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Vaccines, Volume 9, Issue 1 (January 2021) – 66 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Influenza viruses remain a constant burden in humans, causing millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths each year. Current influenza virus vaccines are often strain-specific, meaning limited cross-protection against divergent viruses, resulting in poor vaccine efficacy. Yearly influenza vaccination is an expensive and time-consuming exercise, and the constant arms race between host immunity and virus evolution presents an ongoing challenge for efficacy. Additionally, there exists the constant pandemic threat of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses with high fatality rates (~30–50%) or the emergence of new, pathogenic reassortants, highlighting the urgent need for improved influenza virus vaccines. Here, we review the next generation of influenza virus vaccines and the steps being taken to achieve universal protection. View this paper.
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Article
A Scalable Manufacturing Approach to Single Dose Vaccination against HPV
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010066 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a globally prevalent sexually-transmitted pathogen, responsible for most cases of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination rates remain suboptimal, partly due to the need for multiple doses, leading to a lack of compliance and incomplete protection. To address the drawbacks of [...] Read more.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a globally prevalent sexually-transmitted pathogen, responsible for most cases of cervical cancer. HPV vaccination rates remain suboptimal, partly due to the need for multiple doses, leading to a lack of compliance and incomplete protection. To address the drawbacks of current HPV vaccines, we used a scalable manufacturing process to prepare implantable polymer–protein blends for single-administration with sustained delivery. Peptide epitopes from HPV16 capsid protein L2 were conjugated to the virus-like particles derived from bacteriophage Qβ, to enhance their immunogenicity. The HPV-Qβ particles were then encapsulated into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) implants, using a benchtop melt-processing system. The implants facilitated the slow and sustained release of HPV-Qβ particles without the loss of nanoparticle integrity, during high temperature melt processing. Mice vaccinated with the implants generated IgG titers comparable to the traditional soluble injections and achieved protection in a pseudovirus neutralization assay. HPV-Qβ implants offer a new vaccination platform; because the melt-processing is so versatile, the technology offers the opportunity for massive upscale into any geometric form factor. Notably, microneedle patches would allow for self-administration in the absence of a healthcare professional, within the developing world. The Qβ technology is highly adaptable, allowing the production of vaccine candidates and their delivery devices for multiple strains or types of viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Vaccines- A Powerhouse for Global Health)
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Review
Nanomaterial Delivery Systems for mRNA Vaccines
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010065 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 16055
Abstract
The recent success of mRNA vaccines in SARS-CoV-2 clinical trials is in part due to the development of lipid nanoparticle delivery systems that not only efficiently express the mRNA-encoded immunogen after intramuscular injection, but also play roles as adjuvants and in vaccine reactogenicity. [...] Read more.
The recent success of mRNA vaccines in SARS-CoV-2 clinical trials is in part due to the development of lipid nanoparticle delivery systems that not only efficiently express the mRNA-encoded immunogen after intramuscular injection, but also play roles as adjuvants and in vaccine reactogenicity. We present an overview of mRNA delivery systems and then focus on the lipid nanoparticles used in the current SARS-CoV-2 vaccine clinical trials. The review concludes with an analysis of the determinants of the performance of lipid nanoparticles in mRNA vaccines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past, Present, and Future of mRNA Vaccines)
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Article
Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphoid Cells in Colorectal Cancer Patients with Varying Disease Stages and Microsatellite Instability-High/Stable Tumors
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010064 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1469
Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibition is an effective anti-cancer therapeutic approach but has shown limited efficacy in treating colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Importantly, immune constituents of the tumor microenvironment (TME) can influence therapy response and cancer progression. We investigated the expression of immune checkpoints (ICs) [...] Read more.
Immune checkpoint inhibition is an effective anti-cancer therapeutic approach but has shown limited efficacy in treating colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Importantly, immune constituents of the tumor microenvironment (TME) can influence therapy response and cancer progression. We investigated the expression of immune checkpoints (ICs) on lymphoid populations within the CRC TME and compared with cells from normal colon tissues using samples from 50 patients with varying disease stages. We found that the levels of B cells, T cells, and NK cells were similar, IC-expressing CD4+ and CD4+CD8+ double positive T cells were higher, while CD8+ T cells and CD4CD8 double negative T cells were significantly lower in CRC tumors. Notably, patients with mismatch-repair deficiency/microsatellite instability-high tumors had higher levels of IC-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells than patients with proficient MMR and microsatellite stable tumors. Lastly, The Cancer Genome Atlas Colon Adenocarcinoma datasets showed associations between low expression of selective genes and poorer progression-free interval. Our findings highlight differential expression of ICs on lymphoid cells in CRC tumors in the era of cancer immunotherapy, which at present is solely approved for anti-PD-1 therapy in patients with dMMR/MSI-H tumors. Further investigations into their functionality have potentials for deciphering resistance mechanisms to IC inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Tumor Immunotherapy)
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Article
HPV Vaccination Attitudes and Behaviors among General Practitioners in Italy
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010063 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 887
Abstract
This cross-sectional electronic online or telephone survey assessed the attitudes and behaviors regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the effect of different factors among a nationally representative random sample of 349 general practitioners (GPs) in Italy. A semi-structured interview was performed between September [...] Read more.
This cross-sectional electronic online or telephone survey assessed the attitudes and behaviors regarding human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and the effect of different factors among a nationally representative random sample of 349 general practitioners (GPs) in Italy. A semi-structured interview was performed between September 2018 and October 2020. Almost all respondents considered the HPV vaccine safe with an overall mean value of 8.8, on a scale ranging from 1 to 10, and 59.9% and 32.6% believed that the vaccination was very effective in preventing the related diseases among 12–26 years’ girls and boys. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that GPs who had received information about HPV vaccination from scientific journals were more likely to have positive attitude towards the effectiveness of the vaccine in preventing HPV-related diseases in girls between 12–26 years. A large majority (81.5%) of GPs who provided assistance to girls’ patients aged 11–12 years often or always recommend the HPV vaccine to them, and this behavior was more likely to occur in those who believed that the vaccine was very effective in preventing HPV-related diseases in girls between 12–26 years. GPs were more likely to often or always recommend the HPV vaccine to boys aged 11–12 years if they often or always recommended the vaccine to girls aged 11–12 years, if they believed that the vaccine was very effective in preventing HPV-related diseases in boys between 12–26 years, and if they considered the HPV vaccine very safe. GPs should receive information about the HPV immunization to ensure that they routinely communicate with their patient population in order to achieve better coverage rates. Full article
Article
Change of Willingness to Accept COVID-19 Vaccine and Reasons of Vaccine Hesitancy of Working People at Different Waves of Local Epidemic in Hong Kong, China: Repeated Cross-Sectional Surveys
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010062 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 7802
Abstract
Vaccine hesitancy is among the major threats to the effectiveness of vaccination programmes. This study aimed to report the trend in response to willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine between two waves of the local epidemic and examine differences among occupations. Two cross-sectional [...] Read more.
Vaccine hesitancy is among the major threats to the effectiveness of vaccination programmes. This study aimed to report the trend in response to willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine between two waves of the local epidemic and examine differences among occupations. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted online during the first wave (February) and third wave (August to September) of the local epidemic in 2020. Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine was measured along with personal protection behaviours and occupations. A total of 2047 participants provided valid responses. The willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine among the participants was lower in the third wave (34.8%) than the first wave (44.2%). There were more concerns over vaccine safety in the third wave. Clerical/service/sales workers were less likely to accept the vaccine (adjusted odds ratio: 0.62, 95% confidence interval: 0.43–0.91). A high-level compliance of facemask wearing was found, and more people maintained social distancing and used alcohol hand rub in the third wave. Decreasing willingness to accept the COVID-19 vaccine may be associated with increasing concerns about vaccine safety and growing compliance of personal protection behaviours. The rush of vaccine development with higher risks of safety issues may jeopardize the public’s trust and lower uptake rates. Education and favourable policy should be provided to the general working population for the vaccination, especially for those who are not professional and are frequently exposed to crowds. Full article
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Review
Immune Responses Induced by mRNA Vaccination in Mice, Monkeys and Humans
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010061 - 18 Jan 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 5767
Abstract
In this concise review, we summarize the concepts behind mRNA vaccination. We discuss the innate and adaptive immune response generated by mRNA vaccines in different animal models and in humans. We give examples of viral infections where mRNA vaccines have shown to induce [...] Read more.
In this concise review, we summarize the concepts behind mRNA vaccination. We discuss the innate and adaptive immune response generated by mRNA vaccines in different animal models and in humans. We give examples of viral infections where mRNA vaccines have shown to induce potent responses and we discuss in more detail the recent SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine trials in humans. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past, Present, and Future of mRNA Vaccines)
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Article
Plant-Produced Antigen Displaying Virus-Like Particles Evokes Potent Antibody Responses against West Nile Virus in Mice
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010060 - 17 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1060
Abstract
In this study, we developed a hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-based virus-like particle (VLP) that displays the West Nile virus (WNV) Envelope protein domain III (wDIII) as a vaccine candidate for WNV. The HBcAg-wDIII fusion protein was quickly produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants [...] Read more.
In this study, we developed a hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-based virus-like particle (VLP) that displays the West Nile virus (WNV) Envelope protein domain III (wDIII) as a vaccine candidate for WNV. The HBcAg-wDIII fusion protein was quickly produced in Nicotiana benthamiana plants and reached a high expression level of approximately 1.2 mg of fusion protein per gram of leaf fresh weight within six days post gene infiltration. Electron microscopy and gradient centrifugation analysis indicated that the introduction of wDIII did not interfere with VLP formation and HBcAg-wDIII successfully assembled into VLPs. HBcAg-wDIII VLPs can be easily purified in large quantities from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves to >95% homogeneity. Further analysis revealed that the wDIII was displayed properly and demonstrated specific binding to an anti-wDIII monoclonal antibody that recognizes a conformational epitope of wDIII. Notably, HBcAg-wDIII VLPs were shown to be highly immunogenic and elicited potent humoral responses in mice with antigen-specific IgG titers equivalent to that of protective wDIII antigens in previous studies. Thus, our wDIII-based VLP vaccine offers an attractive option for developing effective, safe, and low-cost vaccines against WNV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Based Vaccines- A Powerhouse for Global Health)
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Review
Investigating the Interaction between Negative Strand RNA Viruses and Their Hosts for Enhanced Vaccine Development and Production
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010059 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1243
Abstract
The current pandemic has highlighted the ever-increasing risk of human to human spread of zoonotic pathogens. A number of medically-relevant zoonotic pathogens are negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs). NSVs are derived from different virus families. Examples like Ebola are known for causing severe symptoms [...] Read more.
The current pandemic has highlighted the ever-increasing risk of human to human spread of zoonotic pathogens. A number of medically-relevant zoonotic pathogens are negative-strand RNA viruses (NSVs). NSVs are derived from different virus families. Examples like Ebola are known for causing severe symptoms and high mortality rates. Some, like influenza, are known for their ease of person-to-person transmission and lack of pre-existing immunity, enabling rapid spread across many countries around the globe. Containment of outbreaks of NSVs can be difficult owing to their unpredictability and the absence of effective control measures, such as vaccines and antiviral therapeutics. In addition, there remains a lack of essential knowledge of the host–pathogen response that are induced by NSVs, particularly of the immune responses that provide protection. Vaccines are the most effective method for preventing infectious diseases. In fact, in the event of a pandemic, appropriate vaccine design and speed of vaccine supply is the most critical factor in protecting the population, as vaccination is the only sustainable defense. Vaccines need to be safe, efficient, and cost-effective, which is influenced by our understanding of the host–pathogen interface. Additionally, some of the major challenges of vaccines are the establishment of a long-lasting immunity offering cross protection to emerging strains. Although many NSVs are controlled through immunisations, for some, vaccine design has failed or efficacy has proven unreliable. The key behind designing a successful vaccine is understanding the host–pathogen interaction and the host immune response towards NSVs. In this paper, we review the recent research in vaccine design against NSVs and explore the immune responses induced by these viruses. The generation of a robust and integrated approach to development capability and vaccine manufacture can collaboratively support the management of outbreaking NSV disease health risks. Full article
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Article
Comparison of Two Hepatitis B Vaccination Strategies Targeting Vertical Transmission: A 10-Year Japanese Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010058 - 17 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1202
Abstract
In 1985, a hepatitis B (HB) vaccination strategy against vertical HB virus transmission was introduced in Japan that recommended vaccination of infants at two, three, and five months of age (delayed strategy). This schedule was revised in 2013, recommending to vaccinate at birth [...] Read more.
In 1985, a hepatitis B (HB) vaccination strategy against vertical HB virus transmission was introduced in Japan that recommended vaccination of infants at two, three, and five months of age (delayed strategy). This schedule was revised in 2013, recommending to vaccinate at birth and at 1 and 6 months of age (non-delayed strategy). We aimed to compare the vertical HB virus transmission rates and immunogenic responses between these two vaccination strategies. This Japanese multicenter prospective cohort study included 222 infants born between 2008 and 2017 to serum hepatitis B surface (HBs) antigen (HBsAg)-positive mothers. During the study period, 136 and 86 infants received delayed and non-delayed strategies, respectively. A positive vertical HB virus transmission was defined as a positive serum HBsAg status. Seropositive immunogenic response was defined as a serum anti-HBs titer of ≥10 mIU/mL. Post-vaccination serum HBsAg positivity rates did not differ significantly between the delayed (0/136 [0.0%, 95% confidence interval, 0.0–2.7%]) and non-delayed (2/86 [2.3%, 95% confidence interval, 0.3–8.1%]) strategy groups. Seropositive immunogenic response rates were 100.0% (136/136) and 97.7% (84/86), respectively. Although this study was under-powered to detect a statistically significant result, no vertical HB virus transmission was observed in the delayed strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Timely Administration of the Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccine)
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Article
Refinement of a Live Attenuated Salmonella enterica Serovar Newport Vaccine with Improved Safety
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010057 - 16 Jan 2021
Viewed by 929
Abstract
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of gastroenteritis and is responsible for approximately 93 million cases annually. In healthy individuals, gastroenteritis caused by NTS is usually self-limiting, however, NTS can cause severe invasive disease in immunocompromised patients. Very little research has been [...] Read more.
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a major cause of gastroenteritis and is responsible for approximately 93 million cases annually. In healthy individuals, gastroenteritis caused by NTS is usually self-limiting, however, NTS can cause severe invasive disease in immunocompromised patients. Very little research has been directed towards development of vaccines against Salmonella serogroups O:6,7 or O:8. We have constructed a live attenuated serogroup O:8 vaccine, CVD 1979, by deleting guaBA, htrA, and aroA from the genome of S. Newport. We have shown that the candidate vaccine is well tolerated in mice and elicits serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies against core O-polysaccharide (COPS) when administered orally. Immunized mice were challenged intraperitoneally with wild-type S. Newport and bacterial burden in the liver and spleen was found to be significantly reduced in the livers of immunized mice compared to control mice. We also observed moderate vaccine efficacy (45%) against lethal challenge with the serogroup O:8 serovar, S. Muenchen, but low vaccine efficacy (28%) following lethal challenge with a serogroup O:6,7 serovar, S. Virchow. In vitro, we have shown that antibodies generated by CVD 1979 only recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from serogroup O:8 but not serogroup O:6,7 serovars, and that they mediate opsonophagocytic antibody (OPA) activity against serogroup O:8 but not serogroup O:6,7 serovars. We also showed that OPA activity can be blocked by pre-incubating the antisera with serogroup O:8 lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, our data demonstrate that we have constructed a well-tolerated, effective live attenuated S. Newport vaccine which elicits functional antibodies against serogroup O:8 but not O:6,7 serovars. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Vaccine Immunogenicity)
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Article
Liposomal Nanovaccine Containing α-Galactosylceramide and Ganglioside GM3 Stimulates Robust CD8+ T Cell Responses via CD169+ Macrophages and cDC1
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010056 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Successful anti-cancer vaccines aim to prime and reinvigorate cytotoxic T cells and should therefore comprise a potent antigen and adjuvant. Antigen targeting to splenic CD169+ macrophages was shown to induce robust CD8+ T cell responses via antigen transfer to cDC1. Interestingly, [...] Read more.
Successful anti-cancer vaccines aim to prime and reinvigorate cytotoxic T cells and should therefore comprise a potent antigen and adjuvant. Antigen targeting to splenic CD169+ macrophages was shown to induce robust CD8+ T cell responses via antigen transfer to cDC1. Interestingly, CD169+ macrophages can also activate type I natural killer T-cells (NKT). NKT activation via ligands such as α-galactosylceramide (αGC) serve as natural adjuvants through dendritic cell activation. Here, we incorporated ganglioside GM3 and αGC in ovalbumin (OVA) protein-containing liposomes to achieve both CD169+ targeting and superior DC activation. The systemic delivery of GM3-αGC-OVA liposomes resulted in specific uptake by splenic CD169+ macrophages, stimulated strong IFNγ production by NKT and NK cells and coincided with the maturation of cDC1 and significant IL-12 production. Strikingly, superior induction of OVA-specific CD8+ T cells was detected after immunization with GM3-αGC-OVA liposomes. CD8+ T cell activation, but not B cell activation, was dependent on CD169+ macrophages and cDC1, while activation of NKT and NK cells were partially mediated by cDC1. In summary, GM3-αGC antigen-containing liposomes are a potent vaccination platform that promotes the interaction between different immune cell populations, resulting in strong adaptive immunity and therefore emerge as a promising anti-cancer vaccination strategy. Full article
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Article
Passive Immunization with Recombinant Antibody VLRB-PirAvp/PirBvp—Enriched Feeds against Vibrio parahaemolyticus Infection in Litopenaeus vannamei Shrimp
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010055 - 16 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
The causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is the bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes toxins into the gastrointestinal tract of its host. Vibrio parahaemolyticus toxins A and B (PirAvp/PirBvp) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of [...] Read more.
The causative agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) is the bacterium, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, which secretes toxins into the gastrointestinal tract of its host. Vibrio parahaemolyticus toxins A and B (PirAvp/PirBvp) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disease, and are, therefore, the focus of studies developing treatments for AHPND. We previously produced recombinant antibodies based on the hagfish variable lymphocyte receptor B (VLRB) capable of neutralizing some viruses, suggesting that this type of antibody may have a potential application for treatment of AHPND. Here, recombinant PirAvp/PirBvp, produced using a bacterial expression system, were used as antigens to screen a hagfish VLRB cDNA library to obtain PirAvp/PirBvp-specific antibodies. A cell line secreting these antibodies was established by screening and cloning the DNA extracted from hagfish B cells. Supernatants collected from cells secreting the PirAvp/PirBvp antibodies were collected and concentrated, and used to passively immunize shrimp to neutralize the toxins PirAvp or PirBvp associated with AHPND. Briefly, 10 μg of PirAvp and PirBvp antibodies, 7C12 and 9G10, respectively, were mixed with the shrimp feed, and fed to shrimp for three days consecutive days prior to experimentally infecting the shrimp with V. parahaemolyticus (containing toxins A and B), and resulting mortalities recorded for six days. Results showed significantly higher level of survival in shrimp fed with the PirBvp-9G10 antibody (60%) compared to the group fed the PirAvp-7C12 antibody (3%) and the control group (0%). This suggests that VLRB antibodies may be a suitable alternative to immunoglobulin-based antibodies, as passive immunization treatments for effective management of AHPND outbreaks within shrimp farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vaccine Development and Immunotherapies)
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Communication
Nucleocapsid and Spike Proteins of the Coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 Induce IL6 in Monocytes and Macrophages—Potential Implications for Cytokine Storm Syndrome
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010054 - 15 Jan 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3681
Abstract
The pandemic of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has led to the deaths of more than 1.5 million people worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19, which exhibits wide variation in the course of disease in different people, ranging from asymptomatic [...] Read more.
The pandemic of the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) has led to the deaths of more than 1.5 million people worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 causes COVID-19, which exhibits wide variation in the course of disease in different people, ranging from asymptomatic and mild courses to very severe courses that can result in respiratory failure and death. Despite the rapid progression of knowledge, we still do not know how individual cells of the immune system interact with the virus or its components, or how immune homeostasis becomes disrupted, leading to the rapid deterioration of a patient’s condition. In the present work, we show that SARS-CoV-2 proteins induce the expression and secretion of IL-6 by human monocytes and macrophages, the first line cells of antiviral immune responses. IL-6 may play a negative role in the course of COVID-19 by inhibiting Th1-dependent immunity and stimulating Th17 lymphocytes, thus leading to an increased probability of a cytokine storm. Full article
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Article
Recombinant Baculovirus-Produced Grass Carp Reovirus Virus-Like Particles as Vaccine Candidate That Provides Protective Immunity against GCRV Genotype II Infection in Grass Carp
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010053 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 897
Abstract
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) leads to severe hemorrhagic disease in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and causes economic losses in grass carp aquaculture. Recent epidemiological investigations showed that GCRV genotype II is the dominant subtype in China. Therefore, it is very important [...] Read more.
Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) leads to severe hemorrhagic disease in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and causes economic losses in grass carp aquaculture. Recent epidemiological investigations showed that GCRV genotype II is the dominant subtype in China. Therefore, it is very important to develop a novel vaccine for preventing diseases caused by GCRV genotype II. In this study, we employed a bac-to-bac expression system to generate GCRV-II-based virus-like particles (VLPs). Previous studies have shown that the structural proteins VP3, VP4, and VP38 encoded by the segments S3, S6, and S10 of type II GCRV are immunogenic. Hence, the GCRV-VLPs were produced by co-infection of sf9 cells with recombinant baculoviruses PFBH-VP3, PFBH-VP4, and PFBH-VP38. The expressions of VP3, VP4, and VP38 proteins in GCRV-VLPs were tested by IFA and Western blot analysis. By electron microscopic observations of ultrathin sections, purified VLPs showed that the expressed proteins are similar in shape to GCRV genotype II with a size range from 40 nm to 60 nm. The immunogenicity of GCRV-VLPs was evaluated by the injection immunization of grass carp. The analysis of serum-specific IgM antibody showed that grass carp immunized with GCRV-VLPs produced GCRV-specific antibodies. Furthermore, injection with GCRV-VLPs increased the expressions of immune-related genes (IgM, IFN, TLR3, TLR7) in the spleen and kidney. In addition, grass carp immunized with a GCRV-VLPs-based vaccine showed a relative percent survival rate (RPS) of 83.33% after challenge. The data in this study showed that GCRV-VLPs demonstrated an excellent immunogenicity and represent a promising approach for vaccine development against GCRV genotype II infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evaluation of Vaccine Immunogenicity)
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Article
Linear B-Cell Epitopes in Human Norovirus GII.4 Capsid Protein Elicit Blockade Antibodies
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010052 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with the GII.4 genotype accounting for over 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 variants is evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic variants with altered antigenic potentials that must be [...] Read more.
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is the leading cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide with the GII.4 genotype accounting for over 80% of infections. The major capsid protein of GII.4 variants is evolving rapidly, resulting in new epidemic variants with altered antigenic potentials that must be considered for the development of an effective vaccine. In this study, we identify and characterize linear blockade B-cell epitopes in HuNoV GII.4. Five unique linear B-cell epitopes, namely P2A, P2B, P2C, P2D, and P2E, were predicted on the surface-exposed regions of the capsid protein. Evolving of the surface-exposed epitopes over time was found to correlate with the emergence of new GII.4 outbreak variants. Molecular dynamic simulation (MD) analysis and molecular docking revealed that amino acid substitutions in the putative epitopes P2B, P2C, and P2D could be associated with immune escape and the appearance of new GII.4 variants by affecting solvent accessibility and flexibility of the antigenic sites and histo-blood group antigens (HBAG) binding. Testing the synthetic peptides in wild-type mice, epitopes P2B (336–355), P2C (367–384), and P2D (390–400) were recognized as GII.4-specific linear blockade epitopes with the blocking rate of 68, 55 and 28%, respectively. Blocking rate was found to increase to 80% using the pooled serum of epitopes P2B and P2C. These data provide a strategy for expanding the broad blockade potential of vaccines for prevention of NoV infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Development of Norovirus Vaccines)
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Article
Efficacy of Feed-Based Formalin-Killed Vaccine of Streptococcus iniae Stimulates the Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissues and Immune Response of Red Hybrid Tilapia
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010051 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1269
Abstract
Red hybrid tilapia were fed a formalin-killed oral Streptococcus iniae vaccine (FKV) in the present study was assessed. Three hundred Red hybrid tilapia 80 ± 10 g were divided into five groups (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and Cx), each consisting of 60 fish. [...] Read more.
Red hybrid tilapia were fed a formalin-killed oral Streptococcus iniae vaccine (FKV) in the present study was assessed. Three hundred Red hybrid tilapia 80 ± 10 g were divided into five groups (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, and Cx), each consisting of 60 fish. Fish from Groups 1A, 1B, 2A, and 2B were fed with FKV over different periods of administration, while Group 2B was the only group of fish to receive an oral booster vaccination on day 14- and 21-days post-vaccination (dpv). Group Cx was fed with normal pellets containing no vaccine as a control group. At four weeks post-vaccination (wpv), all fish were experimentally infected with S. iniae. Groups 2A and 2B had the lowest level of mortalities following vaccination (45% and 30%, respectively) compared to Groups 1A and 1B (80% and 55%, respectively), while the level of mortalities in Group Cx was 100%. All vaccinated groups showed a significant increase in anti-S. iniae IgM levels (p < 0.05) in serum, mucus, and gut-lavage, while Group Cx did not (p > 0.05) and all fish in this group died by five weeks post-infection. In conclusion, fish fed with the S. iniae FKV had a greater level of protection against S. iniae, with increased specific antibody response to the vaccine and there was also evidence of GALT stimulation by the vaccine. Full article
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Article
Design and Characterization of a DNA Vaccine Based on Spike with Consensus Nucleotide Sequence against Infectious Bronchitis Virus
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010050 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry, but its control is hampered by the continuous emergence of new genotypes and the lack of cross-protection among different IBV genotypes. We designed a new immunogen based on a [...] Read more.
Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry, but its control is hampered by the continuous emergence of new genotypes and the lack of cross-protection among different IBV genotypes. We designed a new immunogen based on a spike with the consensus nucleotide sequence (S_con) that may overcome the extraordinary genetic diversity of IBV. S_con was cloned into a pVAX1 vector to form a new IBV DNA vaccine, pV-S_con. pV-S_con could be correctly expressed in HD11 cells with corresponding post-translational modification, and induced a neutralizing antibody response to the Vero-cell-adapted IBV strain Beaudette (p65) in mice. To further evaluate its immunogenicity, specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens were immunized with the pV-S_con plasmid and compared with the control pVAX1 vector and the H120 vaccine. Detection of IBV-specific antibodies and cell cytokines (IL-4 and IFN-γ) indicated that vaccination with pV-S_con efficiently induced both humoral and cellular immune responses. After challenge with the heterologous strain M41, virus shedding and virus loading in tissues was significantly reduced both by pV-S_con and its homologous vaccine H120. Thus, pV-S_con is a promising vaccine candidate for IBV, and the consensus approach is an appealing method for vaccine design in viruses with high variability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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Article
Comparable Long-Term Rabies Immunity in Foxes after IntraMuscular and Oral Application Using a Third-Generation Oral Rabies Virus Vaccine
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010049 - 14 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1139
Abstract
The live genetically-engineered oral rabies virus (RABV) variant SPBN GASGAS induces long-lasting immunity in foxes and protection against challenge with an otherwise lethal dose of RABV field strains both after experimental oral and parenteral routes of administration. Induction of RABV-specific binding antibodies and [...] Read more.
The live genetically-engineered oral rabies virus (RABV) variant SPBN GASGAS induces long-lasting immunity in foxes and protection against challenge with an otherwise lethal dose of RABV field strains both after experimental oral and parenteral routes of administration. Induction of RABV-specific binding antibodies and immunoglobulin isotypes (IgM, total IgG, IgG1, IgG2) were comparable in orally and parenterally vaccinated foxes. Differences were only observed in the induction of virus-neutralizing (VNA) titers, which were significantly higher in the parenterally vaccinated group. The dynamics of rabies-specific antibodies pre- and post-challenge (365 days post vaccination) suggest the predominance of type-1 immunity protection of SPBN GASGAS. Independent of the route of administration, in the absence of IgG1 the immune response to SPBN GAGAS was mainly IgG2 driven. Interestingly, vaccination with SPBN GASGAS does not cause significant differences in inducible IFN-γ production in vaccinated animals, indicating a relatively weak cellular immune response during challenge. Notably, the parenteral application of SPBN GASGAS did not induce any adverse side effects in foxes, thus supporting safety studies of this oral rabies vaccine in various species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rabies Vaccination and Immunotherapy)
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Article
Willingness to Receive COVID-19 Vaccination in Japan
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010048 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 46 | Viewed by 4541
Abstract
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines are being developed by many countries for the safety of their population. However, people of various nations have revealed hesitancy towards being vaccinated, citing reasons such as side effects, safety, a lack of trust in [...] Read more.
In the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccines are being developed by many countries for the safety of their population. However, people of various nations have revealed hesitancy towards being vaccinated, citing reasons such as side effects, safety, a lack of trust in vaccine effectiveness, etc. This study aimed to explore the willingness of people in Japan to be vaccinated or not be vaccinated and the reasons for either decision. A sample of 1100 respondents was drawn from an internet research panel, and a questionnaire survey was administered to evaluate their willingness to be vaccinated by gender, age group, place of living, and underlying illness history. After using descriptive statistics and the chi-squared test to evaluate categorical variables, 65.7% of the participants indicated a willingness to be vaccinated; among them were older age groups, those in rural areas, and those with underlying medical conditions. In addition, males showed less hesitancy towards being vaccinated. Although selectivity bias exists, this study is the first to examine the willingness of Japanese people to be vaccinated. Since vaccine hesitancy and refusal ratio were found to be higher in Japan than in other countries, policy efforts are needed to make the country’s vaccination program viable. Full article
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Editorial
Vaccines for Influenza
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 47; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010047 - 14 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
Two reviews by Harding and Heaton [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Influenza Virus Vaccines)
Article
BoHV-1-Vectored BVDV-2 Subunit Vaccine Induces BVDV Cross-Reactive Cellular Immune Responses and Protects against BVDV-2 Challenge
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010046 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1636
Abstract
The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) remains a major problem for both beef and dairy cattle industries worldwide. BRDC frequently involves an initial viral respiratory infection resulting in immunosuppression, which creates a favorable condition for fatal secondary bacterial infection. Current polyvalent modified live [...] Read more.
The bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) remains a major problem for both beef and dairy cattle industries worldwide. BRDC frequently involves an initial viral respiratory infection resulting in immunosuppression, which creates a favorable condition for fatal secondary bacterial infection. Current polyvalent modified live vaccines against bovine herpesvirus type 1(BoHV-1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) have limitations concerning their safety and efficacy. To address these shortcomings and safety issues, we have constructed a quadruple gene mutated BoHV-1 vaccine vector (BoHV-1 QMV), which expresses BVDV type 2, chimeric E2 and Flag-tagged Erns-fused with bovine granulocyte monocyte colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) designated here as QMV-BVD2*. Here we compared the safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of QMV-BVD2* vaccination in calves against BVDV-2 with Zoetis Bovi-shield Gold 3 trivalent (BoHV-1, BVDV types 1 and 2) vaccine. The QMV-BVD2* prototype subunit vaccine induced the BoHV-1 and BVDV-2 neutralizing antibody responses along with BVDV-1 and -2 cross-reactive cellular immune responses. Moreover, after a virulent BVDV-2 challenge, the QMV-BVD2* prototype subunit vaccine conferred a more rapid recall BVDV-2-specific neutralizing antibody response and considerably better recall BVDV types 1 and 2-cross protective cellular immune responses than that of the Zoetis Bovi-shield Gold 3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vectored Vaccines)
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Article
A Self-Assembling Ferritin Nanoplatform for Designing Classical Swine Fever Vaccine: Elicitation of Potent Neutralizing Antibody
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010045 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 937
Abstract
Protein-based self-assembling nanoplatforms exhibit superior immunogenicity compared with soluble antigens. Here, we present a comprehensive vaccine strategy for displaying classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein on the surface of ferritin (fe) nanocages. An E2-specific blocking antibody assay showed that the blocking rates [...] Read more.
Protein-based self-assembling nanoplatforms exhibit superior immunogenicity compared with soluble antigens. Here, we present a comprehensive vaccine strategy for displaying classical swine fever virus (CSFV) E2 glycoprotein on the surface of ferritin (fe) nanocages. An E2-specific blocking antibody assay showed that the blocking rates in pE2-fe/Gel02 (84.3%) and a half-dose cohort of E2-fe/Gel02 (81.9%) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that in a ferritin-free cohort of pE2/Gel02 (62.7%) at 21 days post immunization (dpi) in vivo. Furthermore, quantitation of neutralizing potency revealed that a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) was observed between the pE2-fe/Gel02 cohort (1:32, equivalent to live-attenuated strain C at 1:32) and the pE2/Gel02 cohort (1:4) at 21 dpi. Moreover, the innate immune cytokines of IL-4 and IFN-γ activated by the half-dose (20 μg) cohort of E2-fe/Gel02 were equivalent to those elicited by the full dose (40 μg) of purified E2 in the pE2/Gel02 cohort at most time points. In conclusion, we successfully obtained an antigen-displaying E2-ferritin nanoplatform and confirmed high ferritin-assisted humoral and cellular immunities. Our results provided a novel paradigm of self-assembling nanovaccine development for the defense and elimination of potentially pandemic infectious viral pathogens. Full article
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Article
Flattening the Curve of COVID-19 Vaccine Rejection—An International Overview
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010044 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 4646
Abstract
Background: If globally implemented, a safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program will have broad clinical and socioeconomic benefits. However, individuals who anticipate that the coronavirus vaccine will bring life back to normality may be disappointed, due to the emerging antivaccination attitude within [...] Read more.
Background: If globally implemented, a safe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination program will have broad clinical and socioeconomic benefits. However, individuals who anticipate that the coronavirus vaccine will bring life back to normality may be disappointed, due to the emerging antivaccination attitude within the general population. Methods: We surveyed a sample of adult Polish citizens (n = 1066), and compared it with the data on international COVID-19 vaccine reluctance. Results: In 20 national surveys, the vaccine averseness for the anticipated COVID-19 vaccine varied from meager (2–6% China) to very high (43%, Czech Republic, and 44%, Turkey) and in most countries was much higher than regular vaccination reluctance, which varies between 3% (Egypt) and 55% (Russia). Conclusions: These results suggest that a 67% herd immunity may be possible only if mandatory preventive vaccination programs start early and are combined with coordinated education efforts supported by legislative power and social campaigns. Full article
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Review
Immunotherapeutic Strategies for Neuroblastoma: Present, Past and Future
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010043 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1423
Abstract
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor with a heterogeneous clinical course, ranging from spontaneous regression to metastatic disease and death, irrespective of intensive chemotherapeutic regimen. On the basis of several parameters, children affected by neuroblastoma are stratified into low, intermediate [...] Read more.
Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial pediatric solid tumor with a heterogeneous clinical course, ranging from spontaneous regression to metastatic disease and death, irrespective of intensive chemotherapeutic regimen. On the basis of several parameters, children affected by neuroblastoma are stratified into low, intermediate and high risk. At present, more than 50% of high-risk patients with metastatic spread display an overall poor long-term outcome also complicated by devastating long-term morbidities. Thus, novel and more effective therapies are desperately needed to improve lifespan of high-risk patients. In this regard, adoptive cell therapy holds great promise and several clinical trials are ongoing, demonstrating safety and tolerability, with no toxicities. Starting from the immunological and clinical features of neuroblastoma, we here discuss the immunotherapeutic approaches currently adopted for high-risk patients and different innovative therapeutic strategies currently under investigation. The latter are based on the infusion of natural killer (NK) cells, as support of consolidation therapy in addition to standard treatments, or chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed against neuroblastoma associated antigens (e.g., disialoganglioside GD2). Finally, future perspectives of adoptive cell therapies represented by γδ T lymphocyes and CAR NK cells are envisaged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Immunotherapy: Advances and Future Prospects)
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Article
High Rates of COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy and Its Association with Conspiracy Beliefs: A Study in Jordan and Kuwait among Other Arab Countries
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010042 - 12 Jan 2021
Cited by 93 | Viewed by 11968
Abstract
Vaccination could be an effective strategy for slowing the spread of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccine hesitancy could pose a serious problem for COVID-19 prevention, due to the spread of misinformation surrounding the ongoing pandemic. The aim of this study [...] Read more.
Vaccination could be an effective strategy for slowing the spread of the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Vaccine hesitancy could pose a serious problem for COVID-19 prevention, due to the spread of misinformation surrounding the ongoing pandemic. The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes towards the prospective COVID-19 vaccines among the general public in Jordan, Kuwait and other Arab countries. We also aimed to assess the association between COVID-19 vaccine acceptance and conspiracy beliefs. This study used an online survey distributed in December 2020, with items assessing conspiracies regarding COVID-19’s origin and vaccination. Attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines were assessed using the Vaccine Conspiracy Belief Scale (VCBS), with higher scores indicating a greater belief in vaccine conspiracy. A total of 3414 respondents completed the survey, the majority being residents of Jordan (n = 2173, 63.6%), Kuwait (n = 771, 22.6%) and Saudi Arabia (n = 154, 4.5%). The acceptance rates for COVID-19 and influenza vaccines were 29.4% and 30.9%, respectively. Males, respondents with higher educational levels and those with histories of chronic disease had higher rates of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. Beliefs that COVID-19 vaccines are intended to inject microchips into recipients and that the vaccines are related to infertility were found in 27.7% and 23.4% of respondents, respectively. Higher VCBS scores were found among females, respondents with lower educational levels and respondents relying on social media platforms as the main source of information. The high rates of vaccine hesitancy in Jordan and Kuwait, among other Arab countries, are alarming. They could hinder the proper control of COVID-19 in the region. The harmful effect of COVID-19 misinformation and conspiracy beliefs was manifested in vaccine hesitancy. This may represent a massive obstacle to the successful control of the pandemic. A reliance on social media as the main source of information about COVID-19 vaccines was associated with vaccine hesitancy. This should alert governments, policy makers and the general public to the importance of vigilant fact checking. Full article
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Article
Oral Vaccination of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) with Baculovirus-Expressed Grass Carp Reovirus (GCRV) Proteins Induces Protective Immunity against GCRV Infection
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010041 - 12 Jan 2021
Viewed by 931
Abstract
The grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes severe hemorrhagic disease with high mortality and leads to serious economic losses in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry in China. Oral vaccine has been proven to be an effective method to provide protection against [...] Read more.
The grass carp reovirus (GCRV) causes severe hemorrhagic disease with high mortality and leads to serious economic losses in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) industry in China. Oral vaccine has been proven to be an effective method to provide protection against fish viruses. In this study, a recombinant baculovirus BmNPV-VP35-VP4 was generated to express VP35 and VP4 proteins from GCRV type Ⅱ via Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The expression of recombinant VP35-VP4 protein (rVP35-VP4) in Bombyx mori embryo cells (BmE) and silkworm pupae was confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) after infection with BmNPV-VP35-VP4. To vaccinate the grass carp by oral route, the silkworm pupae expressing the rVP35-VP4 proteins were converted into a powder after freeze-drying, added to artificial feed at 5% and fed to grass carp (18 ± 1.5 g) for six weeks, and the immune response and protective efficacy in grass carp after oral vaccination trial was thoroughly investigated. This included blood cell counting and classification, serum antibody titer detection, immune-related gene expression and the relative percent survival rate in immunized grass carp. The results of blood cell counts show that the number of white blood cells in the peripheral blood of immunized grass carp increased significantly from 14 to 28 days post-immunization (dpi). The differential leukocyte count of neutrophils and monocytes were significantly higher than those in the control group at 14 dpi. Additionally, the number of lymphocytes increased significantly and reached a peak at 28 dpi. The serum antibody levels were significantly increased at Day 14 and continued until 42 days post-vaccination. The mRNA expression levels of immune-related genes (IFN-1, TLR22, IL-1β, MHC I, Mx and IgM) were significantly upregulated in liver, spleen, kidney and hindgut after immunization. Four weeks post-immunization, fish were challenged with virulent GCRV by intraperitoneal injection. The results of this challenge study show that orally immunized group exhibited a survival rate of 60% and relative percent survival (RPS) of 56%, whereas the control group had a survival rate of 13% and RPS of 4%. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the silkworm pupae powder containing baculovirus-expressed VP35-VP4 proteins could induce both non-specific and specific immune responses and protect grass carp against GCRV infection, suggesting it could be used as an oral vaccine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fish Cells Involved in Antiviral Immune Response)
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Article
Chimeric Hemagglutinin-Based Live-Attenuated Vaccines Confer Durable Protective Immunity against Influenza A Viruses in a Preclinical Ferret Model
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010040 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1444
Abstract
Epidemic or pandemic influenza can annually cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. We developed novel chimeric hemagglutinin (cHA)-based universal influenza virus vaccines, which contain a conserved HA stalk domain from a 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) strain combined with globular head domains from [...] Read more.
Epidemic or pandemic influenza can annually cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. We developed novel chimeric hemagglutinin (cHA)-based universal influenza virus vaccines, which contain a conserved HA stalk domain from a 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) strain combined with globular head domains from avian influenza A viruses. Our previous reports demonstrated that prime-boost sequential immunizations induced robust antibody responses directed toward the conserved HA stalk domain in ferrets. Herein, we further followed vaccinated animals for one year to compare the efficacy and durability of these vaccines in the preclinical ferret model of influenza. Although all cHA-based immunization regimens induced durable HA stalk-specific and heterosubtypic antibody responses in ferrets, sequential immunization with live-attenuated influenza virus vaccines (LAIV-LAIV) conferred the best protection against upper respiratory tract infection by a pH1N1 influenza A virus. The findings from this study suggest that our sequential immunization strategy for a cHA-based universal influenza virus vaccine provides durable protective humoral and cellular immunity against influenza virus infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vaccines for Infectious and Chronic Diseases)
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Review
A COVID-19 Vaccine: Big Strides Come with Big Challenges
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010039 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 24 | Viewed by 5774
Abstract
As of 8 January 2021, there were 86,749,940 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 1,890,342 COVID-19-related deaths worldwide, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to address the COVID-19 pandemic by limiting transmission, an intense global effort is underway [...] Read more.
As of 8 January 2021, there were 86,749,940 confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases and 1,890,342 COVID-19-related deaths worldwide, as reported by the World Health Organization (WHO). In order to address the COVID-19 pandemic by limiting transmission, an intense global effort is underway to develop a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. The development of a safe and effective vaccine usually requires several years of pre-clinical and clinical stages of evaluation and requires strict regulatory approvals before it can be manufactured in bulk and distributed. Since the global impact of COVID-19 is unprecedented in the modern era, the development and testing of a new vaccine are being expedited. Given the high-level of attrition during vaccine development, simultaneous testing of multiple candidates increases the probability of finding one that is effective. Over 200 vaccines are currently in development, with over 60 candidate vaccines being tested in clinical trials. These make use of various platforms and are at different stages of development. This review discusses the different phases of vaccine development and the various platforms in use for candidate COVID-19 vaccines, including their progress to date. The potential challenges once a vaccine becomes available are also addressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Vaccine Development)
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Editorial
Who Is Really at Risk for Anaphylaxis Due to COVID-19 Vaccine?
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010038 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2244
Abstract
The vaccination campaign against the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-Cov-2) started on 8 December 2020 in UK, after the approval of BNT162b2 by the Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) [...] Full article
Article
Efficacy of a Turkey Herpesvirus Vectored Newcastle Disease Vaccine against Genotype VII.1.1 Virus: Challenge Route Affects Shedding Pattern
Vaccines 2021, 9(1), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9010037 - 11 Jan 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 754
Abstract
The control of Newcastle disease (ND) highly relies on vaccination. Immunity provided by a ND vaccine can be characterized by measuring the level of clinical protection and reduction in challenge virus shedding. The extent of shedding depends a lot on the characteristics of [...] Read more.
The control of Newcastle disease (ND) highly relies on vaccination. Immunity provided by a ND vaccine can be characterized by measuring the level of clinical protection and reduction in challenge virus shedding. The extent of shedding depends a lot on the characteristics of vaccine used and the quality of vaccination, but influenced also by the genotype of the challenge virus. We demonstrated that vaccination of SPF chicks with recombinant herpesvirus of turkey expressing the F-gene of genotype I ND virus (rHVT-ND) provided complete clinical protection against heterologous genotype VII.1.1 ND virus strain and reduced challenge virus shedding significantly. 100% of clinical protection was achieved already by 3 weeks of age, irrespective of the challenge route (intra-muscular or intra-nasal) and vaccination blocked cloacal shedding almost completely. Interestingly, oro-nasal shedding was different in the two challenge routes: less efficiently controlled following intra-nasal than intra-muscular challenge. Differences in the shedding pattern between the two challenge routes indicate that rHVT-ND vaccine induces strong systemic immunity, that is capable to control challenge virus dissemination in the body (no cloacal shedding), even when it is a heterologous strain, but less efficiently, although highly significantly (p < 0.001) suppresses the local replication of the challenge virus in the upper respiratory mucosa and consequent oro-nasal shedding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poultry Vaccines)
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