Special Issue "Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 December 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Woo-Young Choi
Website
Guest Editor
Division of Electronic Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756, Korea
Interests: power electronics; energy conversion; circuit design; digital programming
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

High-frequency power converters are switching power converters that use high-frequency switching techniques. One of advantages this provides is improved power density, which reduces the system size. This has been applied to recent industrial applications such as solar microinverters, server power supplies, and electric vehicle chargers. At the same time, the use of wide band-gap devices, such as SiC and GaN, creates new challenges for the compact design of high-frequency power converters. With the development of advanced devices, many technical aspects require deep investigation to optimize the design of high-frequency power converters.

This Special Issue focuses on the design and optimization of high-frequency power converters. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Topology, control, and modulation of high-frequency power converters;
  • High-frequency switching techniques (resonant switching, switched capacitor);
  • High-frequency switching circuits (magnetic design, gate driving circuit);
  • Circuit count reduction design of high-frequency power converters;
  • Application of wide band-gap devices in high-frequency power conversion;
  • Layout and design techniques for high-frequency power converters;
  • Industrial applications of high-frequency power converters.

Prof. Dr. Woo-Young Choi
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Direct Space Vector Modulation with Novel DC-Link Voltage Balancing Algorithm for Easy Software Implementation of Three-Phase Three-Level Converter
Electronics 2020, 9(11), 1841; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9111841 - 03 Nov 2020
Abstract
The present paper proposes a direct space vector modulation and novel balance algorithm for easy software application of three-level converters which operate in three-phase. In the case of the conventional space vector modulation, to get the on-state times of the switches, the dwell [...] Read more.
The present paper proposes a direct space vector modulation and novel balance algorithm for easy software application of three-level converters which operate in three-phase. In the case of the conventional space vector modulation, to get the on-state times of the switches, the dwell times of the three nearest stationary vectors, which are obtained after sector and region selection algorithms, should be rearranged. These processes, therefore, contain diverse conditional statements and complicated calculations such as inverse trigonometric functions and square roots. However, the burden of the software application of the proposed algorithm is greatly reduced by not using the sector selection algorithm, the region selection algorithm, and the on-state time allocation process as the proposed modulation can directly control the switch on-state time. In a three-level topology, it is required to balance top and bottom capacitor voltages because the DC-link voltage is composed of two capacitor voltages; the unbalanced voltage of each DC-link capacitor causes the overvoltage of the switching devices. Thus, the DC-link voltage balancing algorithm is proposed, and it is also very simple and effective without additional circuits because it controls the switch on-state time directly as well. The 5-kW prototype proved the validity of the proposed algorithm with its feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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Open AccessArticle
A Review and Comparison of Solid, Multi-Strands and Litz Style PCB Winding
Electronics 2020, 9(8), 1324; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9081324 - 16 Aug 2020
Abstract
At high frequency, AC resistance of a printed circuit board (PCB) winding becomes important and accounts for a large proportion of planar transformer losses. The winding is then influenced by both skin and proximity phenomenon, which makes the current distribution uneven resulting in [...] Read more.
At high frequency, AC resistance of a printed circuit board (PCB) winding becomes important and accounts for a large proportion of planar transformer losses. The winding is then influenced by both skin and proximity phenomenon, which makes the current distribution uneven resulting in an increased resistance. The study of improving AC resistance of a PCB winding has been tackled by many researchers. However, the lack of an overview and comparison among improvements has made it difficult to apply those methods to a specific winding. To overcome the above limitations, this paper investigates the pros and cons of three popular AC resistance optimizing methods: optimizing track width of a solid PCB winding, using multi-strands and using Litz style PCB winding. To verify the theoretical analysis, a total of 12 PCBs are simulated by finite element (FEM) and tested in the laboratory. Five criteria are analyzed, including skin resistance, proximity resistance, AC to DC ratio, total AC resistance and complexity are taken into consideration. The results of this study show that optimizing track width method has a significant improvement on AC resistance while the use of Litz PCB is effective for applications that need stable AC resistance in a wide frequency range. The use of parallel strands winding should be carefully considered as there is not significant benefit in both reducing the AC resistance and AC to DC ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Bidirectional Operation Scheme of Grid-Tied Zeta Inverter for Energy Storage Systems
Electronics 2020, 9(7), 1159; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9071159 - 17 Jul 2020
Abstract
The zeta inverter has been used for single-phase grid-tied applications. For its use of energy storage systems, this paper proposes the bidirectional operation scheme of the grid-tied zeta inverter. A shoot-through switching state is introduced, providing reliable bidirectional operation modes. A shoot-through duty [...] Read more.
The zeta inverter has been used for single-phase grid-tied applications. For its use of energy storage systems, this paper proposes the bidirectional operation scheme of the grid-tied zeta inverter. A shoot-through switching state is introduced, providing reliable bidirectional operation modes. A shoot-through duty cycle is utilized for the bidirectional grid current control of the inverter. The grid current is bidirectionally controlled by the shoot-through duty cycle, which enables the inverter to operate with seamless change of operation modes. Over the state-of-the art techniques using flyback and Cuk inverter topologies, the grid-tied zeta inverter using the proposed operation scheme provides advantages of high efficiency, low cost, and high reliability. The operation principle is presented by describing the operation mode and control method for the grid-tied zeta inverter. A 500 W prototype has been built and tested to verify its operation principle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimizing AC Resistance of Solid PCB Winding
Electronics 2020, 9(5), 875; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9050875 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 2
Abstract
At high frequency, power losses of a winding due to eddy currents becomes significant. Moreover, the skin and proximity AC resistances are influenced by the width of printed circuit board (PCB) conductors and distance between the adjacent tracks which causes many difficulties to [...] Read more.
At high frequency, power losses of a winding due to eddy currents becomes significant. Moreover, the skin and proximity AC resistances are influenced by the width of printed circuit board (PCB) conductors and distance between the adjacent tracks which causes many difficulties to design windings with lowest AC resistances. To clarify this phenomenon, this paper focuses on modeling the influence of skin and proximity effects on AC resistance of planar PCB winding, thereby providing guidelines to reduce the winding AC resistance. An approximate electromagnetic calculation method is proposed and it shows that when the winding proximity AC to DC ratio ( F p r o x i m i t y ) is equal to 1 3 the AC on DC ratio caused by skin effect ( F s k i n ) , the winding is optimized and it has lowest AC resistance. 3-D finite element simulations of 3, 7 and 10-Turn windings, which are divided into 3 groups with the same footprint, are presented to investigate the lowest AC resistance when the track width varies from 3 mm to 5 mm and the frequency range is up to 700 kHz. In order to verify the theoretical analysis and simulation results, an experiment with 3 simulated groups, (9 prototypes in total) is built and has a very good fit with simulation results. Experimental results show that at the optimal width, the AC resistance of the windings can be reduced up to 16.5 % in the frequency range from 200 kHz to 700 kHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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Open AccessArticle
Single-Phase Inverter Deadbeat Control with One-Carrier-Period Lag
Electronics 2020, 9(1), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics9010154 - 14 Jan 2020
Abstract
This paper presents a novel digital control scheme for the regulation of single-phase voltage source pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters used in AC power sources. The proposed scheme adopts two deadbeat controllers to regulate the inner current loop and the outer voltage loop [...] Read more.
This paper presents a novel digital control scheme for the regulation of single-phase voltage source pulse width modulation (PWM) inverters used in AC power sources. The proposed scheme adopts two deadbeat controllers to regulate the inner current loop and the outer voltage loop of the PWM inverter. For the overhead of digital processing, the change of duty of PWM lags one carrier period behind the sampling signal, which is modeled as a first-order lag unit in a discrete domain. Based on this precise modeling, the deadbeat controllers make the inverter get a fast dynamic response, so that the inverter’s output voltage is obtained with a very low total harmonic distortion (THD), even when the load is fluctuating. The parameter sensitivity of the deadbeat control was analyzed, which shows that the proposed deadbeat control system can operate stably when the LC filter’s parameters vary within the range allowed. The experimental results of a 2kW inverter prototype show that the THD of the output voltage is less than 3% under resistive and rectifier loads, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed scheme. An additional advantage of the proposed scheme is that the parameter design of the controller can be fully programmed without the experience of a designer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Soft-Switching Bidirectional Three-Level DC–DC Converter with Simple Auxiliary Circuit
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 983; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090983 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper suggests a soft-switching bidirectional three-level DC–DC converter with a simple auxiliary circuit. The proposed converter uses auxiliary LC resonant circuits so that the power switches operate under a soft-switching condition. The resonant operation of the LC circuits makes power switches turn [...] Read more.
This paper suggests a soft-switching bidirectional three-level DC–DC converter with a simple auxiliary circuit. The proposed converter uses auxiliary LC resonant circuits so that the power switches operate under a soft-switching condition. The resonant operation of the LC circuits makes power switches turn on at zero voltage, eliminating the turn-on switching power losses. The proposed converter improves the power efficiency, not using complex power switching circuits, but using simple LC resonant circuits. The operation of the proposed converter is described according to its operation modes. Experimental results for a 1.0 kW prototype are discussed to verify its performance. The proposed converter achieved the power efficiencies of 97.7% in the step-up mode and 97.8% in the step-down mode, respectively, for the rated load condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Power Efficiency Improvement of Three-Phase Split-Output Inverter Using Magnetically Coupled Inductor Switching
Electronics 2019, 8(9), 969; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8090969 - 30 Aug 2019
Abstract
The conventional three-phase split-output inverter (SOI) has been used for grid-connected applications because it does not require dead time and has no shoot-through problems. Recently, the conventional inverter uses the silicon carbide (SiC) schottky diodes for the freewheeling diodes because of its no [...] Read more.
The conventional three-phase split-output inverter (SOI) has been used for grid-connected applications because it does not require dead time and has no shoot-through problems. Recently, the conventional inverter uses the silicon carbide (SiC) schottky diodes for the freewheeling diodes because of its no reverse-recovery problem. Nevertheless, in a practical design, the SiC schottky diodes suffer from current overshoots and voltage oscillations. These overshoots and oscillations result in switching-power losses, decreasing the power efficiency of the inverter. To alleviate this drawback, we present a three-phase SOI using magnetically coupled inductor switching technique. The magnetically coupled inductor switching technique uses one auxiliary diode and coupled inductor for each switching leg in the three-phase SOI. By the operation of the coupled inductor, the main diode current is shifted to the auxiliary diode without the reverse-recovery process. The proposed inverter reduces switching-power losses by alleviating current overshoots and voltage oscillations of SiC schottky diodes. It achieves higher power efficiency than the conventional inverter. We discuss experimental results for a 1.0 kW prototype inverter to verify the performance of the proposed inverter. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design and Optimization of High-Frequency Power Converter)
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