applications. However, a robust and stable collision avoidance application is a cross-layer problem that must address a number of key challenges across all layers of a VANET communication architecture. This paper presents and evaluates a novel VANET protocol suite, named Direction-Aware Vehicular Collision Avoidance (DVCA), which covers application, security services, network, and link layers. DVCA is a vehicle-to-vehicle communication architecture that provides enhanced collision probability computation and adaptive preventive measures for cooperative collision avoidance on bi-directional highways. Moreover, DVCA enables secure, in-time, and reliable dissemination of warning messages, which provides adequate time for vehicles to prevent collisions. Simulation and analytical results demonstrate reasonable reduction in collisions by DVCA, as compared with eminent VANET communication architectures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
Open AccessArticle
Grant-Free Resource Allocation for NOMA V2X Uplink Systems Using a Genetic Algorithm Approach
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1111; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071111 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 129
Abstract
While NOMA-V2V (non-orthogonal multiple accesscan-vehicle-to-vehicle) effectively achieve massive connectivity requirements in 5G network systems, minimizing communication latency is a very crucial challenge. To address the latency problem, we propose a channel allocation method called hyper-fraction, which divides the road into many zones and [...] Read more.
While NOMA-V2V (non-orthogonal multiple accesscan-vehicle-to-vehicle) effectively achieve massive connectivity requirements in 5G network systems, minimizing communication latency is a very crucial challenge. To address the latency problem, we propose a channel allocation method called hyper-fraction, which divides the road into many zones and allocates a channel to each zone. Then, a vehicle located within the corresponding zone uses the channel allocated to the zone. Hyper-fraction will allow the system to minimize communication latency between a user equipment (UE) and a base station (BS) caused by scheduling processes and consequentially reduce the overall latency of the system. In the simulation, a novel concept of genetic algorithm (GA) is utilized, called GA with continuous pool. It is an approach to enable conventional GA to solve optimization problems for continuous situations within much less computation, especially in situations where the elements in the system keep moving such as vehicular networks. As a result, GA with continuous pool is proven to be an effective heuristic method to improve throughput rate, as well as hyper-fraction improving the latency of NOMA V2V and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Future Networks: New Advances and Challenges)
Open AccessArticle
Area-Efficient Differential Fault Tolerance Encoding for Finite State Machines
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071110 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 64
Abstract
A differential fault tolerance encoding is presented for finite state machines (FSMs) to improve their area efficiency. As the manufacturing technology for semiconductors continues to scale down, the probability of the occurrence of unexpected faults in integrated circuits has been increasing. Because an [...] Read more.
A differential fault tolerance encoding is presented for finite state machines (FSMs) to improve their area efficiency. As the manufacturing technology for semiconductors continues to scale down, the probability of the occurrence of unexpected faults in integrated circuits has been increasing. Because an FSM controls an entire digital circuit, the faults in FSMs should be carefully addressed. Whereas the previous encoding applies a fault tolerance scheme to all the states in an FSM, the proposed encoding applies a fault tolerance scheme to only specific states depending on their importance. Compared with the previous complete fault tolerance encoding, the proposed encoding provides a comparable failure probability with a small hardware by applying the fault tolerance scheme differently to each state. The proposed method improves the area efficiency by 36.1%, 43.8%, 49.2%, and 74.6% compared with that by the non-fault tolerance, previous hardware redundancy, information redundancy, and time redundancy methods, respectively. Consequently, the proposed method can provide a flexible solution by applying the fault tolerance differently depending on the importance of the states. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Circuit and Signal Processing)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Constructing of Digital Watermark Based on Generalized Fourier Transform
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1108; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071108 - 08 Jul 2020
Viewed by 87
Abstract
We develop in this paper a method for constructing a digital watermark to protect one-dimensional and two-dimensional signals. The creation of a digital watermark is based on the one-dimensional and two-dimensional generalized Fourier and Hartley transformations and the Ateb-functions as a generalization of [...] Read more.
We develop in this paper a method for constructing a digital watermark to protect one-dimensional and two-dimensional signals. The creation of a digital watermark is based on the one-dimensional and two-dimensional generalized Fourier and Hartley transformations and the Ateb-functions as a generalization of trigonometric functions. The embedding of the digital watermark is realized in the frequency domain. The simulation of attacks on protected files is carried out to confirm the stability of the proposed method. Experiments proved the high stability of the developed method conformably to the main types of attacks. An additional built-in digital watermark can be used to identify protected files. The proposed method can be used to support the security of a variety of signals—audio, images, electronic files etc.—to protect them from unauthorized access and as well for identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Electronization of Businesses - Systems Engineering and Analytics)
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Open AccessArticle
A 2.45 GHz High Efficiency CMOS RF Energy Harvester with Adaptive Path Control
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1107; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071107 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 176
Abstract
In this research work, a reconfigurable 2.45-GHz RF-DC converter realized in a 180-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is proposed to efficiently harvest electromagnetic energy. The proposed circuit is composed of a low-power path rectifier, a high-power path rectifier, and an adaptive path [...] Read more.
In this research work, a reconfigurable 2.45-GHz RF-DC converter realized in a 180-nm complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology is proposed to efficiently harvest electromagnetic energy. The proposed circuit is composed of a low-power path rectifier, a high-power path rectifier, and an adaptive path control (APC) circuit. The APC circuit is made-up of a comparator, two switches, and an inverter. The APC circuit senses the output voltages of the low-power path and the high-power path rectifiers and generates a control signal to automatically switch the proposed circuit between the lower-power path and the high-power path operation depending upon RF input power level. The proposed circuit obtains more than 20% measured power conversion efficiency (PCE) from −6 dBm to 11 dBm input power range with maximum efficiencies of 41% and 45% at 1 and 6 dBm input powers, respectively, for 5 kΩ load resistance. In addition, the proposed circuit shows excellent performance at 900 MHz and 5.8 GHz frequencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analog/Digital Mixed Circuit and RF Transceiver Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Oxide-Electrolyte Thickness Dependence Diode-Like Threshold Switching and High on/off Ratio Characteristics by Using Al2O3 Based CBRAM
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071106 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 163
Abstract
Diode-like threshold switching and high on/off ratio characteristics by using an Al/Ag/Al2O3/TiN conductive bridge resistive random access memories (CBRAM) have been obtained. The 5 nm-thick Al2O3 device shows superior memory parameters such as low forming voltage [...] Read more.
Diode-like threshold switching and high on/off ratio characteristics by using an Al/Ag/Al2O3/TiN conductive bridge resistive random access memories (CBRAM) have been obtained. The 5 nm-thick Al2O3 device shows superior memory parameters such as low forming voltage and higher switching uniformity as compared to the 20 nm-thick switching layer, owing to higher electric field across the material. Capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics are observed for the Ag/Al2O3/TiN devices, suggesting the unipolar/bipolar resistive switching phenomena. Negative capacitance (NC) at low frequency proves inductive behavior of the CBRAM devices due to Ag ion migration into the Al2O3 oxide-electrolyte. Thicker Al2O3 film shows diode-like threshold switching behavior with long consecutive 10,000 cycles. It has been found that a thinner Al2O3 device has a larger on/off ratio of >108 as compared to a thicker one. Program/erase (P/E) cycles, read endurance, and data retention of the thinner Al2O3 oxide-electrolyte shows superior phenomena than the thicker electrolyte. The switching mechanism is also explored. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and Applications of Non-volatile Memory)
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Open AccessArticle
Intercellular Bioimaging and Biodistribution of Gold Nanoparticle-Loaded Macrophages for Targeted Drug Delivery
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1105; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071105 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 169
Abstract
In order to effectively apply nanoparticles to clinical use, macrophages have been used as vehicles to deliver genes, drugs or nanomaterials into tumors. In this study, the effectiveness of macrophage as a drug delivery system was validated by biodistribution imaging modalities at intercellular [...] Read more.
In order to effectively apply nanoparticles to clinical use, macrophages have been used as vehicles to deliver genes, drugs or nanomaterials into tumors. In this study, the effectiveness of macrophage as a drug delivery system was validated by biodistribution imaging modalities at intercellular and ex vivo levels. We focused on biodistribution imaging, namely, the characterization of the gold nanoparticle-loaded macrophages using intracellular holotomography and target delivery efficiency analysis using ex vivo fluorescence imaging techniques. In more detail, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared with trisodium citrate method and loaded into macrophage cells (RAW 264.7). First, AuNPs loading into macrophages was confirmed using the conventional ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Then, the holotomographic imaging was employed to characterize the intracellular biodistribution of the AuNPs-loaded macrophages. The efficacy of target delivery of the well AuNPs uptake macrophages was studied in a mouse model, established via lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The fluorescent images and the ex vivo ICP-MS evaluated the delivery efficiency of the AuNPs-loaded macrophages. Results revealed that the holotomographic imaging techniques can be promising modalities to understand intracellular biodistribution and ex vivo fluorescence imaging can be useful to validate the target delivery efficacy of the AuNPs-loaded macrophages. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Optical Sensing for Biomedical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
A Modified Model Reference Adaptive Controller (M-MRAC) Using an Updated MIT-Rule for the Altitude of a UAV
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1104; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071104 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 162
Abstract
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are playing an increasingly important role in a wide variety of areas and the range of applications increases daily, which can also be seen in the research of the topic. At the University of Wuerzburg drones are to be [...] Read more.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are playing an increasingly important role in a wide variety of areas and the range of applications increases daily, which can also be seen in the research of the topic. At the University of Wuerzburg drones are to be used in a project, where the aim is to catch possibly dangerous UAVs in mid air using a net, carried by two drones. This very special scenario poses new problems to the control of the drones, so that traditionally used Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID) controllers are no longer sufficient. Therefore a model-based adaption mechanism was chosen to be used to control the altitude of the drones. Though adaption based controllers have been used in the field of drone research before, the existing algorithms had to be modified to work with the special conditions of the altitude control of UAVs. The design and implementation of the modified Model Reference Adaptive Controllers (MRACs) with an updated Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)-rule will be presented in this work. The behavior of the drones with and without the adaption as well as the changes to the original MRAC are then compared in simulation as well as on a real system and show very promising results in further improving the stability of the altitude control of the drones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real Time Dependable Distributed Control Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Adaptive Weighted High Frequency Iterative Algorithm for Fractional-Order Total Variation with Nonlocal Regularization for Image Reconstruction
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1103; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071103 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 150
Abstract
We propose an adaptive weighted high frequency iterative algorithm for a fractional-order total variation (FrTV) approach with nonlocal regularization to alleviate image deterioration and to eliminate staircase artifacts, which result from the total variation (TV) method. The high frequency gradients are reweighted in [...] Read more.
We propose an adaptive weighted high frequency iterative algorithm for a fractional-order total variation (FrTV) approach with nonlocal regularization to alleviate image deterioration and to eliminate staircase artifacts, which result from the total variation (TV) method. The high frequency gradients are reweighted in iterations adaptively when we decompose the image into high and low frequency components using the pre-processing technique. The nonlocal regularization is introduced into our method based on nonlocal means (NLM) filtering, which contains prior image structural information to suppress staircase artifacts. An alternating direction multiplier method (ADMM) is used to solve the problem combining reweighted FrTV and nonlocal regularization. Experimental results show that both the peak signal-to-noise ratios (PSNR) and structural similarity index (SSIM) of reconstructed images are higher than those achieved by the other four methods at various sampling ratios less than 25%. At 5% sampling ratios, the gains of PSNR and SSIM are up to 1.63 dB and 0.0114 from ten images compared with reweighted total variation with nuclear norm regularization (RTV-NNR). The improved approach preserves more texture details and has better visual effects, especially at low sampling ratios, at the cost of taking more time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Theory and Applications in Digital Signal Processing)
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Open AccessArticle
The Design of Compact SM4 Encryption and Decryption Circuits That are Resistant to Bypass Attack
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1102; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071102 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
In order to achieve the purpose of defending against side channel attacks, a compact SM4 circuit was designed based on the mask and random delay technique, and the linear transformation module was designed with random insertion of the pseudo operation method. By analyzing [...] Read more.
In order to achieve the purpose of defending against side channel attacks, a compact SM4 circuit was designed based on the mask and random delay technique, and the linear transformation module was designed with random insertion of the pseudo operation method. By analyzing the glitch data generated by the S-box of SM4 with different inputs, the security against glitch attacks was confirmed. Then, the DPA (Differential Power Analysis) was performed on the designed circuit. The key could not be successfully obtained even in the case of 100,000 power curves, so that the safety of SM4 against DPA is verified. Finally, using Synopsys DC (Design Compiler, Mountain View, CA94043DC, USA) to synthesize the designed circuit, the results show that the area of the designed circuit in the SMIC 0.18 process is 82,734 μm2, which is 48% smaller than results reported in other papers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Integrated Circuits Technology)
Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Analysis of Online Sources for Supporting Business Intelligence Illustrated with Bitcoin Investments and IoT Smart-Meter Sensors in Smart Cities
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1101; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071101 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 255
Abstract
Real-time data management analytics involve capturing data in real-time and, at the same time, processing data in a light way to provide an effective real-time support. Real-time data management analytics are key for supporting decisions of business intelligence. The proposed approach covers all [...] Read more.
Real-time data management analytics involve capturing data in real-time and, at the same time, processing data in a light way to provide an effective real-time support. Real-time data management analytics are key for supporting decisions of business intelligence. The proposed approach covers all these phases by (a) monitoring online information from websites with Selenium-based software and incrementally conforming a database, and (b) incrementally updating summarized information to support real-time decisions. We have illustrated this approach for the investor–company field with the particular fields of Bitcoin cryptocurrency and Internet-of-Things (IoT) smart-meter sensors in smart cities. The results of 40 simulations on historic data showed that one of the proposed investor strategies achieved 7.96% of profits on average in less than two weeks. However, these simulations and other simulations of up to 69 days showed that the benefits were highly variable in these two sets of simulations (respective standard deviations were 24.6% and 19.2%). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Real-Time Data Management and Analytics)
Open AccessArticle
A Design of Low-Power 10-bit 1-MS/s Asynchronous SAR ADC for DSRC Application
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1100; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071100 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 194
Abstract
A design of low-power 10-bit 1 MS/s asynchronous successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) is presented in this paper. To improve the linearity of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and energy efficiency, a common mode-based monotonic charge recovery (CMMC) switching technique is proposed. [...] Read more.
A design of low-power 10-bit 1 MS/s asynchronous successive approximation register analog-to-digital converter (SAR ADC) is presented in this paper. To improve the linearity of the digital-to-analog converter (DAC) and energy efficiency, a common mode-based monotonic charge recovery (CMMC) switching technique is proposed. The proposed switching technique consumes only 63.75 CVREF2 switching energy, which is far less as compared to the conventional switching technique without dividing or adding additional switches. In addition, bootstrap switching is implemented to ensure enhanced linearity. To reduce the power consumption from the comparator, a dynamic latch comparator with a self-comparator clock generation circuit is implemented. The proposed prototype of the SAR ADC is implemented in a 55 nm CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) process. The proposed architecture achieves a figure of merit (FOM) of 17.4 fJ/conversion, signal-to-noise distortion ratio (SNDR) of 60.39 dB, and an effective number of bits (ENOB) of 9.74 bits with a sampling rate of 1 MS/s at measurement levels. The implemented SAR ADC consumes 14.8 µW power at 1 V power supply. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analog/Digital Mixed Circuit and RF Transceiver Design)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effect of A Superstrate on On-Head Matched Antennas for Biomedical Applications
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1099; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071099 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 198
Abstract
The effect of using a superstrate dielectric layer on an on-head matched antenna for biomedical diagnosis applications is investigated. Two on-head matched antennas are considered with different length meandered lines ensuring operation around 0.9 GHz frequency. The first antenna’s conductive radiating structure is [...] Read more.
The effect of using a superstrate dielectric layer on an on-head matched antenna for biomedical diagnosis applications is investigated. Two on-head matched antennas are considered with different length meandered lines ensuring operation around 0.9 GHz frequency. The first antenna’s conductive radiating structure is in direct contact with the head phantom, whereas the second one utilises a 0.5 mm thick superstrate layer on top of the conducting layer as a buffer. The lateral dimensions of both antennas are held constant at 30 × 30 mm2. The electric and magnetic field distribution is analysed and the power penetration, 50 mm inside the head phantom, is derived from the electromagnetic field surrounding the antennas. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous head phantoms are considered while evaluating the antennas in terms of their reflection coefficient, current distribution, electric field, magnetic field, specific absorption rate (SAR) and power penetration inside the head. The antennas are fabricated and measured utilizing an inhomogeneous phantom to validate the proposed performance improvement using a superstrate. It is shown that the superstrate antenna achieves a ~8 dB increase in power penetration inside the head phantom along with a 0.0731 W/kg decrease in SAR compared to the antenna without a superstrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microwave Devices Design and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
Source Apportionment and Integrated Assessment Modelling for Air Quality Planning
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1098; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071098 - 05 Jul 2020
Viewed by 233
Abstract
In Northern Italy a large fraction of the population is exposed to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations that exceed the European limit values and the stricter WHO air quality guidelines. For this reason, in 2017 four Regions (Piemonte, Lombardia, Veneto, and Emilia Romagna) and [...] Read more.
In Northern Italy a large fraction of the population is exposed to PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations that exceed the European limit values and the stricter WHO air quality guidelines. For this reason, in 2017 four Regions (Piemonte, Lombardia, Veneto, and Emilia Romagna) and the national Ministry of the Environment adopted a set of joint measures, namely the “Po Basin air quality plan”. The plan mainly tackles emission from road transport, residential heating, and agriculture. Air quality plans at regional and local scale are usually implemented defining a set of emission abatement measures, starting from experts’ knowledge. The aim of this work is to define a methodology that helps decision makers in air quality planning, combining two different approaches: Source-Apportionment techniques (SA) and Integrated Assessment Modelling (IAM). These techniques have been applied over a domain in Northern Italy to analyze the contribution of emission sources on PM10 concentration and to compute an optimal policy, obtained through a multi-objective optimization approach that minimizes both the PM10 yearly average concentration and the policy implementation costs. The results are compared to the Po Basin air quality plan impacts. The source-apportionment technique and the IAM optimization approach show intervention priorities in three main sectors: residential heating, agriculture, and road transport. The Po Basin air quality plan is effective in reducing PM10 concentrations, but not efficient, as a matter of fact the cost-effective policy at the same cost has a higher impact on air quality and on greenhouse gases emissions reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modeling and Control of Environmental Systems: Theory and Application)
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Open AccessArticle
TagML—An Implementation Specific Model to Generate Tag-Based Documents
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1097; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071097 - 05 Jul 2020
Viewed by 228
Abstract
This article describes TagML, a method to generate collections of XML documents using model-to-model (M2M) transformations. To accomplish this goal, we define the TagML meta-model and the TagML-to-XML model-to-text transformation. While TagML models represent the essential characteristics of collections of XML documents, the [...] Read more.
This article describes TagML, a method to generate collections of XML documents using model-to-model (M2M) transformations. To accomplish this goal, we define the TagML meta-model and the TagML-to-XML model-to-text transformation. While TagML models represent the essential characteristics of collections of XML documents, the TagML-to-XML transformation generates the textual representation of collections of XML documents from TagML models. This approach enables developers to define model-to-model transformations to generate TagML models. These models are turned into text applying the TagML-to-XML transformation. Consequently, developers are able to use declarative languages to define model-to-text transformations that generate XML documents, instead of traditional archetype-based languages to define model-to-text transformations that generate collections of XML documents. The TagML model editor as well as the TagML-to-XML transformation were developed as Eclipse plugins using the Eclipse Modeling Framework. The plugin has been developed following the Object Modeling Group standards to ensure the compatibility with legacy tools. Using TagML, unlike other previous proposals, implies the use of model-to-model transformations to generate XML documents, instead of model-to-text transformations, which results on an improvement of the transformation readability and reliability, as well as a reduction of the transformation maintenance costs. The proposed approach helps developers to define transformations less prone to errors than using the traditional approach. The novelty of this approach is based on the way XML documents are generated using model-to-model transformations instead of traditional model-to-text transformations. Moreover, the simplicity of the proposed approach enables the generation of XML documents without the need for any transformation configuration, which does not penalize the model reuse. To illustrate the features of the proposal, we present the generation of XHTML documents using UML class diagrams as input models. The evaluation section demonstrates that the proposed method is less prone to errors than the traditional one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Efficient Estimator of Rotor Temperature Designing for Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Platform
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1096; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071096 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 268
Abstract
This paper presents an efficient method of estimation of rotor cage temperature for induction machine design, applied for electric and hybrid vehicles. This factor influences the torque produced by the induction machine with a field-oriented control algorithm. Equipping sensors to measure the temperature [...] Read more.
This paper presents an efficient method of estimation of rotor cage temperature for induction machine design, applied for electric and hybrid vehicles. This factor influences the torque produced by the induction machine with a field-oriented control algorithm. Equipping sensors to measure the temperature of a rotation component is expensive and is not representative of mass production. The approach of estimation of rotor cage temperature is based on the good knowledge of motor parameters and the estimation of the flux of the machine. For an accuracy inductance taking account of the saturation, the no-load test can be performed. The machine flux will be estimated taking account of the voltage drop of the system on the test-bench. The rapid prototyping in a real-time motor control platform will be presented that integrates this estimator of rotor temperature. We finally show the experimental testing results compared to the measurement of the rotor cage on a prototype asynchronous low-cost motor designing for battery electric city cars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis and Optimal Design Method for Electric Machine and Devices)
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Open AccessArticle
A SVM-3D Based Encoderless Control of a Fault-Tolerant PMSM Drive
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1095; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071095 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 234
Abstract
This paper exhibits a novel technique to obtain an encoderless speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in the case of a loss of one phase. The importance of this work is that it presents solutions in order to maintain the [...] Read more.
This paper exhibits a novel technique to obtain an encoderless speed control of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) in the case of a loss of one phase. The importance of this work is that it presents solutions in order to maintain the operation of the system in various conditions. This will increase the reliability of the whole drive system to meet the safety issues required in some applications. To achieve that, a fault-tolerant inverter modulated through a 3-dimension space vector pulse width modulation technique (3D-SVPWM) is used. Besides that, an algorithm to obtain the exact position of the saturation saliency in the case of a loss of one phase is introduced to achieve a closed-loop field-oriented encoderless speed control and to further enhance the reliability of the whole drive system. This algorithm is based on measuring the transient stator current responses of the motor due to the insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) switching actions. Then according to the operating condition (normal or a loss of one phase), the saliency position signals are constructed from the dynamic current responses. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the saliency tracking technique under normal and under a loss of one phase conditions. Moreover, the results verify the maximum reliability for the whole drive system that is achieved in this work through a continuous operation of the drive system under a loss of one phase condition and under encoderless speed control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Systems & Control Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Performance Analysis of LDS Multi Access Technique and New 5G Waveforms for V2X Communication
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1094; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071094 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
Low Density Signature (LDS) is an emerging non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique that has never been evaluated under a vehicular channel in order to simulate the environment of a vehicle to everything (V2X) communication. Moreover, the LDS structure has been combined with only [...] Read more.
Low Density Signature (LDS) is an emerging non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) technique that has never been evaluated under a vehicular channel in order to simulate the environment of a vehicle to everything (V2X) communication. Moreover, the LDS structure has been combined with only Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) and Filter-Bank Multi-Carrier (FBMC) waveforms to improve its performances. In this paper, we propose new schemes where the LDS structure is combined with Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) and Filtered-OFDM waveforms and the Bit Error Rate (BER) is analysed over a frequency selective channel as a reference and over a vehicular channel to analyse the effect of the Doppler shift on the overall performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Waveform Design for 5G and beyond Systems)
Open AccessArticle
Fingerprinting of Relational Databases for Stopping the Data Theft
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1093; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071093 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 249
Abstract
The currently-emerging technology demands sharing of data using various channels via the Internet, disks, etc. Some recipients of this data can also become traitors by leaking the important data. As a result, the data breaches due to data leakage are also increasing. These [...] Read more.
The currently-emerging technology demands sharing of data using various channels via the Internet, disks, etc. Some recipients of this data can also become traitors by leaking the important data. As a result, the data breaches due to data leakage are also increasing. These breaches include unauthorized distribution, duplication, and sale. The identification of a guilty agent responsible for such breaches is important for: (i) punishing the culprit; and (ii) preventing the innocent user from accusation and punishment. Fingerprinting techniques provide a mechanism for classifying the guilty agent from multiple recipients and also help to prevent the innocent user from being accused of the data breach. To those ends, in this paper, a novel fingerprinting framework has been proposed using a biometric feature as a digital mark (signature). The use of machine learning has also been introduced to make this framework intelligent, particularly for preserving the data usability. An attack channel has also been used to evaluate the robustness of the proposed scheme. The experimental study was also conducted to demonstrate that the proposed technique is robust against several malicious attacks, such as subset selection attacks, mix and match attacks, collusion attacks, deletion attacks, insertion attacks, and alteration attacks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
Open AccessArticle
Detection and Tracking Method of Maritime Moving Targets Based on Geosynchronous Orbit Satellite Optical Images
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1092; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071092 - 04 Jul 2020
Viewed by 259
Abstract
The GF-4 geosynchronous orbit satellite can observe a large area for a long time, but the unique characteristics of its optical remote sensing image restrict the detection of maritime targets. This paper proposes a maritime target detection and tracking method for the GF-4 [...] Read more.
The GF-4 geosynchronous orbit satellite can observe a large area for a long time, but the unique characteristics of its optical remote sensing image restrict the detection of maritime targets. This paper proposes a maritime target detection and tracking method for the GF-4 satellite image sequence based on the differences in information between frames in the image sequence. First, a preprocessing method is proposed for the unique characteristics of the image. Then, the ViBe (Visual Background Extractor) algorithm is used to extract the targets in the image sequence. After detection, the DCF-CSR (discriminative correlation filters with channel and spatial reliability) is used as a tracker to track and correlate the detected target to complete the task of predicting and monitoring the targets’ movements. Finally, through the comparative analysis of experiments with several classic methods, the feasibility and effectiveness of this method are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science & Engineering)
Open AccessReview
Intelligent Load Balancing Techniques in Software Defined Networks: A Survey
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1091; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071091 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 247
Abstract
In the current technology driven era, the use of devices that connect to the internet has increased significantly. Consequently, there has been a significant increase in internet traffic. Some of the challenges that arise from the increased traffic include, but are not limited [...] Read more.
In the current technology driven era, the use of devices that connect to the internet has increased significantly. Consequently, there has been a significant increase in internet traffic. Some of the challenges that arise from the increased traffic include, but are not limited to, multiple clients on a single server (which can result in denial of service (DoS)), difficulty in network scalability, and poor service availability. One of the solutions proposed in literature, to mitigate these, is the use of multiple servers with a load balancer. Despite their common use, load balancers, have shown to have some disadvantages, like being vendor specific and non-programmable. To address these disadvantages and improve internet traffic, there has been a paradigm shift which resulted in the introduction of software defined networking (SDN). SDN allows for load balancers that are programmable and provides the flexibility for one to design and implement own load balancing strategies. In this survey, we highlight the key elements of SDN and OpenFlow technology and their effect on load balancing. We provide an overview of the various load balancing schemes in SDN. The overview is based on research challenges, existing solutions, and we give possible future research directions. A summary of emulators/mathematical tools commonly used in the design of intelligent load balancing SDN algorithms is provided. Finally, we outline the performance metrics used to evaluate the algorithms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
Open AccessArticle
A Performance Analysis Framework of Time-Triggered Ethernet Using Real-Time Calculus
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071090 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 210
Abstract
With increasing demands of deterministic and real-time communication, network performance analysis is becoming an increasingly important research topic in safety-critical areas, such as aerospace, automotive electronics and so on. Time-triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) is a novel hybrid network protocol based on the Ethernet standard; [...] Read more.
With increasing demands of deterministic and real-time communication, network performance analysis is becoming an increasingly important research topic in safety-critical areas, such as aerospace, automotive electronics and so on. Time-triggered Ethernet (TTEthernet) is a novel hybrid network protocol based on the Ethernet standard; it is deterministic, synchronized and congestion-free. TTEthernet with a time-triggered mechanism meets the real-time and reliability requirements of safety-critical applications. Time-triggered (TT) messages perform strict periodic scheduling following the offline schedule tables. Different scheduling strategies have an effect on the performance of TTEthernet. In this paper, a performance analysis framework is designed to analyze the end-to-end delay, backlog bounds and resource utilization of network by real-time calculus. This method can be used as a base for the performance evaluation of TTEthernet scheduling. In addition, this study discusses the impacts of clock synchronization and traffic integration strategies on TT traffic in the network. Finally, a case study is presented to prove the feasibility of the performance analysis framework. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
Open AccessArticle
New Insight on Terahertz Rectification in a Metal–Oxide–Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor Structure
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1089; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071089 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 213
Abstract
The use of a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOS-FET) permits the rectification of electromagnetic radiation by employing integrated circuit technology. However, obtaining a high-efficiency rectification device requires the assessment of a physical model capable of providing a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the processes [...] Read more.
The use of a metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOS-FET) permits the rectification of electromagnetic radiation by employing integrated circuit technology. However, obtaining a high-efficiency rectification device requires the assessment of a physical model capable of providing a qualitative and quantitative explanation of the processes involved. For a long time, high-frequency detection based on MOS technology was explained using plasma wave detection theory. In this paper, we review the rectification mechanism in light of high-frequency numerical simulations, showing features never examined until now. The results achieved substantially change our understanding of terahertz (THz) rectification in semiconductors, and can be interpreted by the model based on the self-mixing process in the device substrate, providing a new and essential tool for designing this type of detector. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microelectronics and Optoelectronics)
Open AccessArticle
A Compact C-Band Bandpass Filter with an Adjustable Dual-Band Suitable for Satellite Communication Systems
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1088; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071088 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
A narrowband dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) with independently tunable passbands is presented through a systematic design approach. A size-efficient coupling system is proposed with the capability of being integrated with additional resonators without increasing the size of the circuit. Two flag-shaped resonators along [...] Read more.
A narrowband dual-band bandpass filter (BPF) with independently tunable passbands is presented through a systematic design approach. A size-efficient coupling system is proposed with the capability of being integrated with additional resonators without increasing the size of the circuit. Two flag-shaped resonators along with two stepped-impedance resonators are integrated with the coupling system to firstly enhance the quality response of the filter, and secondly to add an independent adjustability feature to the filter. The dual passband of the filter is centered at 4.42 GHz and 7.2 GHz, respectively, with narrow passbands of 2.12% and 1.15%. The lower and upper passbands can be swept independently over 600 MHz and 1000 MHz by changing only one parameter of the filter without any destructive effects on the frequency response. According to United States frequency allocations, the first passband is convenient for mobile communications and the second passband can be used for satellite communications. The filter has very good in- and out-of-band performance with very small passband insertion losses of 0.5 dB and 0.86 dB as well as a relatively strong stopband attenuation of 30 dB and 25 dB, respectively, for the case of lower and upper bands. To verify the proposed approach, a prototype of the filter is fabricated and measured showing a good agreement between numerically calculated and measured results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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Open AccessArticle
Tree Search Fuzzy NARX Neural Network Fault Detection Technique for PV Systems with IoT Support
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1087; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071087 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 218
Abstract
The photovoltaic (PV) panel’s output energy depends on many factors. As they are becoming the leading alternative energy source, it is essential to get the best out of them. Although the main factor for maximizing energy production is proportional to the amount of [...] Read more.
The photovoltaic (PV) panel’s output energy depends on many factors. As they are becoming the leading alternative energy source, it is essential to get the best out of them. Although the main factor for maximizing energy production is proportional to the amount of solar radiation reaching the photovoltaic panel surface, other factors, such as temperature and shading, influence them negatively. Moreover, being installed in a dynamic and frequently harsh environment causes a set of reasons for faults, defects, and irregular operations. Any irregular operation should be recognized and classified into faults that need attention and, therefore, maintenance or as being a regular operation due to changes in some surrounding factors, such as temperature or solar radiation. Besides, in case of faults, it would be helpful to identify the source and the cause of the problem. Hence, this study presented a novel methodology that modeled a PV system in a tree-like hierarchy, which allowed the use of a fuzzy nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to detect and classify faults in a PV system with customizable granularity. Moreover, the used methodology enabled the identification of the exact source of fault(s) in a fully automated way. The study was done on a string of eight PV panels; however, the paper discussed using the algorithm on a more extensive PV system. The used fuzzy NARX algorithm in this study was able to classify the faults that appeared in up to five out of the eight PV panels and to identify the faulty PV panels with high accuracy. The used hardware could be controlled and monitored through a Wi-Fi connection, which added support for Internet of Things applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Non Invasive Skin Hydration Level Detection Using Machine Learning
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071086 - 03 Jul 2020
Viewed by 252
Abstract
Dehydration and overhydration can help to improve medical implications on health. Therefore, it is vital to track the hydration level (HL) specifically in children, the elderly and patients with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes. Most of the current approaches to estimate the [...] Read more.
Dehydration and overhydration can help to improve medical implications on health. Therefore, it is vital to track the hydration level (HL) specifically in children, the elderly and patients with underlying medical conditions such as diabetes. Most of the current approaches to estimate the hydration level are not sufficient and require more in-depth research. Therefore, in this paper, we used the non-invasive wearable sensor for collecting the skin conductance data and employed different machine learning algorithms based on feature engineering to predict the hydration level of the human body in different body postures. The comparative experimental results demonstrated that the random forest with an accuracy of 91.3% achieved better performance as compared to other machine learning algorithms to predict the hydration state of human body. This study paves a way for further investigation in non-invasive proactive skin hydration detection which can help in the diagnosis of serious health conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antennas for Wearable and Implantable Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Iterative Spatial Crowdsourcing in Peer-to-Peer Opportunistic Networks
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1085; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071085 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 206
Abstract
Spatial crowdsourcing is a potentially powerful method for incorporating human wisdom into mobile computations to solve problems while exploiting the advantages of mobility and context-awareness. This paper proposes and investigates task assignments and recruitment in iterative spatial crowdsourcing processes to find regions of [...] Read more.
Spatial crowdsourcing is a potentially powerful method for incorporating human wisdom into mobile computations to solve problems while exploiting the advantages of mobility and context-awareness. This paper proposes and investigates task assignments and recruitment in iterative spatial crowdsourcing processes to find regions of particular interest among a collection of regions. We consider cases where associations between regions can be exploited to reduce costs and increase efficiency in crowdsourcing. We describe five approaches, incorporated into crowdsourcing algorithms, for reducing the cost (the number of queries required) and increasing the efficiency (reducing the number of rounds of querying required) in using such spatial crowdsourcing. We demonstrate the performance improvements gained using these approaches based on simulation scenarios. The findings show the interplay and relationships among our proposed approaches using a range of metrics including responses, energy consumption, costs, and time usage. These metrics are demonstrated via a range of scenarios, showing that our proposed approaches can lead to improved performance over randomly choosing regions for inquiry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crowdsensing for Wireless Communication and Networking)
Open AccessArticle
A New and Compact Wide-Band Microstrip Filter-Antenna Design for 2.4 GHz ISM Band and 4G Applications
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1084; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071084 - 02 Jul 2020
Viewed by 253
Abstract
A new and compact four-pole wide-band planar filter-antenna design is proposed in this article. The effect of the dielectric material type on the characteristics of the design is also investigated and presented. The filter-antenna structure is formed by a fourth-order planar band-pass filter [...] Read more.
A new and compact four-pole wide-band planar filter-antenna design is proposed in this article. The effect of the dielectric material type on the characteristics of the design is also investigated and presented. The filter-antenna structure is formed by a fourth-order planar band-pass filter (BPF) cascaded with a monopole microstrip antenna. The designed filter-antenna operates at a centre frequency of 2.4 GHz and has a relatively wide-band impedance bandwidth of about 1.22 GHz and a fractional bandwidth (FBW) of about 50%. The effects of three different types of substrate material, which are Rogers RT5880, Rogers RO3003, and FR-4, are investigated and presented using the same configuration. The filter-antenna design is simulated and optimised using computer simulation technology (CST) software and is fabricated and measured using a Rogers RT5880 substrate with a height (h) of 0.81 mm, a dielectric constant of 2.2, and a loss tangent of 0.0009. The structure is printed on a compact size of 0.32 λ0 × 0.30 λ0, where λ0 is the free-space wavelength at the centre frequency. A good agreement is obtained between the simulation and measurement performance. The designed filter-antenna with the achieved performance can find different applications for 2.4 GHz ISM band and 4G wireless communications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks)
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Open AccessArticle
Visual Features with Spatio-Temporal-Based Fusion Model for Cross-Dataset Vehicle Re-Identification
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071083 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Vehicle re-identification (Re-Id) is the key module in an intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to its versatile applicability in metropolitan cities, this task has received increasing attention these days. It aims to identify whether the specific vehicle has already appeared over the surveillance [...] Read more.
Vehicle re-identification (Re-Id) is the key module in an intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to its versatile applicability in metropolitan cities, this task has received increasing attention these days. It aims to identify whether the specific vehicle has already appeared over the surveillance network or not. Mostly, the vehicle Re-Id method are evaluated on a single dataset, in which training and testing of the model is performed on the same dataset. However in practice, this negatively effects model generalization ability due to biased datasets along with the significant difference between training and testing data; hence, the model becomes weak in a practical environment. To demonstrate this issue, we have empirically shown that the current vehicle Re-Id datasets are usually strongly biased. In this regard, we also conduct an extensive study on the cross and the same dataset to examine the impact on the performance of the vehicle Re-Id system, considering existing methods. To address the problem, in this paper, we have proposed an approach with augmentation of the training dataset to reduce the influence of pose, angle, camera color response, and background information in vehicle images; whereas, spatio-temporal patterns of unlabelled target datasets are learned by transferring siamese neural network classifiers trained on a source-labelled dataset. We finally calculate the composite similarity score of spatio-temporal patterns with siamese neural-network-based classifier visual features. Extensive experiments on multiple datasets are examined and results suggest that the proposed approach has the ability to generalize adequately. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Networks)
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Transmission Strategy for Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer with a Non-Linear Rectifier Model
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1082; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071082 - 01 Jul 2020
Viewed by 244
Abstract
Most studies determining data rate or power conversion efficiency (PCE) of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) focus on ideal models for the non-linear energy harvester, or focus on simplified waveforms that carry no information. In this paper, we study SWIPT using [...] Read more.
Most studies determining data rate or power conversion efficiency (PCE) of simultaneous wireless information and power transfer (SWIPT) focus on ideal models for the non-linear energy harvester, or focus on simplified waveforms that carry no information. In this paper, we study SWIPT using realistic waveforms and a measurement-based energy harvesting model. For a special class of multisine waveforms carrying only information in the phase, we analyze PCE as a function of waveform design, including the impact of pre-equalization to mitigate wireless channel distortion. A balanced pre-equalizer that trades off between the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) and signal to noise ratio, maximizing the total PCE is proposed. The impact on the information rate of the analyzed waveforms is also presented. The results show that balanced pre-equalizers can improve the total PCE more than three times within 5% rate loss compared to the pre-equalizer that solely maximizes the signal PAPR or the capacity using the same transmit power. We also show that the maximum normalized PCE is increased by a factor of two by only allowing phase modulation to ensure the PAPR of one symbol, compared to traditional modulation schemes that carry information in both phase and amplitude to maximize spectral efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Microwave and Wireless Communications)
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