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Cosmetics, Volume 9, Issue 1 (February 2022) – 26 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Red palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis) extract contains high levels of vitamin E, b-carotene, and palmitic acid has strong antioxidant activity and is suitable for skin care. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were employed to deliver active extract for day and night creams. Both products are physically and chemically acceptable. The nano-size particles permeated across the skin. The cream was non-irritating with a good cutaneous compatibility. The skin hydration, transepidermal water loss, skin elasticity and melanin index were improved after the first-time use compared to skin baseline and continued to improve after daily application of the day and night creams for 30 days compared to the baseline value, thus confirming the efficacy of creams containing red palm fruit extract loaded with SLNs. View this paper.
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Article
Exploring the Adsorption Properties of Zeolite in a New Skin Care Formulation
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010026 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1314
Abstract
Introduction: Zeolites are natural or synthetic aluminosilicates, characterized by a regular and microporous crystalline structure that plays a particularly active role in neutralizing free radicals, screening UV rays and in the adsorption of toxins and heavy metals. Skin is one of the main [...] Read more.
Introduction: Zeolites are natural or synthetic aluminosilicates, characterized by a regular and microporous crystalline structure that plays a particularly active role in neutralizing free radicals, screening UV rays and in the adsorption of toxins and heavy metals. Skin is one of the main areas for the accumulation of toxic substances released by environmental pollutants. The biological scavenger activity of zeolite opens a wide spectrum of applications in cosmetics and dermatology. Up to now, there is little evidence related to the use of natural zeolite in cosmetics. Aim: The purpose of this work was to evaluate the ability of zeolite to retain heavy metals in a new skin care formulation, in order to provide a proof of principle of its employment in the field of cosmetics. Materials and Methods: Taking the advantages of spiked samples, we studied the in vitro adsorption properties of zeolite in a new skin care formulation. The removal capacities of Cadmium, Lead, Chromium, Nickel and Cobalt were studied, using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). First of all, the better concentration of zeolite was defined, testing two different proportions of zeolite, from 1% to 3%, keeping all other components constant. Then, on the 3% formulation, the adsorption properties of each single metal were measured. Results and Conclusions: Our preliminary study demonstrated the selectivity of zeolite in retaining Cadmium (p < 0.0001), Nickel (p = 0.026), in a 3% zeolite-based formulation. This work provides a proof of principle of zeolite employment in the field of cosmetics. Based on the data collected, our work provides a scientific proof of principle of zeolite employment in the field of cosmetics. New and extensive research will be needed to explore all the potential benefits of zeolite. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Review
Lipsticks History, Formulations, and Production: A Narrative Review
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010025 - 18 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1611
Abstract
A considerable amount of literature has been published on several aspects of lipsticks production. To date, there is no collation of studies related to lipsticks production that has been published. This review was conducted to examine information about the history of lipsticks; ingredients [...] Read more.
A considerable amount of literature has been published on several aspects of lipsticks production. To date, there is no collation of studies related to lipsticks production that has been published. This review was conducted to examine information about the history of lipsticks; ingredients used in the preparation of lipsticks, focusing on the natural and chemical ingredients; methods of preparation for the lipsticks; and the characterization of the lipsticks. A literature search for English language articles was conducted by searching electronic databases including Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, and Google Scholar. Overall, the evidence indicates that lipsticks have been used since ancient times and are among the highest demand cosmetics. The findings of this review summarize those of earlier studies that explained the use of different types of ingredients in the manufacturing processes of lipsticks. It highlights the importance of using green technology and ingredients to fabricate lipsticks to avoid potential side effects such as skin irritation and allergy reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Molecular Docking, Tyrosinase, Collagenase, and Elastase Inhibition Activities of Argan By-Products
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010024 - 14 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1344
Abstract
The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and [...] Read more.
The argan tree (Argania spinosa (L.) Skeels) is one of the most important floristic resources in Morocco. This Moroccan endemic tree is known for its numerous therapeutic and medicinal uses. In addition to some medicinal and cosmetic uses, argan fruit pulp and press cake are traditionally used by the Berber population for heating and feeding livestock. Molecular docking is an in silico approach that predicts the interaction between a ligand and a protein. This approach is mainly used in chemistry and pharmacology of natural products as a prediction tool with the purpose of selecting plant extracts or fractions for in vitro tests. The aim of this research is to study the evaluation of potential tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase inhibitory activities of argan fruit press-cake and pulp extracts. Extracts were evaluated for their total phenolic content (TPC), and the major polyphenols of both press-cake and pulp extracts were submitted to molecular docking in order to determine the mechanisms of action of these compounds. Obtained results revealed that fruit pulp had the strongest dermocosmetic activities, as well as the highest TPC, with values above 55 mg gallic-acid equivalent per gram of dry matter (mgeq AG/gDM). Moreover, those results were positively correlated with the docking findings, suggesting that the pulp lead compounds have higher affinity with tyrosinase, collagenase, and elastase action sites. The results here presented are very promising and open new perspectives for the exploitation of argan-tree by-products as cosmetic agents towards the development of new anti-aging products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Curcuma aromatica and Curcuma comosa Extracts and Isolated Constituents Provide Protection against UVB-Induced Damage and Attenuate Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Expression in HaCaT Cells
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010023 - 11 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure is one of the primary extrinsic factors causing skin photoaging. It stimulates inflammatory responses and arrests the cell cycle. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) secreted by keratinocytes is one of the important extracellular matrixes to attenuate UVB-induced skin aging via collagen degradation. [...] Read more.
Ultraviolet-B (UVB) exposure is one of the primary extrinsic factors causing skin photoaging. It stimulates inflammatory responses and arrests the cell cycle. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) secreted by keratinocytes is one of the important extracellular matrixes to attenuate UVB-induced skin aging via collagen degradation. Curcuma aromatica (CA) and Curcuma comosa (CC), the herbaceous plants in the Zingiberaceae family, are commonly used in Thai traditional women’s medicines. The present work was aimed to investigate the potential of the CA and CC extracts and their isolated compounds to attenuate UVB-induced MMP-1 and cell cycle arrest in HaCaT keratinocytes. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of the extracts were determined. CC extract contains more phenolic components and provides more potent antioxidant activities than CA extract. HaCaTs were pretreated with the extracts or their isolated constituents 14 for 24 h and then repeatedly exposed to UVB at 100 mJ/cm2 10 times. Both extracts and compounds 14 effectively reduce UVB-induced MMP-1 levels in HaCaT cells and restore cell cycle arrest. This is the first report on the potential of CA and CC extracts in reducing UVB-induced MMP-1 expression and regulating cell proliferation in HaCaT cells. Thus, CA and CC extracts might be used as alternative natural agents to prevent UVB-induced skin photoaging. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
True Grit: A Story of Perseverance Making Two Out of Three the First Non-Animal Testing Strategy (Adopted as OECD Guideline No. 497)
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010022 - 05 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1585
Abstract
In the last two decades, great strides have been made in developing alternative methods to animal testing for regulatory and safety testing. In 2021, a breakthrough in regulatory testing was achieved in that the first test strategies employing non-animal test methods for skin [...] Read more.
In the last two decades, great strides have been made in developing alternative methods to animal testing for regulatory and safety testing. In 2021, a breakthrough in regulatory testing was achieved in that the first test strategies employing non-animal test methods for skin sensitization have been accepted as OECD guideline 497, which falls under the mutual acceptance of data (MAD) by OECD member states. Achieving this goal was a story of hard work and perseverance of the many people involved. This review gives an overview of some of the many aspects and timelines this entailed—just from the perspective of one stakeholder. In the end, the true grit of all involved allowed us to achieve not only a way forward in using test strategies for skin sensitization, but also a new approach to address other complex toxicological effects without the use of animals in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Alternative Methods for Safety Assessment of Cosmetics)
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Review
Sample Preparation of Cosmetic Products for the Determination of Heavy Metals
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010021 - 04 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1268
Abstract
The sample preparation of a cosmetic specimen in Cosmetic Science for the purpose of determining the analytical composition of heavy and toxic metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) is of particular importance due to the difficulty of [...] Read more.
The sample preparation of a cosmetic specimen in Cosmetic Science for the purpose of determining the analytical composition of heavy and toxic metals such as lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) is of particular importance due to the difficulty of handling the sample. There are two main methods of sample preparation. The first method is the wet digestion of the sample with strong acids such as H2SO4, HNO3, HF, and HNO3/HCl (1:3) and the combination of a strong acid with H2O2. Liquid digestion of the sample under the influence of strong acids damages the organic material of the sample and converts the carbon into carbon dioxide. The contained metals are oxidized to the highest oxidizing step and converted to soluble salts. A problem with this method is the loss of metals during digestion because it occurs at high temperatures as well as the decrease in the concentration of the residual acid. The second method of preparation is the wet liquid digestion of the sample with strong acids in a microwave oven in a closed vessel. The acids that are used are mainly HNO3 or mixtures of acids such as HNO3–HCl and HNO3–H2SO4. When the sample in the acid’s solvent is exposed to microwave energy, it can reach temperatures substantially above the boiling temperature of the acid solution. The result is the decomposition of the organic material, the oxidation of the metals, and their conversion to soluble nitrates. The advantages of using microwaves are the ability to control the temperature, pressure, and loss of metals and, thus, avoid erroneous measurement results. Simultaneously with the above, extraction methods have been, for almost a decade, very effective complementary processes that we can use to enrich a sample of a cosmetic product. Liquid–liquid dispersion micro-extraction (DLLME) and solid phase extraction (SPE) are the two main methods used in sample preparation and are usually applied after the digestion process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Article
Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Sunscreens on Marine Plankton
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010020 - 01 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine [...] Read more.
In recent years, a large number of sunscreens have emerged to protect our skin. Most of them are made up of simple or compound aromatic structures, which can pose a threat to marine ecosystems. In order to understand their effects on the marine environment, different ecotoxicological bioassays were carried out using planktonic organisms from three phyla and two different trophic levels: larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus, the copepod Acartia tonsa, and the microalga Tisochrysis lutea. The aim of these tests was to expose these organisms to leachates from eight sunscreen formulations. All of them showed a great variability in toxicity on the different plankton organisms. The highest toxicity level was found for cream number 4 when tested on sea urchin, exhibiting an EC50 = 122.4 mg/L. The toxicity of the UV filter 2-phenyl-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid, exclusively present in that cream, was evaluated in sea urchin, where an EC10 = 699.6 mg/L was obtained under light exposure. According to our results, all tested creams become nontoxic to plankton upon 30,000-fold dilution in seawater; thus, only local effects are expected. This study highlights the need to understand the toxic effects generated by solar protection products, as well as their ingredients, on marine organisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Communication
Food Loss and Food Waste for Green Cosmetics and Medical Devices for a Cleaner Planet
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 19; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010019 - 28 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
To stay wealthy in a world where all can live in prosperity and wellbeing, it is necessary to develop sustainable growth at net zero emissions to stop climate change, neutralizing both risks and diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic and inequalities. Changing the [...] Read more.
To stay wealthy in a world where all can live in prosperity and wellbeing, it is necessary to develop sustainable growth at net zero emissions to stop climate change, neutralizing both risks and diseases such as the COVID-19 pandemic and inequalities. Changing the worldwide use of the great quantity of food loss and waste can help to move in this direction. At this purpose, it seems useful to transform food waste into richness, extracting and using its content in natural ingredients and biopolymers to make new sustainable products and goods, including cosmetics and medical devices. Many of these ingredients are not only bioactive molecules considered of interest to produce these consumer products but are also useful in reducing the environmental footprint. The active agents may be obtained, for example, from waste material such as grapes or olive pomace, which include, among others natural polymers, phythosterols, vitamins, minerals and unsaturated fatty acids. Among the polymers, chitin and lignin have shown particular interest because biodegradable, nontoxic, skin- and environmentally friendly ingredients can be obtained at low cost from food and forestry waste, respectively. According to our experience, these polymers may be used to make nanocomposites and micro-nanoparticles that encapsulate different active ingredients, and which may be embedded into gel and non-woven tissues to realize advanced medications and smart cosmeceuticals. However, to utilize food waste in the best possible way, a better education of both industry and the consumer is considered necessary, introducing all to change the ways of production and living. The consumer has to understand the need to privilege, food, cosmetics and goods by selecting products known to be effective that also have a low release of carbon dioxide. Thus, they must pay heed to purchasing cosmetics and medical devices made by natural ingredients and packaged by biodegradable and/or reusable containers that are possibly plastic free. Conversely, the industry must try to use natural raw materials obtained from waste by changing their actual production methods. Therefore, both industry and the consumer should depart from the linear economy, which is based on taking, making, and producing waste, to move into a circular economy, which is based on redesigning, reducing, reusing and recycling. Some examples will report on the possibility to use natural polymers, including chitin and lignin, to produce new cosmeceutical tissues. These innovative tissues, to be used as biodegradable carriers for making smart cosmetics and medical devices, may be produced at zero waste to save our health and the planet biodiversity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
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Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Cosmetics in 2021
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010018 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1195
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
Review
Afro-Ethnic Hairstyling Trends, Risks, and Recommendations
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 17; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010017 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
Hairstyling trends among Black women fluctuate with social, cultural, and environmental pressures. Dermatologists should be aware of current trends and their associated risks in order to provide the best care to this population. In order to summarize the updated trends and associated health [...] Read more.
Hairstyling trends among Black women fluctuate with social, cultural, and environmental pressures. Dermatologists should be aware of current trends and their associated risks in order to provide the best care to this population. In order to summarize the updated trends and associated health risks for the most common hairstyles worn by Black women, a literature review was performed. PubMed and EMBASE were used to identify articles related to hair styling practices, studies on the effects or risks of various styling practices, and magazine articles citing current styling trends among women of African descent. All hairstyles were found to have associated health risks; however, natural styles had the fewest adverse associations of all styles reviewed. Central Centrifugal Cicatricial Alopecia (CCCA) is the most cited hair disorder in this population, possibly linked to both chemical relaxants and traction styles. Additional studies are needed to further establish causality between these styles and CCCA. Additionally, while acceptance of natural hairstyles is on the rise, there is more work to be done throughout society to help protect and encourage women who choose to wear Afrocentric styles. Dermatologists should be well versed in these hairstyles and ready to lend appropriate advice to patients when it is requested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2021)
Article
Effect of Three-Week Vibrotherapy on Selected Skin Parameters of Thighs and Buttocks in Women with Cellulite
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010016 - 26 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials [...] Read more.
Background: Cellulite (gynoid lipodystrophy, panniculopathy) affects approximately 85% of women and is related to genetic and hormonal factors, diet, and low physical activity. Vibrotherapy is a promising method of physical therapy to help fight cellulite that has not been studied exhaustively yet. Materials and Methods: Sixty healthy women (age: 19–43 years) with cellulite of at least grade I on the Nurnberg–Muller scale were recruited. The participants were randomly assigned to four groups, receiving a series of 15 vibration treatments in a sitting or lying position for 30 or 60 min. Before and after the first and last treatment, selected skin parameters were measured with the use of Courage and Khazaka equipment. Results: Skin hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) of thighs and buttocks differed significantly at all time points. Post hoc tests showed that each treatment caused a decrease in TEWL but no long-term effect was observed. For skin pH, a significant difference was observed between the measurements I and IV. The lying position caused a greater reduction in the value of the acid–base balance. Conclusions: A series of vibration treatments improved the hydration and pH of the skin. The treatments limited TEWL; however, no long-term effect was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Development and Characterization of Emulsions Containing Ground Seeds of Passiflora Species as Biobased Exfoliating Agents
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010015 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1312
Abstract
Ground seeds from three species of the genus Passiflora, P. ligularis, P. edulis Sims fo edulis, and P. mollissima, were obtained by extraction, drying, grinding, and sieving, and their physicochemical properties (morphology, hardness, and proximal analysis) were compared to those [...] Read more.
Ground seeds from three species of the genus Passiflora, P. ligularis, P. edulis Sims fo edulis, and P. mollissima, were obtained by extraction, drying, grinding, and sieving, and their physicochemical properties (morphology, hardness, and proximal analysis) were compared to those of commercial exfoliant seeds from passion fruit. Particle sizes between 0.5 and 1 mm were obtained, and their properties were similar to the commercial product except for the extractable material content that was higher. Subsequently, prototypes of an exfoliating cosmetic product were developed by using the ground seeds as the main active ingredient. Rheology characterization of samples enables to verify that the particles have minor effects on emulsion properties and that the emulsion is stable even after thermal treatment. In particular, the pH of the emulsion decreased when using the obtained ground seeds. This is consistent with the extraction and solvation of organic acids into the emulsion, in particular, alpha-hydroxy acids, which are present in high concentrations in Passiflora species. This indicates that the prepared emulsions could have a synergic chemical and physical exfoliating activity and could be used in cosmetic products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Phytochemical Analysis and Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Antiaging Activities of Ethanolic Seed Extracts of Four Mucuna Species
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010014 - 19 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1297
Abstract
The investigation into promising botanical materials for natural cosmetics is expanding due to environmental and health awareness. Here, we aimed to evaluate the phytochemical substances and the potential skin-related pharmacological activities of four Mucuna seeds, namely M. gigantea (Willd.) DC. (MGG), M. interrupta [...] Read more.
The investigation into promising botanical materials for natural cosmetics is expanding due to environmental and health awareness. Here, we aimed to evaluate the phytochemical substances and the potential skin-related pharmacological activities of four Mucuna seeds, namely M. gigantea (Willd.) DC. (MGG), M. interrupta Gagnep. (MIT), M. monosperma Wight (MMM), and M. pruriens (L.) DC. (MPR), belonging to the Fabaceae family. In methodology, the Mucuna seeds were authenticated using morphological and molecular approaches. L-DOPA, phenolics, and flavonoid content, incorporated with HPLC and GC–MS fingerprinting analyses, were determined. Then, skin-related antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiaging activities were determined. The results revealed that MPR showed the highest L-DOPA content (75.94 mg/100 mg extract), whereas MGG exhibited the highest phenolic and flavonoid content (56.73 ± 0.62 mg gallic/g extract and 1030.11 ± 3.97 mg quercetin/g extract, respectively). Only MMM and MPR could inhibit all of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and C. albicans, but no sample could inhibit C. acnes. Furthermore, all samples demonstrated antioxidant activity. Interestingly, all Mucuna samples exhibited strong collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase inhibitory activities. We conclude that the ethanolic extracts of four Mucuna seeds are probably advantageous in the development of skincare cosmeceutical products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
Zooceuticals and Cosmetic Ingredients Derived from Animals
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010013 - 19 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1260
Abstract
Many substances derived from animals are used as ingredients in the cosmetic industry and constitute a particular type of product: zooceuticals. The main ingredients used can come from insects, such as snail slime; land animals, such as lanolin; and marine animals, such as [...] Read more.
Many substances derived from animals are used as ingredients in the cosmetic industry and constitute a particular type of product: zooceuticals. The main ingredients used can come from insects, such as snail slime; land animals, such as lanolin; and marine animals, such as marine collagen. Today, they are used less than in the past for hygienic–sanitary, ethical, and ecological reasons. Moreover, some can give rise to irritative or allergic dermatitis. However, they still represent a fraction of the common ingredients in certain types of cosmetic products today. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
In Vitro Cell Culture of Rhus coriaria L.: A Standardized Phytocomplex Rich of Gallic Acid Derivatives with Antioxidant and Skin Repair Activity
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010012 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1089
Abstract
This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of a new ingredient obtained by in vitro cell culture of Rhus coriaria L. An in vitro plant cell culture method permits to cultivate plant in a short period of time and to [...] Read more.
This study focused on the biological evaluation and chemical characterization of a new ingredient obtained by in vitro cell culture of Rhus coriaria L. An in vitro plant cell culture method permits to cultivate plant in a short period of time and to obtain extract with a high safety profile for the consumer, free from heavy metals, pesticides, aflatoxins, bacterial or fungal contamination. Through the selection of specific cell culture media, it was possible to obtain a Rhus coriaria cell line with a high content of gallic acid derivatives. The Rhus coriaria L. phytocomplex (RC-P), containing 7.6% w/w of acid gallic derivatives, was obtained by drying of plant cell biomass after 14 days of growth in the final selected culture medium. UPLC-ESI-MS and UPLC-DAD analysis allowed to identify numerous gallic acid derivatives, such as galloyl hexose, trigalloyl hexose and high molecular weight galloyl derivatives, and to quantify their overall content. The antioxidant activity of the RC-P was tested by DPPH assay and the wound healing activity was evaluated using a scratch wound healing test on human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. This work showed that RC-P could be a new effective cosmetic ingredient with antioxidant and skin repair activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Review
Aeroterrestrial and Extremophilic Microalgae as Promising Sources for Lipids and Lipid Nanoparticles in Dermal Cosmetics
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010011 - 17 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1119
Abstract
Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae [...] Read more.
Microscopic prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae (microalgae), which can be effectively grown in mass cultures, are gaining increasing interest in cosmetics. Up to now, the main attention was on aquatic algae, while species from aeroterrestrial and extreme environments remained underestimated. In these habitats, algae accumulate high amounts of some chemical substances or develop specific compounds, which cause them to thrive in inimical conditions. Among such biologically active molecules is a large family of lipids, which are significant constituents in living organisms and valuable ingredients in cosmetic formulations. Therefore, natural sources of lipids are increasingly in demand in the modern cosmetic industry and its innovative technologies. Among novelties in skin care products is the use of lipid nanoparticles as carriers of dermatologically active ingredients, which enhance their penetration and release in the skin strata. This review is an attempt to comprehensively cover the available literature on the high-value lipids from microalgae, which inhabit aeroterrestrial and extreme habitats (AEM). Data on different compounds of 87 species, subspecies and varieties from 53 genera (represented by more than 141 strains) from five phyla are provided and, despite some gaps in the current knowledge, demonstrate the promising potential of AEM as sources of valuable lipids for novel skin care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lipid Nanoparticles in Cosmetic Dermal Products)
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Case Report
Pigmentation and Scaring Management after Hypodermoclysis, a Case Report
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010010 - 12 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1042
Abstract
Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin [...] Read more.
Hypodermoclysis is the continuous subcutaneous infusion of a parenteral solution into dermal tissue, which is typically associated with skin lesions and cosmetic issues in the majority of patients. Scarring and pigmentation are two of the potential skin lesions after hypodermoclysis. The way skin diseases and cosmetic issues are treated has altered dramatically as a result of laser technology. This is the first article to our knowledge that describes the treatment of pigmentation and scarring produced by Hypodermoclysis cutaneous damage by using laser treatment. It was vital to select the appropriate endpoint, technology, and configuration parameters. The lesion was completely resolved after five months of treatment with four laser sessions. The first session used a fractional Er-Yag laser to perform cold ablation. The remaining sessions used 1064 and 585 nm Nd-Yag Q-switch lasers to operate in the nanosecond region. To minimize the danger of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH), the treated region was prepped between laser treatments with 4% hydroquinone (HQ) cream. Our protocol may reduce scars and pigmentation while minimizing adverse effects and downtime. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Microalgae as a Sustainable, Natural-Oriented and Vegan Dermocosmetic Bioactive Ingredient: The Case of Neochloris oleoabundans
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010009 - 09 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1214
Abstract
“Vegan” and “sustainable” characteristics are strong claim trends behind the development of innovative skincare, fragrances, and makeup products. This created a need in the market for compliant ingredients. To date, there have been no records evidencing the use of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans [...] Read more.
“Vegan” and “sustainable” characteristics are strong claim trends behind the development of innovative skincare, fragrances, and makeup products. This created a need in the market for compliant ingredients. To date, there have been no records evidencing the use of the microalgae Neochloris oleoabundans (NA) in dermocosmetics. Therefore, we studied the applicability of such a natural compound in this context. NA was cultivated, and the scavenging activity (SA) of the NA extracts was evaluated. The highest SA was from the aqueous extract (54.8% ± 2.1%), being higher than that of the positive control. Two hydrogels were prepared with 1.0% ammonium acryloyldimethyltaurate/VP copolymer: (1) control gel; and (2) gel with a 1.0% NA aqueous extract. In vivo experiments were performed in healthy male and female volunteers with skin phototypes of II–IV. The stratum corneum (SC) hydration and the transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were measured in the forearm of participants to determine their biocompatibility. This parameter was determined by skin bioengineering measurements, confirming that SC hydration and TEWL were not affected by the samples. The laser Doppler measurements results showed a delayed erythema onset in the sites, where the NA hydrogel was applied. The results confirmed the biocompatibility and the anti-inflammatory activity of an innovative ingredient derived from microalgae suitable for a natural and vegan lifestyle. Full article
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Article
Cosmetic Potential of a Recombinant 50 kDa Protein
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010008 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1552
Abstract
Collagen and its derivative proteins have been widely used as a major component for cosmetic formulations as a natural ingredient and moisturizer. Most commercially available collagens are animal-derived collagen type I and other forms of collagen, such as type III collagen, are far [...] Read more.
Collagen and its derivative proteins have been widely used as a major component for cosmetic formulations as a natural ingredient and moisturizer. Most commercially available collagens are animal-derived collagen type I and other forms of collagen, such as type III collagen, are far less prevalent in animals, making extraction and purification extremely difficult and expensive. Here, we report the production of a 50 kDa protein produced in yeast that is 100% identical to the N-terminus of the human type III collagen. This recombinant protein has a larger molecular weight than most incumbent recombinant collagen proteins available for personal care applications. We report the industrialization of both the fermentation and purification processes to produce a final recombinant protein product. This final protein product was shown to be safe for general applications to human skin and compatible with common formulation protocols, including ethanol-based formulations. This recombinant collagen type III protein was also shown to uniquely stimulate both collagen type I and type III production and secretion by primary human dermal fibroblasts. The unique combination of biostimulation, compatibility with beauty product formulations and demonstrated commercial production, make this novel recombinant type III collagen a good candidate for broad application in the cosmetics industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Application of Biopolymers in Cosmetics)
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Review
Licorice (Glycyrrhiza glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) and Their Constituents as Active Cosmeceutical Ingredients
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 7; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010007 - 05 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1570
Abstract
The interest in plant extracts and natural compounds in cosmetic formulations is growing. Natural products may significantly improve cosmetics performance since they have both cosmetic and therapeutic-like properties, known as cosmeceutical effects. Glycyrrhiza genus, belonging to the Leguminosae family, comprises more than 30 [...] Read more.
The interest in plant extracts and natural compounds in cosmetic formulations is growing. Natural products may significantly improve cosmetics performance since they have both cosmetic and therapeutic-like properties, known as cosmeceutical effects. Glycyrrhiza genus, belonging to the Leguminosae family, comprises more than 30 species, widely distributed worldwide. The rhizomes and roots are the most important medicinal parts currently used in pharmaceutical industries and in the production of functional foods and food supplements. In the last few years, the interest in their potential activities in cosmetic formulations has greatly increased. Glycyrrhiza spp. extracts are widely implemented in cosmetic products for their good whitening effect. The biological effects of Glycyrrhiza extracts are especially ascribable to the occurrence of specialized metabolites belonging to the flavonoid class. This review focuses on the botany and the chemistry of the main investigated Glycyrrhiza spp. (G. glabra, G. uralensis, and G. inflata) along with their cosmeceutical activities categorized as skin anti-aging, photoprotective, hair care, and anti-acne. It has been highlighted how, along with Glycyrrhiza extracts, three main flavonoids namely licochalcone A, glabridin, and dehydroglyasperin C are the most investigated compounds. It is noteworthy that other molecules from licorice show potential cosmeceutical effects. These data suggest further investigations to clarify their potential value for cosmetic industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Biophysical and Subject-Based Assessment of the Effects of Topical Moisturizer Usage on Xerotic Skin—Part I: EpsilonTM 2D Skin Hydration
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010006 - 31 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher, it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. This work was aimed at understanding how [...] Read more.
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher, it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. This work was aimed at understanding how two-dimensional (2D) skin hydration mapping can be used to describe skin properties beyond the traditional ‘single number’ approach to skin hydration. Two-dimensional skin hydration measurement data were collected at baseline and after 1 week of in vivo usage of a topical moisturizing product. In addition, subject feedback regarding their skin condition obtained during the study was collected and assessed. Dividing the 2D hydration measurement device images into zones of different electrical permittivity scores enabled analysis of different aspects of the skin compared with traditional electrical skin hydration measurements. Improvement in skin flexibility as a result of use of the topical test product was demonstrated. Complete description of the skin’s hydration state through the creation of hydration histograms to describe its electrical characteristics was performed. Subject feedback data showed improvements in aspects of skin assessed using 2D hydration measurement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Biophysical and Subject-Based Assessment of the Effects of Topical Moisturizer Usage on Xerotic Skin—Part II: Visioscan® VC 20plus Imaging
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 5; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010005 - 31 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1277
Abstract
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. The aim of the work presented here [...] Read more.
As new biophysical methods become available to the skin researcher it is important to understand the type of information that they are capable of measuring, and how it relates to consumer perception of topical moisturizing products. The aim of the work presented here was to understand what dry skin imaging can reveal about the skin and subject feedback from the use of a topical moisturizing product and how it relates to the consumer usage experience of a topical product. Images from a dry skin camera—the Visioscan® VC 20plus—during 3 weeks in vivo usage of a topical moisturizing product were analyzed. Subject feedback regarding their skin condition was also collected. Strong statistical improvements (p < 0.05) were observed for a wide range of skin parameters derived from the Visioscan® VC 20plus. Skin scaliness and smoothness and parameters associated with skin health and appearance (surface, energy, contrast, homogeneity) improved as a result of topical product usage. Subjects reported their skin to feel less dry, to be smoother, and more supple and to look and feel healthier after product usage. The length of time until they felt the need to re-apply the product increased during the study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Cosmetics in 2022)
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Article
Encapsulated Activated Grape Seed Extract: A Novel Formulation with Anti-Aging, Skin-Brightening, and Hydration Properties
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010004 - 30 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1555
Abstract
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a master regulatory protein that plays a critical role in oxidative stress signaling. A novel, proprietary grape seed extract called Activated Grape Seed Extract (AGSE), enriched for PP2A-activating flavonoids, was recently developed and demonstrated to have antioxidant and [...] Read more.
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a master regulatory protein that plays a critical role in oxidative stress signaling. A novel, proprietary grape seed extract called Activated Grape Seed Extract (AGSE), enriched for PP2A-activating flavonoids, was recently developed and demonstrated to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. AGSE is a purple-colored powder, with limited solubility restricting its use in a broad range of formulations. Our aim was to develop a formulation that reduced the color and increased the solubility of AGSE, allowing its skin-health-enhancing properties to be utilized in a wider array of products, and to test it clinically. Encapsulation was performed utilizing a liposome and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, (HPCD)-based approach to produce Encapsulated AGSE (E-AGSE). Human dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes were used to determine expression levels of aging and dermal–epidermal junction (DEJ) markers. EpiDerm™ was UVB-irradiated to measure the effects against cytokine release, DNA damage, apoptosis, and skin barrier. Human melanocytes were used to determine melanin production and mushroom tyrosinase was used for inhibitory activity. A 4-week, 31-subject sensitive-skin clinical was performed with 2% E-AGSE Essence to assess its activity on human skin. We demonstrated that E-AGSE inhibits PP2A demethylation, increases key anti-aging (collagen I, III, elastin) and DEJ markers, protects against UVB-induced DNA damage, reduces inflammation, and promotes filaggrin in vitro. Moreover, E-AGSE reduces melanin production via tyrosinase inhibition. Clinical assessment of E-AGSE showed that it reduces the appearance of wrinkles, brightens the skin, and boosts hydration. E-AGSE is a novel grape seed extract formulation enriched for PP2A-activating flavonoids that is clinically effective in sensitive skin, providing several benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Cosmetic Ingredients, Formulations and Devices)
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Article
Formula Development of Red Palm (Elaeis guineensis) Fruit Extract Loaded with Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Containing Creams and Its Anti-Aging Efficacy in Healthy Volunteers
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010003 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1685
Abstract
Palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis) comprise antioxidants that can be used as skin care agents. This study developed a cosmeceutical cream containing E. guineensis extract, loaded with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and assessed its efficacy on female volunteers. The E. guineensis extract [...] Read more.
Palm fruits (Elaeis guineensis) comprise antioxidants that can be used as skin care agents. This study developed a cosmeceutical cream containing E. guineensis extract, loaded with solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and assessed its efficacy on female volunteers. The E. guineensis extract exhibited a good antioxidant activity with high levels of vitamin E, β-carotene, and palmitic acid. Day and night creams containing E. guineensis fruit extract, loaded with SLNs, were formulated and exhibited acceptable physical characteristics and good stability. Subsequently, their clinical efficacy and safety were evaluated on female volunteers. Both creams were non-irritating and had good cutaneous compatibility. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin elasticity, melanin index, and skin texture were measured before and 30 min after the first application, as well as after 7, 14, and 30 days of daily application. A satisfactory survey was implemented using a questionnaire, and volunteer satisfaction scores were high for the product’s performance. Overall, the results showed that skin hydration, TEWL, cutaneous elasticity, and melanin index were improved, compared to the baseline data, after 30 days. Thus, the formulated facial day and night creams made the skin moist, reduced wrinkles, increased elasticity, and cleared the skin to the consumers’ satisfaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Ingredients in Cosmetics and Food (Volume II))
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Article
Cryptomphalus aspersa Eggs Extract Potentiates Human Epidermal Stem Cell Regeneration and Amplification
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010002 - 23 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1175
Abstract
Modern life and extended life expectancy have prompted the search for natural compounds alleviating skin aging. Evidence supports the beneficial effects on skin integrity and health from the topical administration of preparations of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa eggs extract (IFC-CAF®) and [...] Read more.
Modern life and extended life expectancy have prompted the search for natural compounds alleviating skin aging. Evidence supports the beneficial effects on skin integrity and health from the topical administration of preparations of the mollusc Cryptomphalus aspersa eggs extract (IFC-CAF®) and suggests these effects are partly derived from an impact on skin renewal and repair mechanisms. The objective was to dissect in vitro the specific impact of IFC-CAF® on different parameters related to the regenerative potential, differentiation phenotype and exhaustion of skin stem cells. A prominent impact of IFC-CAF® was the induction of stratification and differentiated phenotypes from skin stem cells. IFC-CAF® slowed down the cell cycle at the keratinocyte DNA repair phase and, decelerated proliferation. However, it preserved the proliferative potential of the stem cells. IFC-CAF® reduced the DNA damage marker, γH2AX, and induced the expression of the transcription factor p53. These features correlated with significant protection in telomere shortening upon replicative exhaustion. Thus, IFC-CAF® helps maintain orderly cell cycling and differentiation, thus potentiating DNA repair and integrity. Our observations support the regenerative and repair capacity of IFC-CAF® on skin, through the improved mobilization and ordered differentiation of keratinocyte precursors and the enhancement of genome surveillance and repair mechanisms that counteract aging. Full article
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Article
Flexabrasion Applied to the Evaluation of the Photodegradation of Hair Fibers
Cosmetics 2022, 9(1), 1; https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics9010001 - 21 Dec 2021
Viewed by 1143
Abstract
Solar radiation is a significant source of damage to hair fibers. However, the instrumental measurement of the consequences of its interaction with hair fibers’ constituents remains a challenge. In this work, the flexabrasion methodology was investigated as a potential tool to quantify the [...] Read more.
Solar radiation is a significant source of damage to hair fibers. However, the instrumental measurement of the consequences of its interaction with hair fibers’ constituents remains a challenge. In this work, the flexabrasion methodology was investigated as a potential tool to quantify the damage to mechanical hair properties caused by solar rays. The in vitro experiment developed for this study simulated four initial conditions of human hair samples, which subsequently underwent different periods of exposure to the radiation emitted by a Xenon arc lamp source. The statistical analysis of the results characterized the methodology’s ability to evaluate the impact of solar radiation on the hair’s mechanical resistance. More evident effects were observed on natural fibers subjected to exposures of up to 60 h and over, corresponding to about 1.5 h per day of sun exposure in Rio de Janeiro over five months. The results point to flexabrasion as an option to evaluate the photoprotection efficacy offered by hair-care products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Scalp and Hair Health)
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